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THE END OF 
THE DISPOSABLE 





THE REMARKAI 
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in this issue 


applications & software 


218 Simulated Circuits 

Fun in the physics lab 


Holko 


evaluations & profiles 


226 Computer Art For The Tektronix 4052 Jacobson 

Creating corsages 

228 Graphics Made Almost Painless Crew 

Part three: Graphics Manager 


02 The SemiDisk Disk Emulator Hart 

More speed and storage for S-100 systems 


244 Controller Corner Riley & Riley 

Make an airplane steering wheel for your computer 


0Q The SyQuest 306 Fastie 

w An affordable removable media hard disk drive 

7 2 Dakin5 Controller 1.1 Exner 

A comprehensive accounting system 

Q0 Total Systems Concept Yerges 

The ultimate program? 

92 Computer Card Games Uston 

Cribbage, solitaire, gin rummy and blackjack 

QQ Learning is Fun Ahl 

29 educational programs for Apple and Atari 

144 Milton Bradley Scores Again Smith 

Language and math arts programs 

154 Karel The Robot Hirschfelder 

A unique introduction to Pascal 


articles 

g Report from CES Ahl & Staples 

7 new computers under $200 

1 58 My F,v ®- Yoa r-Old Knows Basic Favaro 

Just what can a child learn? 

1 08 Teach Your K,d8 Programming Carlson 

Getting them started and keeping them interested 

1 80 Leam,n 0 To Learn Kugel & Stowbridge 

How computer games help 

1 90 Cegolle Rowe 

Language learning by computer 

202 Logo * doas Lawler 

Getting off the garden path 

216 Learn To Touch Type Stares 


Improve your word processing productivity 


Cover illustration by Walter Velez. 


departments 


0 Input/Output Readers 

10 Notices Fee 

“|2 Dateline: Tomorrow Ahl 

News and views 

1 6 7 Years Ago Ahl 

w As we were 

260 ° ut P° 8t: Atarl Anderson 

Announcing the 1200XL; interfacing with the outside 

world 

274 New Products Zollo 

288 Apple Cart Prescott 

296 Commodore's Port Anderson 

302 IBW Images Fastie 

What’s new on the market 


310 TRS-80 Strings Gray 

Communications and a programmable character 
generator 


April, 1983 
Volume 9, Number 4 



Creative Computing (ISSN 0 097-8140) is published monthly by Ahl Computing. 
Inc., a subsidiary of Ziff-Davis Publishing Company. David Ahl. President; Elizabeth 
B. Staples, Vice President; Selwyn Taubman, Treasurer, Bertram A. Abrams, 
Secretary. P.O. Box 789-M Morristown, N.J. 07960. Second Class postage paid at 
New York, NY 10001 and at additional mailing offices. 

Copyright ©1983 by Ahl Computing. Inc. All rights reserved. 

Editorial offices located at 39 East Hanover Ave., Morris Plains, NJ 07950. Phone 
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Domestic Subscriptions: 12 issues $24 97; 24 issues $43.97; 36 issues $57.97. 
POSTMASTER: send address changes to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 5214, 
Boulder, CO 80321. Call 800-631-8112 toll-free (in New Jersey call 201-540- 
0445) to order a subscription. 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


3 



staff 


Founder/Editor-in-Chief 


David H.Ahl 


Editor 

Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 
Editor-at-Large 
Contributing Editors 



Staff Writers 

Editorial Assistants 
Secretary 


Elizabeth B. Staples 

Peter Fee 

John Anderson 

Ken Uston 

Dale Archibald 
Charles Carpenter 
Thomas W. Dwyer 
Will Fastie 
Stephen B. Gray 
Glenn Hart 
Stephen Kimmel 
Ted Nelson 
Harold Novick 
Peter Payack 
David Small 
Alvin Totfler 
Gregory Yob 
Karl Zinn 


Owen Linzmayer 
Chris Vogeli 

Andrew Brill 
Laura Gibbons 

Nina Zollo 


Art Director 
Assistant Art Director 
Artists 

Typesetters 


Patrick Calkins 

Chris DeMilia 

Diana Negri Rudio 
Eugene Bicknell 
Paul Krasner 

Karen K. Brown 
Renea C. Cole 


Advertising Director 


Jeff Weiner 


Creative Computing Press Laura Conboy 
Claudette Moore 


Operations Manager 

Comptroller 

Accounting 

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Shipping & Receiving 


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Pat Champion 
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Elsie Graff 
Gail Harris 
Linda McCatharn 
Bridget Maher 
Joanne Sapio 
Carol Vita 
Jim Zecchin 

Ronald Antonaccio 
Mark Archambault 
Bill Thomas 
Scott McLeod 
MikeGribbon 
Strawvey Montgomery 


advertising sales 

Advertising Director 

Jeff Weiner 
Creative Computing 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 
One Park Avenue 
New York, NY 10016 
(212) 725-7957 

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Ruth Darling 
Creative Computing 
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(212) 725-3446 

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where to send il 

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subscriptions 

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Foreign subscriptions must be accom- 
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4 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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Ada Wars 

Dear Editor: 

I feel that I must respond to Mr. Gilpin’s article “Two Ada 
Compilers’’ in the January 1983 issue of Creative Computing . 

SuperSoft has always been a leader in the microcomputer 
software industry because of product excellence and ease of use. 
Mr. Gilpin seems to have missed the fact that ease of use is a 
critical consideration for any language compiler which is used as 
a learning tool. SuperSoft's Ada is not only easy to use, but also a 
good way to become familiar with the language syntax. The 
same cannot be said for Janus, RR Software’s Ada look alike. 
SuperSoft chose, initially, to optimize speed of compilation and 
ease of use, rather than other aspects of language. We are 
building from that base with further additions. 

He also said that SuperSoft’s manual was only 29 pages long. 
True, but he neglected to mention the fact that this was only one 
of two manuals, the other being the standard DoD document on 
the language. The fact that we include this standard description 
should say something about just how standard our Ada is. 

Mr. Gilpin complained about SuperSoft Ada’s lack of certain 
data types, yet Janus didn’t even have floating point at the same 
time of his review. SuperSoft’s Ada has always had floating 
point. I urge Mr. Gilpin to try writing an engineering program 
without it. 

Herbert Schildt, President 
SuperSoft 
P.O. Box 1628 
Champaign, IL 61820 

Dear Editor: 

As the author of the Supersoft/Maranatha Ada compiler, I 
read the review of Supersoft Ada and RR Software’s Janus in the 
January 1983 issue of Creative Computing with interest. Mr. 
Gilpin has omitted some crucial details which should be brought 
to the attention of your readers. 

Mr. Gilpin doesn’t seem to understand the main reason Ada 
was brought into being in the first place: standardization. The 
Department of Defense (DoD) wanted a standardized language 
to solve their problem of rapidly increasing software costs. 
Standardization offers much for a computer language, including 
portability from one machine to another, and a base of program- 
mers who don’t have to re-learn a new dialect of some language 
for every new machine they work on, etc. The DoD’s position is 
that Ada is Ada is Ada— a compiler is either full Ada, becoming 
full Ada (an “incomplete implementation”) or is not Ada at all. 


This is well and good since RR Software does not call their 
product Ada but Janus. Why, then, is it reviewed in an article 
entitled “Ada for CP/M”? And why is it reported as an Ada 
subset? Further, Mr. Gilpin actually applauds RR Software for 
deviating from the standard, and not just once, but five obvious 
times: byte type, ASM statement, conditional compilation, 
strings, and I/O. This is good news for systems programmers? 

He states that 60% of the language has been implemented by 
Janus and 10% by Supersoft Ada. Where he has found these 
figures is indeed a mystery. Does the Janus 60% include variations 
to the standard? Does he compute this percentage by the number 
of grammar productions implemented? Perhaps by the size of 
the compiler itself? 

He seems to be confused as to the number of sample programs 
provided. At one point he states there are several sample 
programs with Supersoft Ada, and at another point he complains 
that only two programs are provided, “one of which doesn’t 
work.” In fact, several programs are provided, including a 
factorial program, two versions of a CP/M dump utility, and a 
program which solves the famous Towers of Hanoi problem, a 
riddle most computer programmers will recognize as a study in 
recursive techniques. Funny he forgot to mention that. If Mr. 
Gilpin cannot change one of the programs to run using a terminal 
with different control codes, well, that is hardly our fault. 

Janus may indeed be a good product; but it is not an Ada 
compiler, nor will it ever be. The Ada compiler which has been 
implemented by Supersoft/Maranatha Software Systems thus 
far conforms to the Ada standard, and version two (which has 
already been released) contains most of the omissions Mr. Gilpin 
complained about in version one. In my opinion, if you want to 
learn real Ada, there is but one logical choice. 

As a final note, Mr. Gilpin should follow his own advice and 
feel some compassion for anyone attempting to implement Ada 
in the CP/M environment. 

David C. Norris, Owner 
Maranatha Software Systems 
500 Catalina Road #305 
Cocoa Beach, FL 32931 

Dear Editor: 

I’m pleased that my articles on Ada ruffled a few feathers. I 
am also glad that the people at Supersoft offered such a spirited 
defense of their product. Welcome to the Ada wars, fellows— 
there’s room down here for everyone. 

Before answering the objections of Mr. Schildt and then the 
author of the Supersoft compiler, I would like to ask them a 
favor. Please send me a copy of the new release of Supersoft 


6 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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Ada. Nothing would make me happier than to write a review 
praising it to the ceiling. Until then, though, I will have to stick 
by the conclusions of my previous article. 

Now to business. I agree that the Supersoft compiler is easier 
to use than Janus. Will it still be as easy to use when it incorpo- 
rates as much of the Ada language as Janus does? Time will tell. 

It is also true that Janus deviates from the Ada standard. The 
tiny fraction of Ada implemented by Supersoft is, indeed, 
standard. But people who are more interested in learning the 
language than in quibbling over a few extensions to the standard 
will continue to choose Janus over Supersoft. As to whether or 
not there is such a thing as an “Ada subset,” I suppose this 
question has some metaphysical significance to copyright lawyers. 
I just write programs. (Incidentally, the people at RR Software 
tell me that Janus will be expanded to the point where it will 
encompass the full standard. The full language will initially be 
available for computers based on the 8086/88 processer. RR has 
no plans to implement it on the Z80. Perhaps if Houdini were 
still alive...) 

I was waiting for someone to call me on those percentage 
estimates. Naturally, there isn’t any algorithm for determining 
how much of a language is present in a particular compiler. The 
numbers came from a source we writers tend to trust as much as 
computer printouts— intuition. But if someone comes up with an 
empirical test to check my intuition I’ll be surprised if the results 
are much different. I do, however, apologize for giving the 
mistaken impression that the Janus compiler is six times as large 
as the Supersoft compiler. It is eight times as large. 

I did mention (in the eighth paragraph of the review) that 
Supersoft provides the Ada Language Reference Manual (LRM) 
along with its own document. RR has always offered it as an 
extra. Unless you are very serious about Ada, I wouldn’t bother 
with the LRM — it is so poorly written that it is practically 
unreadable. 

There was one thing about my review for which I must 
seriously apologize — the misprint about Supersoft supporting 
two “programs.” Correcting the misprint to “pragmas” suddenly 
makes the paragraph make sense in light of my earlier comments 
in the article. To clear things up, Janus has ten pragmas (compiler 
directives), two of which are defined in the LRM. Supersoft has 
two pragmas, one of which — LIST— appears in the LRM. Unfor- 
tunately, LIST is the one which does not work. (Supersoft 
should understand misprints. One of their early ads boasted that 
their compiler supported a “floating disk.” The original draft of 
my review contained a very low swipe at this which, happily, I 
removed.) 

I suppose that covers everything. Again, I would like to 
emphasize that I really don’t like writing negative reviews. I 
hope that Supersoft can send me a version of their Ada compiler 
that will make me eat my words. 

While I’m here, I might mention that the Telesoft Ada com- 
piler, the most complete version of the language on the market, 
is now available for the IBM Personal Computer. It’s not cheap— 
the compiler alone is $3000 and you have to beef up your PC to 
256K. I’ve been using it for several months now and it is superb. 
If there is enough interest I would be glad to review it along with 
the new editions of Janus and Supersoft Ada. 

Geoff Gilpin 
1018 N. Leminwah St. 

Appleton, WI 54911 


Magic Fingers 

Dear Editor: 

We read with interest the article on the Brailleprinter. Personal 
Micro Computers also makes a solenoid driven typing robot 
which we call Electric Typing Fingers (Model ETF-80). Our 
ETF-80 has also been operated with the Braillewriter by several 
individuals whose names and addresses are available by writing 
to PMC. We understand that, with the ETF-80, modifications to 
the Braillewriter key tension are not required. The ETF-80 is 
available with cable for the following computers: Apple with 
Apple printer card; Apple with Epson printer card; TRS-80 
Model I or III; TRS-80 Model II; and IBM-PC. 

The price is $595 with cable; the IBM-PC requires in addition 
a $25 adapter. The interface is Centronics parallel so it can be 
adapted to other computers having a Centronics parallel printer 
interface. 

R. Ronald Troxell 
Marketing Director 
Personal Micro Computers, Inc. 

475 Ellis St. 

Mt. View, CA 94043 


Bursting Our Bubble 

Dear Editor: 

I have just finished reading the fine article on sorting and 
searching techniques in the December, 1982 issue. Listing 3 on 
page 289 may be made more efficient by changing line 1010 to: 
1010 FOR J = I + 1 TO N 

Although this sort has been described as a Bubble Sort, I know 
it as a Linear Sort With Exchange. The Bubble Sort, which 
exchanges adjacent records at each step, is more efficient than 
the Linear Sort With Exchange, but is less efficient than the 
Shell Sort. I did not see a true Bubble Sort in this article. 

You have a fine magazine and the presentation of efficient 
algorithms is appreciated. 

Robert F. MacDougall 
1349 Lonfellow 
Canton, MI 48187 

What Hath PC Wrought 

Dear Editor: 

It was reassuring to see that “Line 990 is not a gag. The BEEP 
Toggles an 800MHz tone through the PC speaker for a quarter 
of a second,” in “Programming Wheels” on page 258 of your 
January issue. 

Using this little known feature of the IBM PC, I developed the 
following short program: 

10 X = 40 
20 FOR 1=1 to X 
30 BEEP 
40 NEXT I 

Changing the value of X allows one to defrost a TV dinner, 
warm up coffee in a styrofoam cup (not metal!), or communicate 
line-of-sight with another PC— without using a modem. 

Thanks to Mr. Hastings for revealing this surprising function. 

Mark Hull 
1395 Buchanan Place N.E. 
Columbia Heights, MN 55421 


8 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


THE LEADING EDGE IN PRINTERS 

ONE GREAT LINE. ONE GREAT WARRANTY. 

Finally, there’s one full family of printers that covers every business or word processing application- 
all fromC. Itoh, a company known for packing more product into less price; and all distributed 
exclusively by Leading Edge, a company known for searching out and providing that very thing. 

Which means that one call to one source can get you any printer, any time you need it, for any purpose. 

All backed by a full years’ warranty from Leading Edge. (Try that on any other line of printers.) 

THE PRO'S. 

The Prowriters: business printers— and more. The “more” is a dot-matrix process with more dots. It gives you denser, 
i correspondence quality copy (as opposed to business quality copy, which looks like a bad job of spray-painting). 
Prowriter : 120 cps. 80 columns dot matrix compressable to 136. 10" carriage. Parallel or serial interface. 
Prowriter 2: Same as Prowriter, except 15" carriage allows full 136 columns in normal print mode. 

Parallel or serial interface. 



THE STAR. 


The Starwriter F-10. In short (or more precisely, in a sleek 6" high, 30-pound unit), it gives you more 
of just about everything— except bulk and noise— than any other printer in its price range. It's a 40 cps letter-quality 
daisy-wheel with a bunch of built-in functions to simplify and speed up word processing. 

It plugs into almost any micro on the market, serial or parallel. 



THE MASTER. 

The Printmaster F-10. Does all the same good stuff as the Starwriter except, at 55 cps, the Master does it faster. 



Distributed Exclusively by Leading Edge Products , Inc., 225 Turnpike Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021. 
Call: toll-free 1-800-343-6833; or in Massachusetts call collect 1617) 828-8150. Telex 951-624. 

CIRCLE 193 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






rices. . . notices. . . notic 


NECC 83 

David H. Ahl, founder and editor-in- 
chief of Creative Computing magazine, 
will be the keynote speaker at the 5th 
Annual National Educational Computing 
Conference (NECC) to be held at the 
Baltimore Convention Center June 6-8, 
1983. Mr. Ahl will speak at the opening 
session, Monday, June 6, at 10:00 a.m. on 
the subject, “The State of the Art in 
Educational Software.” 

NECC 83 will feature contributed pa- 
pers, tutorials and workshops in all areas 
of educational computing from research 
to instructional software to administrative 
applications. Special emphasis is being 
placed on sessions dealing with computing 
in elementary and secondary schools. 

For further information and advance 
registration forms contact the NECC 83 
Annual Chairman, Doris Lidtke, Depart- 
ment of Mathematics and Computer 
Science, Towson State University, Balti- 
more, MD 21204. 


1 983 Applefests 

Three Applefest Shows and Confer- 
ences will be held in 1983. 

For the 1983 events, Northeast Exposi- 
tions has added conferences, seminars, 
workshops and panel discussions which 
are designed to show users how to get the 
most out of their Apples. Approximately 
350 exhibitors are expected to participate 
in each of the 1983 events. 

The 1983 Schedule is as follows: 

Applefest/Anaheim 
Anaheim Convention Center 
April 15-17 

Applefest/Boston 
Bayside Exposition Center 
May 13-15 

Applefest/San Francisco 
Moscone Center 
October 28-30 

For more information call or write: 
Northeast Expositions, 826 Boylston St., 
Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. (617) 739-2000 
or (800) 841-7000. 


Computers/Graphics in 
the Building Process 

BP ’83— “Computers/Graphics in the 
Building Process,” co-hosted by The 
National Academy of Sciences’ Advisory 
Board on the Built Environment (ABBE) 
and the National Computer Graphics 
Association (NCGA) and sponsored by 
the World Computer Graphics Associa- 
tion (WCGA) will be held at the Wash- 
ington D.C. Convention Center, April 4- 
8, 1983. 

For further information contact: World 
Computer Graphics Association, 2033 M 
Street, N.W., Suite 399, Washington, D.C. 
20036. (202) 775-9556. 


TRS-80 Joystick Update 

In the October 1982 issue of Creative 
Computing we ran an article on installing 
a joystick on the TRS-80 Model I and III. 
Apparently the keyboards on some TRS- 


Corrections 


80s, particularly those sold outside the 
U.S., are different from those shown in 
the article. 

If your keyboard does not conform to 
the diagram, simply use an ohmmeter to 
determine which is the common lug on 
the five keys. There will be zero resistance 
between them. Then solder the connec- 
tions to the other lug, except on the 
spacebar where both connections will be 
used. 

Thanks to Hector Jasso of Nuevo Leon, 
Mexico for bringing this to our attention. 


Fin-Apple Ratios 

Canadian readers will be interested to 
know that the Brigham textbook refer- 
enced in the article “Fin-Apple Ratios” 
(February 1983) will be available in April, 
1983 as Canadian Financial Management: 
Theory and Practice , Brigham, Kahl, and 
Rentz, Holt, Rinehart and Winston of 
Canada, Toronto, 1983. The book con- 
tains a microcomputer application to 
capital budgeting, using an electronic 
spreadsheet. 


In the article “Fin-Apple Ratios” (Feb- 
ruary 1983), the following ratios were 
listed incorrectly. 

Under Profitability Ratios — Gross Margin Ratio = 41.71 not 41.5. 
Under Coverage Ratios — Total Interest Charges = 14 not 100. 
Under Stock Ratios — Earnings Per Share = .14 not .875. 

Price to Earnings = 85.7 not 13.7. 



10 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



Take your marble to 
the top. Pick your spot 
and let it drop. Hope 
for a flip instead of a 
flop. Once you get it, 
the fun never stops! 
It’s FLIP OUT — a 
crazy new strategy 
game for one or two 
players. Each marble 
you drop causes a 
chain reaction, so take 
your time and plan 
carefully. Plan right 
and you’ll flip, if you 
didn’t you Flip Out! 


It is up 
to you to stop the 
invasion of the evil 
Quarriors and save 
Repton. You are armed 
with devastating 
Nuke Bombs, a Radar 
Screen, a Laser Gun 
and an Energy Shield. 
You’ll need them all! 
You’ll be attacked by 
Nova Cruisers and 
Single Saucers. You 
must avoid Spye 
Satellites and deadly 
Dyne-Beam Shooters 
and you must stop the 
Draynes from deplet- 
ing the Reptonian 
power supply. Repton 
is a battle so thrilling 
you’ll be relieved to 
find out you’re still on 
earth when it’s over! 



Sirius 

presents 


Sirius 

presents 


presents 



jmmM 


a- 

Sill 


Turn your keyboard 
into a typing arcade! 
You can blast attack- 
ing letters and words 
right out of the sky. 
Type Attack was 
designed by a profes- 
sional educator and 
the fast action game 
experts at Sirius. It 
features 39 pre- 
programmed lessons 
and 60 user defined 
lessons. Great sound, 
graphics and a real- 
time words per minute 
bar make improving 
your typing skills fun! 


Talk about adventure 
on the high seas! 
You’re blasting away 
at a squadron of 
enemy bombers and 
Kamikaze fighters from 
the deck of your P.T. 
boat. Suddenly you 
notice the sea is 
loaded with mines and 
an Exocet missile is 
screaming toward you 
on the horizon. Instinc- 
tively you jerk the joy- 
stick to the starboard, 
keeping your thumb on 
the fire button. Phew! 
That was close! Some- 
times it’s hard to 
believe Wavy Navy’s 
just a video game. 


New Games For Your Apple II From Sirius™ 

Type Attack, Wavy Navy, Flip Out and Repton packages, programs, and audio visuals © 1982 Sirius. Type Attack, Wavy Navy, Flip Out, Repton and 
Sirius are trademarks of Sirius Software, Inc. Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

For more information contact your local Sirius dealer or distributor or contact us at 10364 Rockingham Drive, 

Sacramento, CA 95827, (916) 366-1195. 


CIRCLE 269 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ow. . . dateline : tomorrow. . . da 


IBM Discounts for Schools 


David H. Ahl 


At the present time, the big four in the education market are Apple, Tandy, Atari, and 
Commodore. Now IBM wants to get in and they figure the best way to do it is with big 20% plus 
d iscoun t s . 

A typical configuration for school use consists of the cpu, 64K of RAM, 12" color monitor, 
single 160K disk drive, and DOS, and carries a list price of $25*45. With the school discount, this 
system will now sell for $1995. 

A word processing configuration with 64K, 12” b&w monitor, graphics printer, disk drive, 

DOS, and the Typing Tutor package lists for $3900. With the school discount applied, it will sell 
for $3079 f a 21% discount. 

But Do Schools Really Want Computers? 

Educators seem to be sharply divided over efforts to obtain Federal subsidies for putting 
personal computers in classrooms at little or no cost to the school district. The legislation, 
sometimes known as the Apple bill, passed the House in 1982. This permits manufacturers to donate 
computers to schools and take a tax writeoff equal to approximately twice the manufacturing cost of 
the machine. 

But the Senate has not passed the bill, primarily because the National Education Association 
and other educational groups oppose it. Why is the NEA opposed? Because, they say, existing 
computers are going unused in schools because teachers have not been trained to use them. Other 
educators complain that the software is unimaginative and ill-suited for students. (They apparently 
are unaware of the basic principle of the free enterprise system. Specifically, if there is a 
market, companies will develop a rich assortment of good products for it; if there is not a market, 
they won * t . ) 

Some educators, of course, are in favor of the bill. But without the support of the 
politically active NEA, it is unlikely that free computers will hit the schools for quite some 
time . 


Computers At Colleges and Universities 

Since writing in the December 1982 issue about the requirements of Car neg ie-Mel Ion Univ. and 
Stevens that students have their own personal computers, I have been informed that 1000 Clarkson 
freshmen will receive Zenith Z-IOOs in the fall of 1983 and that RPI has a similar program, but on a 
pilot basis with just 60 students. 

Are there other colleges with similar programs? If so, we’d like to hear about them. In 
particular, we'd like to know how many students are involved, in what disciplines, what years 
(freshman, sophomore, etc.), what computer is being used and how it is to be purchased. 

And You Thought Video Games Were Dying 

Wall Street in its characteristic way reac.ted violently when Warner announced that Atari 
sales would fall below expectations. "Sell Warner, sell Coleco, sell Mattel," shouted the 
securities analysts. And investors did, driving the share prices of many game companies to new lows 
for the year . 

But at CES, the mood was just the opposite. Game manufacturers went home with their order 
pads full. Many audio retailers planned to add game departments and several decided to add 
computers as well. 

Currently, Atari dominates the video game market with about two-thirds of the installed 
base. However, with Mattel, Coleco, N.A.P., and some others coming on strong, we would expect 
Atari's share to diminish somewhat, although it is unlikely that they will lose their enormous lead 
altogether . 

As for the overlap between video games and personal computers, with the prices of computers 
plummeting, we expect to see more and more people having both a video game and computer, or more 
than one of each. Today, about 40% of personal computer owners also own a video game system while 
22% have two or more computers. I wouldn't be surprised to see a dramatic increase in those 
percentages by the end of the year. 

Sign of the Times 

I recently visited Mahopac High School to give some presentations on technology in 
education. My talks were in the library. 

A large sign on the desk proclaimed, "Please ask for these at the desk: Creative Computing, 
Cycle, Field and Stream, Hot Rod..." The seven other magazines on the list included mostly motoring 
and sports magazines, but no other computer titles. Over 100 other magazines were on the open 
shelves, including some of our "competitors." 

I was there on November 2. The December issue had arrived a few days earlier and was 
already dogeared. Thanks, Mahopac. 

Random Observations and Notes 

In the second and third weeks of January, nine out of the ten issues of The Wall Street 
Journal had articles about personal computers. 

The IBM home computer, dubbed "Peanut," will have a retail price of around $630. 

We welcome Ken Uston as editor-at-large. Ken is widely reputed to be the world's foremost 
blackjack player. After being banned from many casinos, he turned to videogames and wrote Mastering 
Pac-Man as well as four other books on coin-op and home games. He has now turned his considerable 
writing talent toward personal computers; his first book on the subject will be published this 
spring and you will see him regularly on these pages. 


12 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



DREAMING or is it real? 

Lost in a maze of haunted chambers • • • 
pursued by fearsome creatures, 

YOU’RE TRAPPED IN AN OLD CASTLE! 

Don’t listen to those screams • . . 
seek the key to your escape. .. 
reach the Iron Door. Pay no 
attention to the footsteps behind you 
— it’s not the psychopathic killer! 
Concentrate — THINK! Find Your 
Mind’s Eye hidden in the Death Tunnel. 
WHERE IS IT? ^ 

THE NIGHTMARE, designed by Marc Russell Beniof^yrdri 

Offers... CefrTld 

• Both Puzzle-Solving & Role-Playing Intrigue! 

• Superb Graphics, Sound 8i Color Animation! 

• Hours of Challenging Horror! 

Requires... Am 

• ATARI 400/800 61 One Disk Drive 

• One Player 81 Joystick Controller 
Comeswith... 

• Game Program 8i Complete Instructions 




• EPYX30IFOREVER WARRANTY 

Now Available At Your Favorite Dealer. • • $29.95 
For the name of your nearest EPYX dealer write: 
"THE NIGHTMARE” 
EPYX/Automated Simulations, Inc. 

1043 Kiel Court, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

Epyx 

m M COMPUTER GAMES 

m m thinkers play 

CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


EPYX Temple of Apshai was the very first computer 
game ever to win the Hobby Industry award for 
excellence. EPYX pledges you that same excellence 
in every game you purchase from us . . . the VERY 
BEST in entertainment! 

EPYX 30/FOREVER WARRANTY 
*Our 30-day Unconditional Guarantee: If your 
EPYX Game has any defect whatsoever within 
30 days of purchase, return it to us or your 
dealer and we will replace it free. 

♦Our Forever Warranty: If anything happens 
to your disk at any time after 30 days, for 
any reason, just send it back with $5.00 for 
shipping , and we will send you a replacement. 


*ATAtU 400/800 is a trademark of ATARI , INC . 


w 


Introducing Snooper Troops" 
detective series. 

Educational games that turn ordinary 
homes into Sherlock homes. 




Where can you find educational games 
that your Kids will really enjoy playing? 

Elementary, my dear Watson. From 
Spinnaker. 

Our Snooper Troops detective games are 
fun, exciting and challenging. And best of 
all, they have real educational value. So 
while your Kids are having fun, they're 
learning. 

As a Snooper Trooper, your child will 
have a great time solving the mys- 
teries. But it will take some daring 
detective work. They'll have to 
question suspects, talk to myste- 
rious agents, and even search 
dark houses to uncover clues. 

The Snooper Troops programs are 
compatible with Apple,® IBM® and 
Atari® computers 


and provide your 


kids with everything 
they need: a 5noopMobile, a 
Snoophet computer, a camera for taking 
Snoopshots and even a notebook for keep- 
ing track of information. 

Snooper Troops detective games help 
your children learn to take notes, draw 
maps, organize and classify information 
and they help develop vocabulary and 
reasoning skills. All the while your kids 
are having a good time. 

So if you want to find educational 
games that are really fun, here's a 
clue: Snooper Troops games are 
available at your local software 
store, or by writing to: Spinnaker 
Software, 215 First Street Cam- 
bridge, MA 02142. 

games will soon be 
the Commodore 64“ computer. 


© Spinnaker Software Corp. 1982 


Commodore 64 is a trademark of Commodore Electronics Limited. 


Spinnakers early learning 
games will help make your children 
as smart as you tell everyone they are 





After all, they're your Kids. 

Spinnaker can help make them even 
smarter. With a line of educational software 
that kids love to play. 

Spinnaker games make the computer 
screen come to life with full color graphics 
and sound. And they're fun. Lots of fun. But 
they also have real educational value. 

Some of our games help exercise your 
child's creativity. Others improve memory 
and concentration. While others help to 
improve your child's writing vocabulary, 
and spelling skills. 

And every Spinnaker game provides 
familiarity with the computer and helps your 
children feel friendly with the computer. 

Even if they've never used a comput- 
er before. 

And Spinnaker games are compati- 
ble with the most popular computers: 
Apple,® Atari® and IBM? 

Our newest game, KinderComp™ 

(Ages 5-8) is a collection of learn- 
ing exercises presented in a fun 
and exciting manner 


Rhymes and Riddles"* 
(Ages 4-9) Is a letter guess- 
ing game featuring kids' 
favorite riddles, famous say- 
ings and nursery rhymes. 
Story Machine'" (Ages 
5-9) lets children write their 
own stories and see them 
come to life on the screen. 

And PACEMAKER'" lets your 
children create their own funny 
faces and make them wink, smile, 
wiggle ears (not your kids' ears, 
the ears on the screen), etc. 

And we're intro- 


ducing new games 
all the time. 

So look for Spinnaker 
games at your local 
software retailer, or by 
writing to: Spinnaker 
Software, 215 First St., 
Cambridge, MA 02142. 
And show your kids 
how smart their par- 
ents really are. 




Wt nuk* teaming fun 


Spinnaker's early 
learning games will 
soon be available for the 
Commodore 64 “ computer. 


SP/ff/iAK£:/2 

We make learning fun. 


Apple, IBM and Atari are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc., International Business Machines Corp. and Atari, Inc., respectively. 




pit t “ 


DAISY WHEEL 
PRINTER 


• Full Olivetti 
typewriter 
warranty 

• U.L. 

Listed 


$695 

plus shipping 


FEATURES 

• Typewriter operation with nothing to disconnect • 10 , 12 or is characters per 
inch switch selectable • Portable with carrying case • Entire interface mounted 
internally in the Olivetti Praxis 30 typewriter • Underlining • Cables available for 
most computers • Service from Olivetti dealers • Centronics compatible parallel 
input • Built in self test • Cartridge ribbon • 2nd keyboard switch selectable. 


ITHACA. N. Y. 1 4850 
272-1 132 


125 


CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


ALF COPY SERVICE 

FAST • RELIABLE • LOW COST 


If you produce software, ALF’s disk copying service is the 
quick, convenient answer to your disk duplication needs. Most 
orders are shipped in less than a week. Every disk we copy is 
verified bit by bit and guaranteed 100% flawless. Standard 
formats include Apple II (including nibble-copy proof and 
double-boot), Apple III, Atari, IBM, Osborne, and TRS-80. 

Our “no frills” pricing means you don’t have to buy extras 
you don’t need — set-up charges are $10 to $25 per disk to be 
copied, copying charges are 30<p to 40<D per side (minimum: 50 
copies). 

Of course, we have the frills too — including custom printing 
and packaging. Call us today for complete details. 

We also sell blank disks 


in bulk pack boxes of 100. 
All are 5Va ", single sided, 
double density (except 
Nashua is single density), 
unlabeled, with hub ring. 
Add $7 per hundred for 
sleeves, $2.50 per hundred 
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ALF (303)234-0871 1 31 5F NELSON ST. DENVER, CO 80215 



GPeative 

coiwpafciRg 


The main topics of the March 1976 
issue were artificial intelligence and 
videodiscs. 

Bertram Raphael of the SRI AI Center 
felt that the computer was far more than 
an obedient intellectual slave and that it 
soon would be able to solve general prob- 
lems spoken to it as questions. 

The issue had a comprehensive primer 
about AI and posed some sticky ethical 
questions like, “does man have the right 
to create a race of robotic slaves?” 

Fueling the discord in the AI com- 
munity were reviews by Herbert Dreyfus 
of books by Marvin Minsky, Seymour 
Papert and Patrick Winston. 

An article by Tien Chi Chen of IBM 
pointed out that the ratio of the cost to 
program and debug a line of code to the 
cost to execute the line had reached the 
astronomical value of 100 million. Today, 
the ratio is more like 30 billion, a dramatic 
demonstration of the worth of human 
brainpower. Chen felt strongly that 
human convenience should be maximized 
at the expense of machine time whenever 
possible; perhaps this partially explains 
the phenomenal growth and appeal of 
personal computers. 

Three articles discussed videodiscs and 
the possibility of linking them to com- 
puters. No videodiscs were on the market 
then, yet it is surprising how close to 
reality the visions of Alfred Bork and Art 
Luehrmann turned out to be. 

Martin Harwit, an associate of Carl 
Sagan at Cornell, wrote about the pos- 
sibility of communicating with other in- 
telligent species across the universe. 

Bruce Horn wrote a wonderful piece 
about a flight simulation program he had 
written in Smalltalk, and David Struble 
wrote a dynamite Mastermind game 
simulation. 

The ads included one for a Black 
Watch kit from Sinclair for $31.95, an 
Altair 680 kit for $345 and systems from 
DEC and HP for $30,000 plus. Quite a 
range! □ 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




TRSDOS 


CP/M 


** 


Pascal 
Basic 
Cobol 
Forth 
Pilot 
Fortran 
Spread 
Inventory 
Logo 


KEDIN 


Data Base Management 
Word Processor 
Communication Utility 
Accounts Receivable 
Accounts Payable 
Engineering Utility 

General Ledger 
Mailing List 
Macro Assembler 
Education 


interface to 5 or 10 million characters. 

Standard Software: LNWBASIC and DOS PLUS operat- 
ing system packages, commanding all the above features, 
are included. 

The LNW computer will be the key to your success 
with the starting price at $ 1695 . 00 , along with a full 6 
month warranty. 

Dealers: You too can open the door to a successful 
product. Call for our special dealer programs: 

(714) 544-5745. 

LNW Computers 

2620 Walnut Avenue 
Tustin, California 92680 

( 714 ) 544-5744 

*TRSDOS is a trademark of Tandy Corp. ~ CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

**CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Corp. 

1 . Performance is based on bench mark test in the JAN 1982 issue of BYTE magazine, pg. 54, with LNW80 II as the comparison. 

2. IBM PC is a trademark of IBM CORP 

3. APPLE II is a trademark of APPLE COMPUTERS. 

4. TRS80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. International orders please inquire for pricing/shipping cost. 


Open your doors to a world of SOFTWARE with LNW 
computers. You’ll get MORE PERFORMANCE 1 than with 
the IBM PC? the Apple II? TRS80 MODEL II orTRS80 
MODEL III 4 along with software support of TRSDOS or 
CP/M, the TWO MOST WIDELY USED OPERATING 
SYSTEMS. This means you, the user, can select from the 
largest base of business or personal software. 

Standard Features: A serial RS232 communication 
port, parallel printer port, Hi-Resolution (480x192) 

B/W and COLOR graphics, an 80 character- per- 
line screen display along with Quad-density 
interface for 5" or 8" floppy disk storage 
offering immediate access to 3.5 million 
characters, or optional Hard disk 




1983 

Winter 

Consumer 

Electronics 

Show 


Creative Computing 
presents the 
Short Circuit 
Awards 


id A hl 


byP° v 


photos 


David H. Ahl and Betsy Staples 


The Short Circuit Awards. Huh? 

Well, New Jersey Monthly has the 
Rotten Tomato Awards every year. (We 
hope you all know that the best and big* 
gest tomatoes come from New Jersey, 
consequently, the largest rotten ones for 
throwing at dismal performers are found 
here too.) Omni isn’t too imaginative, 
calling their awards, “19xx’s Worst 
Scientific Achievements.” Someone else 
has the “Dubious Distinction Awards,” 
the radio/TV industry has bloopers, and 
so on. 

Since the consumer electronics in- 
dustry is built around silicon electronic 
chips, we decided that a more dubious 
kind of chip was appropriate for our 
awards of distinction. What kind? Po- 
tato chips? Well, maybe, but it doesn’t 
really suggest “not very good.” Wood 
chips? Nah, no class. Buffalo chips? Yes, 
yes, we thought. But on the cover of a 
classy magazine like Creative Comput- 
ing! No, it just wouldn’t do. 


So we brainstormed scores of possible 
terms on the flight between Las Vegas 
and Chicago. It took us a few hundred 
nanoseconds — our brainstorming, not 
the flight. We finally decided that Short 
Circuit Awards was right. It describes 
an idea that went awry and, as all elec- 
trical engineers know, it can’t be spelled 
correctly. For four years at Cornell, one 
of us spelled circuit, “circut,” just like 
every other EE student. Three years out, 
he learned better. 

But we digress. 

At the 1983 Consumer Electronics 
Show, we saw a great number of marvel- 
ous innovations. We also saw some in- 
credible abuses and misuses of electronic 
technology. So in this roundup of new 
products, redesigned products, and 
regurgitated products, we have pre- 
sented a number of awards — some for 
innovation and some for other things. 
Incidentally, we hate the use of the term, 
“a number of.” It is horribly imprecise. 


Why not use “couple” for two, “several” 
for three or four, “scores” for 40 to 99, 
“more than 100” for more than 100, and 
so on? But notice, what does one use for 
a number between 5 and 39? “Tens of?” 
Well, maybe. “A number of?” No! That 
could be anything between two and 
infinity minus one. Good grief! 

To avoid “a number of,” we read 
ahead and counted the Short' Circuit 
Awards and “real” awards. There are 33 
of them. Read on — we’re sure you’ll find 
some of them of interest. But be warned, 
you will have to determine which 
awards are for true achievements and 
which are for dubious ones. 

Enough, enough. Onward! 

Last Things First 

Toward the end of the show (Winter 
Consumer Electronics Show, Las Vegas, 
January 6-9, 1983), someone asked us, 
“How cum Personal and Popular and 
Byte and all them folks aren’t here?” 


18 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



There are five good reasons 
to buy the new HP-86. 



And they’re all 
solutions. 

• Spreadsheet 
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CES, continued... 


We said something about knowing 
which way is up and so on. We also ob- 
served that we ( Creative Computing, 
SYNC, etc.) have been going to CES for 
the past four or five years, ever since a 
personal computer appeared on the 
show floor. On the other hand, many of 
our would-be competitors tend to put 
more emphasis on advertising sales and 
circulation promotion at the shows and 
less on editorial coverage than we do. 

But we digress. This is the last 
time — promise! 

Adagio for Audio 

Three years ago, the audio and video 
folks owned the convention center. On 
the “overlook” level, all you could hear 
was one hi-fi manufacturer trying to 
outblast another — literally. The listening 
rooms were even worse — 120 db if you 
were lucky. If you wanted to go home 
with your hearing intact, it was advis- 
able to put cigarette filters in your ears 
before you entered the listening rooms of 
Audio Tecnica, Fosgate, Ohm and 
others. 

Today? “Slow? You don’t know slow. 
I saw my last customer hours ago,” said 
one hi-fi manufacturer sitting forlornly 
in his deserted listening room. The exot- 
ics were doing okay (no recession among 
the well-to-do), but for the mid-range 
folks it was disasterville. 

So, audio is in the doldrums, or per- 
haps on a long plateau. Video, ditto. 
Auto sound, ditto. Calculators and 
watches, don’t ask. 

Yet the attendance at CES was way 
up, hitting nearly 80,000. Why? Because 
of surging growth in four product cate- 
gories: telephones (the AT&T monopoly 
is over), satellites (spreading like over- 
grown mushrooms) and, you guessed it, 
video games and computers. There were 
over 100 new video games introduced 
and no fewer than ten new computers 
under $300. 

This isn’t a trade publication, so we 
won’t belabor the prognostications of in- 
dustry leaders except to say that we 
agree. Computers are Number 1. But 
there were some other neat products too. 

They Said It Couldn’t Be Done 

And robot, a new company, introduced 
B.O.B. and TOPO, a pair of nifty robots 
with unique functions and behavior. 
Conceived by their creators as socially 
interactive devices, the Androbots offer 
a multitude of attributes designed to 
provide entertainment and education. 

The Androbot concept came from 
Nolan Bushnell. Bushnell, founder of 
Atari and the Pizza Time Theater res- 
taurant chain has set up a corporate um- 
brella called Catalyst Technologies in 



Androbot president Tom Frisina and 
friend, B.O.B. 


Sunnyvale to provide capital and struc- 
ture to innovative companies. 

Androbot president Thomas Frisina 
told us that B.O.B., an acronym for 
“Brains on Board,” features true “arti- 
ficial intelligence,” talked of for years, 
but never before offered in a tangible 
consumer product. B O B. was clearly 
the hit of the show and for him, we 
present to Androbot the 

Nifty New Product Award 

B.O.B. has three 16-bit 8088 mpu’s, 
three megabytes of memory, and five 
ultrasonic sensors which locate and mea- 
sure each object in its immediate 
environment. Thus, B.O.B. can navigate 
with human-like accuracy. His wheel 
and drive assembly permits forward mo- 
tion and turning with no danger of tip- 
ping over. B.O.B. also has two infra-red 
sensors so he can differentiate between 
humans and other objects based on tem- 
perature. Creative Computing will have a 
comprehensive article on B.O.B. ($2500) 
and his companion TOPO, which is 



really a mobile extension of a home com- 
puter, in an upcoming issue. 

Since B.O.B. is, in our opinion the 
niftiest new product at CES, we thought 
you might want to hear about the other 
end of the spectrum. We had a tough 
time deciding who should get the 

Tacky New Product Award 

With no fanfare at all, this goes to the 
New Korea Industrial Company for 
their Baby Bell. This is a small solid 
state “electronic urination sensor.’’ 
According to the manufacturer, “the 
Baby Bell which rings out that sweet 
melody as the baby wets his nappy is a 
joy and delight to any mother.” Pavlov 
would love it. 

Runners up included a flat speaker 
which fits in musical panties for both 
sexes; the slogan was “feel the beat in 
your seat.” Another was an X rated 
video game with such poor resolution 
that we mistook a naked woman for a 
pink tank. 

Video Games for the Atari VCS 

The stock market and many industry 
analysts have not been kind to Atari of 
late. However, as Mark Twain once said, 
“reports of my death are greatly exag- 
gerated.” With over 100 new cartridges 
for the VCS and a dynamite new line of 
educational cartridges from Atari, we 
think the VCS will be with us for some 
time to come. To get started in the cate- 
gory, we must first present the 

Best New Products 
from the Most Boring 
Press Conference Award 

This goes to Atari in cooperation with 
the Children’s Computer Workshop for 
their release of five CCW games for 
three to seven year olds. Paul 
Firstenberg, president of CCW was an 
absolute disaster at the press conference, 
but, fortunately, the games are wonder- 
ful. They include Oscar's Trash Race to 
reinforce counting and number skills. 
Cookie Monster Munch, Big Bird's Egg 
Catch (a simplified Kaboom type of 
game), Grover's Music Maker, and Alpha 
Beam in which the player must manipu- 
late a small spaceship to retrieve letters 
and place them where they belong. 

This line of games will be augmented 
with other Atari games for pre-teens us- 
ing Peanuts and Disney characters to be 
released later this year. Three Disney 
games were also announced by Walt 
Disney Telecommunications: Mickey 
and the Beanstalk, Mickey and the Great 
Outdoors, and Dumbo Flies Home. 

In addition to the children’s line, 
Atari announced a whole host of VCS 
games based on popular arcade games 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


21 



CES, continued... 




through a 1920’s department store. It 
has overtones of the blockbuster, Pitfall, 
and seems destined for success. 

Jim Levy, president of Activision and 
an old friend from the MBA program at 
Carnegie-Mellon, told me that 
Activision is trying to hire 20 to 30 new 
game designers. We think Jim’s policy of 
putting the game designers in the lime- 
light is a good one and creates a better 
company personality than keeping the 
identity of the designers secret lest some 
competitor hire them away. Jim also 
mentioned that Activision will be bring- 
ing out software for the Atari home 
computer later this year. We can’t wait! 

Is it time for another award? Sure. 

Most Hoopla 
Behind a Game Award 

This award goes to Fox Video Games 
for their introduction of M *A *S*H. The 
press conference introducing the game 
was held in an Army mess tent set up in 
the parking lot of the convention center. 
It was regulation issue throughout from 
the balky jeep to the huge juice vats to 
the 4077th caps given to all the 
attendees. 

We were surprised, however, that 
when Jamie Farr (Sgt. Maxwell Klinger) 
showed up, he was in civies and not in 
uniform. After a few jokes, we learned 
that the M*A*S*H game will be avail- 
able not only for the VCS, but the Atari 
computers, Vic 20, TI 99/4A, 
Intellivision and ColecoVision. 

Inside the convention center, the Fox 
“booth” was a replica of “The Swamp.” 
In addition to the M*A *S*H game, they 
showd nine other new games including 
The Revenge of the Beefsteak Tomatoes , 
9 to 5 ( a secretary-boss shoot-out), 


including Ms. Pac-Man, Centipede, Dig 
Dug, Kangaroo, Jungle Hunt, Phoenix, 
Vanguard, and Galaxian, as well as 
“Real Sports” Football, Tennis, and 
Soccer. 

Atari also announced a similar line of 
games for the new 5200 game system 
which also includes Pole Position, Space 
Dungeon, and Countermeasure. 

Activision appears to have added sev- 
eral more winners to their stable of 
games. In River Raid, by Carol Shaw 
whom we interviewed on these pages last 
year, the player must pilot an assault jet 
over a constantly-changing course and 
blast away enemy choppers, jets, ships, 
bridges and oil depots. A highly addic- 
tive game! 

Other new games from Activision in- 
clude Seaquest, a submarine rescue 
game; Spider Fighter, a bug blaster 
game; Oink!, a game loosely based on 
the story of the three little pigs; Dolphin, 
an undersea chase game; and Keystone 
Kapers, a madcap chase between a lov- 
able Irish cop and a roguish robber 


Keystone Kapers by Activision for the 
Atari VCS. 


Meltdown, Flash Gordon and The Crypts 
of Chaos, a fantasy role-playing game. 

Comma-Vid announced three new 
VCS games. Cakewalk is a cute game in 
which you have to unload cakes coming 
out of a kitchen on six conveyer belts. 
Watch out for the gingerbread man! 
Rush Hour is a driver’s nightmare come 
true, while Stronghold requires you to 
blast through whirling force fields to de- 
stroy lethal alien planet crawlers. 

CBS Video Games introduced six new 
ones. Two, Wings and Tunnel Runner, 
use a proprietary RAM -b Plus chip that 
triples the memory capacity of the VCS 
thereby permitting a significant increase 
in the complexity and graphic detail of 
the TV image. Wings is a realistic jet 
fighter game while Tunnel Runner is a 
three-dimensional perspective maze 
game. 

The four other games introduced by 
CBS are all versions of Bally/Midway 
coin-op games including Wizard of Wor, 
Gorf, Blueprint, and Solar Fox. The lit- 
erature says of Gorf, “the player who is 
unable to adapt his strategy is doomed.” 
That’s for sure; we never did get past the 
third board, but we sure had fun trying. 

CBS also recently purchased K-Byte, 
a producer of Atari 400/800 games. 
Games in this line include the K-Razy 
series ( Antiks ; Kritters, Shoot-Out, and 
Star Patrol) with three more on the way, 
Boulders and Bombs, Mountain King, 
and an educational game, Time Trials. 
Watch these pages for reviews of these. 



Jamie Farr with the Fox Video M*A*S*H 
game . 


Mattel expanded their line of M Net- 
work cartridges for the Atari VCS with 
nine new games. In the Adventures of 
Tron you must avoid the pursuing 
paralyzing recognizers, cannon-firing 


22 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 






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CES, continued... 



Loco-Motion by M Network for the Atari 
VCS. 


tanks, and persistent grid bugs. Air 
Raiders is a jet fighter game, and Star 
Strike is a simulated 3-D flight through 
space. Mattel has produced home ver- 
sions of two Data East coin-op games, 
Loco-Motion and the runaway success, 
Burgertime. 

Other new Mattel M Network games 
include Computer Revenge in which you 
must defend the human race against hos- 
tile computers (it’s true!), In Search of 
the Golden Skull and Advanced Dun- 
geons & Dragons. 

Mattel also announced several chil- 
dren’s games (ages 4 to 9) for the VCS. 
These include Scooby Doo , Masters of the 
Universe, Rocky and Bullwinkle, and 
Kool-Aid. 

And now it is time for another award. 

Games in Most Formats 
Award 

No question about this one; it goes to 
Imagic. Demon Attack, that fantastic 
Imagic game for the VCS, is now avail- 
able for Intellivision, Odyssey, Atari 
computers and the Vic 20. Their popular 
Atlantis game will also be available in 
four formats. Bill Grubb, Imagic’s genial 
president, told us that Imagic would also 
be producing games for ColecoVision 
and the TI 99/4A, thus bringing to 
seven the number of game systems and 
computers supported by Imagic. 

Imagic unveiled no fewer than 17 new 
game cartridges at CES. We didn’t have a 



Safecracker by Imagic for Mattel Intel- 
livision. 


chance to play them all; some of the in- 
triguing ones we did play include Safe- 
cracker with sensational 3-D graphic 
effects; Dragonfire in which you must re- 
cover treasure from a castle taken over 
by dragons; Ice Trek, a Nordic adven- 
ture game; and Escape From Argos in 
which you are carried around by Pega- 
sus to do battle with one infuriated Fury 
after another. 

Imagic also introduced a child- 
oriented (ages 5 to 9) game, Shootin’ 
Gallery, a colorful, cute shoot-’em-up. 
P.S., adults will like it too. 

U.S. Games introduced an incredible 
array of 12 new VCS games. In Squeeze 
Box, you try to shoot your way out of a 
diabolical ever-shrinking jail cell. Three 
“funny” games include Picnic in which 
you must swat flies away from your 
hamburgers, Gopher in which you de- 
fend your farm from marauding go- 
phers, and Piece ’ O Cake in which you 
must decorate cakes as they emerge 
from the oven on a conveyer belt, very 



Squeeze Box by U.S. Games for the Atari 
VCS. 

much like Pie-Man from Penguin Soft- 
ware for the Apple. 

M.A.D. stands for missile attack and 
defense and is a tough game, as is Com- 
mando Raid in which you must battle 
android paratroopers. Other games in- 
clude Eggomania (along the lines of 
Kaboom but with a humorous twist), 
Raft Rider, Entombed, and Towering 
Inferno. 

Spectra Video announced several new 
Spectravision VCS cartridges including 
Master Builder, a two-player game that 
pits you against the elements in the 
completion of a building; Galactic Tac- 
tic, a shoot-’em-up; and Mangia, a hu- 
morous game in which you must dispose 
of Mom’s good pasta by eating it, feed- 
ing it to the dog, or throwing it out the 
window. 

Spectra Video also showed a “true” 
3-D game, Vortex, for the VCS, Atari 
computers, Vic 20 and TI 99/4A. To 
play, you must don special glasses with a 
red and blue lens (remember the 3-D 
movies of old?) and navigate your ship 
through a meteor shower while defend- 



Mr. Bill's Neighborhood will be coming 
soon from Data Age. 


ing yourself from alien attack ships. A 
neat concept. 

The envelope please. 

Best Licensed Character 
Without a Product Award 

This award goes to Data Age for 
licensing Mr. Bill. At the press con- 
ference, Mr. Bill spoke and, in an un- 
planned drop off the podium, broke his 
arm off. Shades of Sluggo. Well, Mr. 
Bill, Sluggo, Sally, and Mr. Hands are 
all supposed to be in this new game from 
Data Age. The only catch — it doesn’t 
yet exist. But we have confidence that it 
soon will. 

More tangible new games from Data 
Age include Journey Escape in which 
you must safely guide the five members 
of America’s hottest rock ’n roll band 
through the continuous onslaught of 
groupies, promoters, photographers, and 
more. In Bermuda Triangle you must 
navigate around the Bermuda Triangle 
in your mini-sub collecting artifacts and 
blasting hazards. Frankenstein *s Monster 
is a tough game in which you must get 
stones from the basement of the castle 
and bring them to the top to build a bar- 
ricade around the monster. 

Tiger announced four new VCS titles 
including the clever and popular Atari 
computer game, Miner 2049er. Also 
from Tiger are River Patrol in which you 
must save drowning people while avoid- 
ing hazards in the river; Polaris, a game 
with multiple screens for missile launch- 
ing and navigation; and Springer, a strat- 
egy game in which you must guide a 
jumping rabbit from cloud to cloud 
collecting treasures and avoiding 
hazards. 

Sega, a major force in coin-op games 
(Turbo, Frogger, Zaxxon, Carnival) has 
teamed up with Paramount (Star Trek, 
Airplane, Marathon Man, etc.) to form 
what is potentially one of the most po- 


24 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




System Saver 

Also Apple He 


For Line Surge Suppression 

The SYSTEM SAVER provides es- 
sential protection to hardware and 
data from dangerous power surges 
and spikes. 



For Cooling 

As soon as you move to 64K RAM 
or 80 columns on your Apple II you 
need SYSTEM SAVER. 

Today's advanced peripheral 
cards generate more heat. In addi- 
tion, the cards block any natural air 
flow through the Apple II creating 
high temperature conditions that 
substantially reduce the life of the 
cards and the computer itself. 


For Operating Efficiency 

SYSTEM SAVER contains two 
switched power outlets. As shown 
in the diagram, the SYSTEM 
SAVER efficiently organizes your 
system so that one convenient, 
front mounted 
power switch 
controls SYSTEM 
SAVER, Apple n, 
monitor and printer. 




By connecting the Apple II 
power input through the SYSTEM 
SAVER, power is controlled in two 
ways: 1) Dangerous voltage spikes 
are clipped off at a safe 130 Volts 
RMS/175 Volts dc level. 2) High fre- 
quency noise is smoothed out be- 
fore reaching the Apple II . A PI type 
filter attenuates common mode 
noise signals by a minimum of 
30 dB from 600 khz to 20 mhz, with 
a maximum attenuation of 50 dB. 


SYSTEM SAVER provides cor- 
rect cooling. An efficient, quiet fan 
draws fresh air across the mother 
board, over the power supply and 
out the side ventilation slots. 


POWER 



The heavy duty switch has a 
pilot light to alert when system is 
on.You’ll never use the Apple power 
switch again! 


Easy Installation 


Compatible with Apple Stand 


Just clips on. 

No mounting or 
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Color matched 
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PRINTER 



CES, continued... 

tent forces in video games. Sega has al- 
ready licensed some games such as 
Frogger, Zaxxon, and Carnival to other 
game producers, but is now entering the 
market with a line of their own. Initial 
releases include Subterfuge, and Buck 
Rogers’ Marathon of Zenda, The Cav- 
erns of Zagreb, and The Secrets of Za- 
dar. Muffett is a cute cartoon game and 
Airplane is also based on a humorous 
theme. 

Other games based on movies include 
Marathon Man, War of the Worlds, Fri- 
day the 13 th, The Wrath of Khan, and In 
Search of Spock. 

Konami is a major Japanese developer 
of coin-op games, most of which are li- 
censed to other manufacturers to pro- 
duce. Now, Gakken, another Japanese 
company, has licensed three Konami 
games for VCS cartridges, PooYan, 
Jungler, and Strategy X. Of the three, 
PooYan is the cutest; you move a mother 
pig up and down on a lift at the side of 
the screen and she shoots arrows into 
the balloons of ascending wolves. We 
found it quite addictive. 

Starpath showed three new games, 
two of which use the proprietary Multi 
Load system. Starpath games require a 
device called a Supercharger which 
plugs into the game cartridge slot on the 
VCS and hooks to a standard cassette 
tape recorder. In addition to loading 
games, the Supercharger has 6K of 
memory, a dramatic increase over the 
128 bytes built into the VCS. This allows 
impressive high resolution graphics and 
more complex games. 

Now Starpath has gone one step fur- 
ther and put a series of games on a single 
cassette, each one of which adds new 
characters, scoring, objectives and levels 
of difficulty. Dragonstomper is a Multi 
Load game in which the player must 
first travel through a medieval land 
gathering gold, strength, and wares. He 
then goes on to a desert (second load), 
and to the dragon’s cavern (third load). 
The other Multi Load games is Escape 
from the Mindmaster which is a 3-D 
maze game similar to Way Out from Sir- 
ius for the Apple. Let’s take a breather 
for another award. 

Best T-Shirt Award 

Actually, it is the only T-shirt award 
and it goes to Starpath for their Killer 
Satellites T-shirt. It is really gruesome 
with an grayish olive satellite shaped like 
a skull on a black shirt. The game is a 
complex one in which you are defending 
Mother Earth (of course) from nasty 
killer satellites. You must evade meteors, 
blast the satellites, preserve your fuel, 
and keep your engines from overheating. 
Whew! 



Astromusic plays on the expanded Intel- 
livision. 


Not to be outdone by Atari, Mattel 
introduced an enormous number of new 
games, add-ons, and other enhance- 
ments for Intellivision. In the way of 
hardware, Mattel introduced new 
packaging, calling it Intellivision II. 
Distinguishing it from the original unit 
are longer controller cables, easier cable 
stowage, an off/on indicator lamp, and 
some engineering modifications. 

Perhaps more exciting was the sneak 
preview of Intellivision III, a privilege 
granted to selected members of the 
press. We’re committed to secrecy, but 
at least one gentlemen was heard to mut- 
ter, “it’ll blow Atari and Coleco right 
out of the water.’’ Our opinion is that 
other manufacturers probably aren’t go- 
ing to wait around to be blown out of the 
water. 

More tangible are several add-ons an- 
nounced for the existing Intellivision. 
First is an adapter to allow Intellivision 
to play Atari VCS cartridges. Second is a 
computer adapter. This has an addi- 
tional 2K of RAM and 12K of ROM 
which includes Basic. It also has an 
interface to accept other peripherals, the 
most improtant of which is a 49-key full 
stroke keyboard. A program expansion 
module contains 8K extended Basic and 
16K of user RAM. 

Another kind of keyboard similar to a 
piano has 49 keys, and controls a six- 
note polyphonic music synthesizer. 

In support of these add-ons, Mattel 
also announced a wide range of software 
in four categories: education, Basic 
programming, music, and super games. 



B— 1 



’ 

L 

• • 


Alphanumeric and music keyboards with 
Intellivision II 


We didn’t think much of the 12 lines x 
20 character resolution for text, but 
some of the other software borders on 
the fantastic, particularly that for music. 

In the past, we’ve had a tough time 
getting products for evaluation from 
Mattel. That’s why you have never seen 
an evaluation of Intellivision on these 
pages. But we’ll try again and keep you 
posted. In return, we present Mattel 
with our 

Are You Afraid of an 
Evaluation? Award 

Mattel also introduced 12 new 
Intellivision games including Buzz 
Bombers, BurgerTime, Loco-Motion, 
Mission X, Advanced Dungeons & Drag- 
ons and seven more. Several use the 
Intellivoice module and are almost scary 
in the way they converse with you. 

N.A.P. Consumer Electronics (for- 
merly Magnavox) introduced the Od- 
yssey Command Center which replaces 
the membrane keyboard on the Od- 
yssey 2 with typewriter-like keys. This 
seems to be in anticipation of a computer 
programming module to be released in 
the future, but it is also handy to use 
with the new telecommunications mod- 
ule (modem). 



Odyssey Command Center has typewriter- 
like keys. 


The modem allows the Odyssey Com- 
mand Center to access information net- 
works such as The Source and Micronet 
as well as communicate (in a rudi- 
mentary way) with other computers. 

N.A.P. also introduced several new 
games for both old and new Odyssey 
systems, one of which garnered our 

Most Annoying Tune Award 

This award goes to Turtles, a delight- 
ful game in which you rescue baby tur- 
tles and use bug bombs to stop the 
predator beetles. The original Konami 
coin-op game plays a nice little tune as 
you make your rounds. Even the Entex 
handheld version plays the same cute 
tune, albeit several octaves higher. But 
on Odyssey, the tune is “sung’’ by the 
Odyssey Voice unit in a nasal deep bass 
voice. It’s enough to make you cringe. 


26 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



Give your child the thinking tools 
that stand in a class by themselves: 
programs for your home from 
Computer-Advanced Ideas. 

For The Fun Of It 

As professional educators and 
programmers we’ve been proving 
for over a decade that motivated 
learners do best. Featuring full-color 
graphics, our animated learning 
games are fun. They talk like a 
friend, play like a teammate and 
teach like a tutor. And they stimulate 
eager young minds. 

Partners In Learning 

CAI programs come with a library of 
knowledge for your child to explore. 
But that’s just die beginning. They 
also feature a unique authoring 
system that lets you create lessons 
on any subject, tailoring the 
program to your child’s needs. No 
knowledge of computers is required. 
Our programs make sense to people 
— from 4 to 94 — and grow right 
along with your child. 

A Success In Schools 

Over 1800 school districts have 
chosen CAI programs to teach 
essential vocabulary and logic skills 
in a full range of topics. Our products 
get recognition— because they work. 

Head Start 

Your child’s future begins with 
opportunities you create at home. 
Choosing resources that are 
stimulating, challenging and fun can 
be one of the best decisions you 
make. Ask your computer retailer 
for a demonstration of CAI 
programs and see for yourself how 
enjoyable a good education can be. 



Computer 
Advanced m M I 
Ideas Vprll 

Bringing Ideas Ml Home 

1442 A Walnut Street, Suite 341 
Berkeley, CA 94709 (415) 526-9100 

For the Apple II /lie 

CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






You’ll find it wherever computergamers 
go to score the latest and greatest in 
entertainment software. 

The HOT RACK. It’s where the 
“hot” ones are. 

You’ll find games that’ll grab you, 
thrill you, and hurl you to worlds you 
never dreamed were possible. Best- 


sellers like CHOPLIFTER. CASTLE 
WOLFENSTEIN. AZTEC. STAR- 
BLAZER . . . and many, many more. 

So, stop wasting your time and 
money on games that could leave you 
cold. Look for the HOT RACK at your 
local computer store. 

If you don’t see it, ask for it. 


Dealer inquiries invited. 

Dealers only, call 800 432-3129 (Inside California) or 800 854-6801 (Outside California). 

Another marketing first from MICRO D. 


CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


CES, continued... 


Other new Odyssey games include 
Pick Axe Pete , Freedom Fighters, Attack 
of the Timelord (Dave’s favorite), Killer 
Bees, Baseball and Smithereens 
(phenomenal graphics). 

Perhaps the game companies figure 
that you are nothing if you don’t have a 
simulated voice unit. Hopping on the 
voice bandwagon is Vectrex, but the ap- 
proach is entirely different from the oth- 
ers. In particular, the Spike game 
cartridge contains the software to let the 
Vectrex unit itself “speak.” Spike talks 
to you as you try to rescue his girlfriend 
Molly from arch fiend Spud. It’s quite a 
departure from the current Vectrex 
games. 

Other new ones for this amazing self- 
contained vector graphics system in- 
clude Web Warp, Bedlam, Fortress of 
Narzoid, Flip Out Pinball, and Heads-Up 
Soccer. 

Coleco had virtually their entire booth 
devoted to Coleco Vision, and with good 
reason. With the VCS adapter, this sys- 
tem has got to be the most versatile one 
around. New games included Donkey 
Kong Jr., and Rocky Battles for 
ColecoVision and several for 
Intellivision. Not that all is roses, how- 
ever, since the Coleco controller is the 
pits. We usually plug in a decent Atari- 
type controller (D-Zyne SuprStick or the 
Newport joystick) and double the scores 
we can get on Lady Bug with the Coleco 
toy control. Nevertheless, ColecoVision 
is great. It is then, with mixed feelings 
that we present to Coleco the 

Worst Controller 
for a Great System Award 

Another new game system called 
CreatiVision was announced by Hong 
Kong based Video Technology. The 
specifications are excellent as is the 
price. However, we have found from bit- 
ter experience that these systems some- 
times just don’t get into the retail 



market. Let’s hope that this one does 
since, in addition to being an excellent 
game unit, it can expand into a full- 
fledged computer system. We’ll report 
further when we get a production model. 

Emerson was also showing some new 
games for their Arcadia 2001 unit, but, 
like Mattel, Emerson has been unwilling 
or too disorganized to lend us a unit for 
evaluation. We asked again at the show 
for a loaner; we’ll see. 

Before we move away from the game 
manufacturers, we should present an 
award which must be shared by two 
companies. It is the 

Back From Bankruptcy 
Award 

This is shared by Astrocade and 
Apollo, both of whom had some finan- 
cial problems but at the show looked as 
robust and energetic as ever. Perhaps 
“lean but mean” would be a better 
description. Our best wishes to both 
companies. 

Game Controls, Trak Balls 
and Other Accessories 

So you’ve got all these games and the 
cartridge slot on your VCS is showing 
signs of wear — some of the games are 
too. For around $60 you can get a 
Videoplexer from Compro Electronics. 
It plugs into the VCS — there is an 
Intellivision version too — and eight 
games plug into it. Each game can be se- 
lected from the membrane keyboard on 
the front. Now you can leave in a few 
favorites and plug the less frequently 
used games in the back slots. Neat, eh? 

Love that trak-ball controller on 
Centipede? So do we. Several years ago, 
we were in the Atari R & D center and 
saw some prototype trak-ball control- 
lers. Some were the size of grapefruit, 
others were smaller than golf balls. At 
the time, we kind of understood the con- 
cept when they explained it, but couldn’t 
really see the advantage. So we won’t 
even try to explain a trak-ball in words. 
If you don’t know what one is, take a 
handful of quarters and play Centipede 
or Kickman, then come back to this. 
Now you see why everyone is rushing to 
get trak-balls into production for home 
use. 

At CES, four manufacturers were 
showing trak-ball controls. Actually, 
only Atari can use the trademarked 
trak-ball name; the others must call 
them track balls. Atari was showing a 
trak-ball for both the 5200 (in an all-in- 
one game control center) and the 2600 
VCS. We can see why the release date 
isn’t until mid-year; while they both had 
great feel, they also occasionally hung 
up the game that was being played. We 
were going for an all-time high score (for 

29 



Trak-ball controller for the Atari 5200. 


us) in Centipede when the game hung up 
and had to be restarted. 

Atari also introduced a kid’s control- 
ler to go with a the CCW educational 
game series. Basically the controller is a 
12-key 5 X 7-inch keyboard. Each game 
comes with a special pictorial overlay. 

Atari also promises us an improved 
Proline Joystick to replace the existing 
stick — but not until June or later. Can’t 
wait? That’s okay; there are plenty of 
other excellent sticks on the market. 
Many were discussed in our roundup in 
the September issue and some new ones 
are mentioned below. Or, if you have a 
sick Atari joystick, Atari just announced 
a joystick repair kit. Also, most Atari 
dealers will have a test console to di- 
agnose VCS problems — kind of like the 
tube checkers in many electronics retail- 
ers years ago. Meanwhile, back to trak- 
balls. 

TG introduced the TB-600 Track Ball 
which, according to their literature, “is 
modeled after the $1200 Track Balls 
used to train U.S. astronauts.” Well, 
maybe, but we suspect that the coin-op 
arcade games may have had a small in- 
fluence too. The action is much stiffer 
than that of the Atari unit, but once you 
get used to it, you find that you can ad- 
just. The TG unit electrically simulates a 
joystick, hence it can be used in place of 
a joystick (potentiometer type) on Apple 
and IBM computer games. We are 
promised a version shortly for Atari and 



TG Track Ball controller for Apple, Atari 
and IBM computers. 



CES, continued... 

Vic 20 computers, the Atari VCS and 
NEC PC-6000. At a retail price of only 
$64.95, we can’t wait. 

TG also introduced an improved 
model of their first joystick. This one has 
a pair of pushbuttons on the top panel 
that can be used to defeat or turn on the 
auto self-centering. Very nice. 

Is it time for another award? Sure is. 
This one is the 

Best Track Ball 
Without Software Award 

It goes to Wico Corporation for their 
Command Control Trackball. It is a 
marvelous unit with an optical scanner, 
microprocessor and solid steel bearings. 
Wico, as a major manufacturer of coin- 
op game controls, has made their home 
track ball unit along similar lines. Only 
one problem. Nobody is writing software 
for such a unit. Wico hopes they will 
someday, but today there is not a great 
deal of use for this unit. 



Wico analog joystick is available for many 
computers. 


Not so for the Wico line of joysticks. 
Wico makes a broad line of top quality 
joysticks for the Apple, Atari, Vic 20, 
TRS-80 Color Computer, IBM PC, and 
Atari 5200. They boast top firing but- 
tons, contoured handgrips, interchange- 
able grips and the like — most 
impressive. Watch for our playtesting of 
the Wico controls in an upcoming issue. 

Another Track Ball was introduced 
by HAL Laboratory. It gets our 

Worst Translation Award 

The GTX Track-Ball is available for 
the Apple and Vic. HAL, a Japanese 
company, also makes “softwares for 
game’’ and a programmable character 
generator for CBM and Pet computers. 
Here is the description of this product 


direct from their flyer. “Generally, the 
personal computer has been equipped in- 
side (character generator) as ROM. and 
it generates some fixed characters like 
A,B,C, . . .and etc. whenever to be sup- 
plied the power, so that if to be put 
RAM in place of ROM, it will be sure to 
make the ability of the personal com- 
puter more flexible, and also it enable 
the personal computer to display freely 
various character patterns such as 
Alphabet, Japan-ese, Video game use 
character and so on.’’ It goes on, but we 
won’t. Hope their track ball works. 

In addition to Wico, several other 
manufacturers of coin-op game controls 
are moving into the home market. Coin 
Controls, Inc. introduced the Com- 
petition-Pro Joystick while Newport 
showed improved versions of the con- 
trols we liked so much in our test last 
September. Questar Controls also in- 
troduced a line of controls and repair 
parts, one of which takes an award. 

Joystick Bigger Than 
the Computer Award 

Three joystick console controls from 
Questar measure a gargantuan 12- Vi x 8 
x 3 inches. This isn’t as bad as it sounds. 
If you play like we do, your left hand 
gets a real workout from holding the 
joystick still while the right hand does 
the maneuvering (or vice versa). This 
control stays put; we like that. Also, the 
Questar units have big 1" diameter firing 
buttons; we like that too. Joe Vermeren 
gave us one to try out; watch for a re- 
view in an upcoming issue. 



Questar II Joystick console. 


Another nifty device announced by 
Questar is an automatic rapid fire mod- 
ule. This plugs in between the joystick 
and game and can be set for any rate of 
continuous rapid fire. This is very useful 
for annihilating aliens with a continuous 
beam of devastation. 

Another continuous fire control, but 
with a non-adjustable rate of fire was an- 
nounced by Discwasher. Discwasher? 
Aren’t they the record care folks? Yes, 
but they have seen the light and have 
brought to market the PointMaster Pro 
tournament joystick with thumb trigger 


firing button and contoured handgrip 
along with the PointMaster Fire Con- 
trol. David Howe gave us one of each; 
watch these pages for an in-depth 
evaluation. 

Zircon has improved the design of 
their Video Command handheld joystick 
with the addition of a continuous fire 
button built right in to the control han- 
dle. Tom Larsen, Zircon’s friendly VP of 
sales gave us a sample so we’ll have a 
real test coming up soon. 

Electra Concepts also showed a new 
joystick with an index finger trigger and 
contoured grip. We hope to try it soon 
also. 



Kraft Atari-type joystick features fingertip 
control. 


Our friends at Kraft have gone a dif- 
ferent route with a fast action, short 
throw Atari-type joystick with a small 
fingertip control similar to that on the 
Kraft Apple joystick. You’ll recall from 
the September issue that we liked the 
Kraft joystick with its adjustable x and y 
axis trim controls and switches to select 
either self-centering or free-floating 
operation. 

Human Engineered Software, a maker 
of Vic 20 software, introduced the 
Hestick I for Atari, Vic and other simi- 
lar units. It has sleek styling and the 
price is right ($7.95). When we get one, 
we’ll let you know how it performs in 
tough game play. 

Kraft also introduced an Apple soft- 
ware disk that permits a joystick to con- 
trol the movement of the cursor in 
VisiCalc calculations. This is a real joy 
as it eliminates the need to press the 
spacebar constantly to change the direc- 
tion of cursor movement. The program 
adds some other enhancements as well; 
watch for a complete review. 

Earl Laskey Video introduced a 
ColecoVision replacement joystick 
which, as we said above, is really needed. 
It is not a total unit; rather it simply re- 
places the joystick portion of the Coleco 
unit just like Laskey’S conversion for 
Intellivision, the Injoy-A-Stick. When 
we get one, we’ll let you know how it is. 


30 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



RANDOM ACCESS M 
A PRMTMG BUFFER? 



Introducing . . . 

The IS PipeLine" Random Access Printing Buffer. 

Insert pictures, graphics or spread-sheet data Into reports. Duplicate 
form letters— automatically changing addresses on each. Now, all 
your programs can work together to produce printed output. 

For the first time ever, here is a buffer that not only frees your fast com- 
puter from your slow printer but also allows you to rearrange, compose 
and copy your data on its way to the printer. 



■ Random Access Printing— stores paragraphs or pictures for printing 
in any order— any number of times. 

■ FIFO Printing— conventional first-in first-out operation. 

■ Compression of data for efficient utilization of memory space. 

■ Ability to interrupt long-term buffer operations for straight-thru short- 
term printing. 

■ Simple Erase feature to clear buffer. 

■ Automatic duplication capability. 

■ Easily expandable, by you, from 8K Bytes to 128K Bytes. 

The IS PipeLine is Universal— it works with any parallel (Centronics* — 
style) computer/printer combination. A special version is available for 
PKASO™ Printer Interfaces. 

The IS PipeLine is a self-contained unit with operating manual, cables 
and power supply included. 

For more information on the truly revolutionary IS PipeLine Random 
Access Printing Buffer, call us today. 




Interactive Structures Inc. 
146 Montgomery Avenue 
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 
Telephone: (215) 667-1713 


•Centronics is o trademark of Centronics Data Computer Corp 


CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD The IS Pipeline™ Random Access Printing Buffer is patent pending 



PLATO WIDENS 
YOURCHILDS WORLD. 

Announcing new educational courseware 
for microcomputers to improve your child's 
Basic Skills, High School Skills or Foreign Language vocabulary. 



NOW. PLATO Basic Skills. 

NOW. PLATO High School Skills. 
Both for use with TI 99/4 A. * ! 

Control Data and Texas Instruments are 
working together to make this nationally 
recognized PLATO courseware available 
via microcomputers. 

Control Data's PLATO Basic Skills is a com 

prehensive curriculum designed to enhance 
the development of elementary and junior 
high Reading, Math and Grammar skills. 

Control Data's PLATO High School Skills 

help high school level students master Reading, 
English, Math, Social Studies and Science. It 
has been used to assist students preparing for 
G.E.D. exams. 


*For Basic and High School Skills pricing and order 
information, write: Texas Instruments, Education 
Department, Box 53, Lubbock, TX 79408. 




'JEW! Nine lessons in 
Foreign Languages for 
use with Apple II Plus. 

Three lessons each for French, 
Spanish and German. Each 
lesson uses a hangman or 
pyramid game to help children 
learn words most associated 
with defined activities. For 
junior or senior high students. 

Travel Words: Children study 
French, Spanish or German 
words they need to know to 
buy train, plane or bus tickets,- 
order in a restaurant,- request 
medical assistance,- read street 
signs,- etc. 

Shopping Words: Children 
study French, Spanish or Ger- 
man words they need to know 
to shop for food, clothing, etc. 

Classroom Words: Children 
study the French, Spanish or 
German words that are common 
to the school environment. 


Lessons Available 
For Apple II Plus, 

TI 99/4A* and Atari 800. 

Basic Number Facts: Practice 
in addition without carrying; 
subtraction without borrowing; 
and multiplication/division 
with single digits. For elemen- 
tary students. 

Whole Numbers: Practice in 
addition, subtraction, multi- 
plication, division and mixed 
numbers. For elementary and 
junior high students. 

Decimals: Practice locating 
decimal numbers on the number 
line. For elementary students. 

Fractions: Same skill level and 
format as decimals. 

Computer Literacy— Intro- 
duction: For jr. or sr. high 
and vocational school students. 


Physics — Elementary 
Mechanics: Students are 
shown a physical problem, then 
must "purchase" the missing 
information to answer it 
correctly. For senior high 
physics students. 

French, German, Spanish 
Vocabulary Builders: Gives 
children a basic vocabulary of 
500 words. Supplements intro- 
ductory and refresher courses. 

•Courseware for TI 99/4A available 
May 31, 1983. 

INTRODUCTORY 

OFFERING: 

•Single lesson, $45.00 

• Additional lessons, $35.00 ea. 
•Additional disk included 

with each lesson ordered at 
no extra charge 

• 10 day money-back trial 



SEND FOR PLATO 


COURSEWARE CATALOG 

For a free copy of our PLATO 
catalog, or to order, mail reply 
card,- call toll-free 800/233-3784; 
or write Control Data Publish- 
ing Co., RO. Box 261127, San 
Diego, CA 92126. In California, 
call 800/233-3785. 



CONTRPL DATA 
PUBLISHING 


PLATO 

COMPUTER-BASED EDUCATION 

CIRCLE 317 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


CES, continued... 

Turn Your VCS Into a Computer 

The vogue among many manufac- 
turers today seems to be to offer a dual 
purpose system (video game player and 
a computer) — witness Intellivision II, 
the Odyssey Command Center, 
CreatiVision, and others. Frankly, we 
don’t think this makes much sense. 
Given the low price of game systems and 
computers (more of which later), we 
think most people can afford, and would 
be better off getting, both a game system 
and one or more computers. 

However, it seems that some manu- 
facturers feel otherwise. And naturally 
the main target for third party conver- 
sions is the Atari VCS. No fewer than 
four units were announced to convert 
the VCS into a real computer. 

Entex announced the 2000 Piggyback. 
It has a big 70-key full stroke keyboard, 
3K of RAM (expandable to 19K), and 
built-in Basic. Ten educationally-ori- 
ented software packages were also an- 
nounced including Speed Reading , 
Beginning Algebra, Number Games and 
Spelling I. Expected retail price is 
around $130. 

Unitronics showed a two-step expan- 
sion system. The Expander has 16K of 
RAM and a tape cassette mechanism to 
permit loading cassette games into the 
VCS much like the Starpath Super- 
charger (but, of course, the games aren’t 
compatible). The second unit is a 55-key 
keyboard. A few games for the system 
were shown, but unfortunately, very lit- 
tle hard information was available about 
the system. 

Spectra Video announced the 
CompuMate which sits on top of a VCS 
and converts it into a computer. 
CompuMate has a 42-key touch sen- 
sitive keyboard, 2K of RAM, cassette 
interface, built-in Magic Easel program 
for drawing pictures, and built-in music 
composer program with two octave/two 


channel capability. Projected retail is 

$ 100 . 

Emerson was showing a prototype all- 
in-one unit with 16K of RAM, 57-key 
full-stroke keyboard plus a 2-key 
numeric/control keypad, sound/voice 
synthesizer, built-in Basic, cassette, disk 
and printer interfaces, and, best of all, 
the ability to run Atari 400/800 soft- 
ware. Memory is expandable to 48K. 
Projected price is under $150. 

On Feb. 9, Atari announced their own 
VCS computer add-on; see page 276. 

So You Want To Write Your Own 
VCS Games 

If you want to write games for the 
VCS, you can go the low road or the 
high road. The low road is a PGP-1 
from Answer Software Corporation. 
Like the four VCS-computer converters 
described above, the PGP-1 plugs into 
the Atari VCS. You then plug any VCS 
game into the PGP-1 and you can mod- 
ify it in practically any way you want. 
No, it’s not Basic since games are pro- 
grammed in 6502 machine code, but by 
following the relatively straightforward 
directions on the screen and in the man- 
ual, you can change the patterns of alien 
movement, alter mazes, and add ele- 
ments of your own. The game cartridge, 
of course, is not changed and, at the mo- 
ment, there is no way of storing your fin- 
ished game. 

Answer Software also announced a 
new game, Malagai, a Pac-maze type of 
game with several interesting twists. 

Frobco announced the Frob-26 game 
development system. It consists of a card 
to plug into an Apple computer, an in- 
circuit emulation cable that plugs into 
the VCS, two prototype VCS cartridges, 
a disk, and a reference manual. The soft- 
ware has three main components: a real- 
time debugger, the “Explorer” which 
lets you control all the VCS hardware 
registers in real-time, and a set of utility 
subroutines. Price for the Frob-26 sys- 
tem is $495. 


Entex 2000 Piggyback turns a VCS into a computer. 



Ed Krakauer, president of General Con- 
sumer Electronics and Betsy Staples, 
editor of Creative Computing. We pre- 
sented an award to GCE for making two 
games (Vectrex and Game Time Watch) 
that were used in the Gamester of the 
Year competition sponsored by Video & 
Arcade Games magazine. 



The Frob system lets you develop VCS 
games on an Apple. 


A game development system for the 
Atari 5200, expanded memory systems, 
EPROM burners, and other related 
components are also available from 
Frobco. 

Unitronics * VCS Expander includes a cas- 
sette loader/ memory unit and a keyboard. 



34 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





The new COMPAQ Portable Computer. 
IBM compatibility to go. 






imple, isn’t it? The COMPAQ™ 
Portable Computer can do 
I what the IBM® Personal 
Computer does. To go. 

It runs all the popular pro- 
grams written for the IBM. It 
works with the same printers and 
other peripherals. It even accepts 
the same optional expansion elec- 
tronics that give it additional 
capabilities and functionality. 

There’s really only one big dif- 
ference. The COMPAQ Computer 
is designed to travel. 

Carry the COMPAQ Comput- 
er from office to office. Carry it 
home on the weekend. Or take it 
on business trips. 

If you’re a consultant, take it 
to your client’s office. 

If you use a portable type- 
writer, you can use the 
COMPAQ Computer as 
portable word processor 
instead. 

If your company 
already uses the 
IBM Personal 
Computer, add 
the COMPAQ 


you’d probably need to buy an 
additional display screen because 
the built-in screen is too small for 
certain tasks, like word process- 
ing. The COMPAQ Computer’s 
display screen is nine inches diag- 
onally, big enough for any job, and 
it shows a full 80 characters across. 
And the built-in display offers 
high-resolution graphics and text 
characters on the same screen. 

The bottom line is this. The 
COMPAQ Computer is the first 
uncompromising portable 
computer. It delivers 
all the advantages 
of porta- 
bility 


In the standard configuration, 
the COMPAQ Computer has three 
open slots for functional expan- 
sion electronics as your needs 
and applications grow. It accepts 
standard network and commu- 
nications interfaces including 
ETHERNET™ and OMNINET™. 

If you’re considering a per- 
sonal computer, there’s a new 
question you need to ask your- 
self. Why buy a com- 


Portable as a 
mobile unit that 
can use the same pro- 
grams, the same data disks, and 
even the same user manuals. 

There are more programs 
available for the COMPAQ Com- 
puter than for any other portable. 
More, in fact, than for most non- 
portables. You can buy them in 
hundreds of computer stores 
nationwide, and they run as is, 
right off the shelf. 

With most other portables 


without trad- 
ing off any com- 
puting power capability. 

And what do those advantages 

cost? 

Nothing. 

The COMPAQ Por- 
table sells for hundreds 
less than a compara- 
bly equipped IBM or 
APPLE® III. Standard 
features include 128K 
bytes of internal memory 
and a 320K-byte disk drive, 
both of which are extra-cost 
options on the IBM. Memory 
and additional disk drive up- 
grades are available options to 
double those capacities. 


puter that 
isn’t portable? 
For more 
information on 
the COMPAQ 
Portable Computer 
and the location of the 
Authorized Dealer nearest 
you, write us. COMPAQ 
Computer Corporation, 12330 
Perry Road, Houston, Texas 
77070. Or call 1-800-231-9966. In 
Texas call 1-800-392-4726. 

© 1983 COMPAQ Computer Corporation 

IBM® is a registered trademark or International Business 

Machines Corporation. 

ETHERNET 1 " is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. 
OMNINET’" is a trademark of Corvus Systems. 

Apple® is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
COMPAQ is a trademark of COMPAQ Computer 
Corporation 


com pah 

The most computer you can carry. 

CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



It’s the same old 

Apple II. 





For years, people have been 
trying to build a better Apple* II. 

It finally happened. 

Meet the Apple lie, an 
impressive new version of a 
most impressive machine. 

The “e” means enhanced. 
Which means a bundle of new 
features: 

A standard memory of 64K 
(versus 48K) that’s easily 


expandable. So you can create 
fatter files and crunch larger 
numbers of numbers. 

A new, improved keyboard, 
with a complete set of ASCII 
standard characters. Plus full 
cursor controls, programmable 
function keys, and a rapid 
auto-repeat feature built into 
every key on the board. 

Both upper and lower case 


characters. (And if you want 
to see more of them on the 
screen at one time, a low cost 
80-column text card is available.) 

Improved peripheral ports. 
Which make it a lot easier to 
connect and disconnect game 
controllers, printers and all 
those other wonderful things 
that go with an Apple Personal 
Computer. 


cotfWW cav •un 


trr TO trr 
Wfc "R27 







Except for the font, 
back and inside. 



MOTHER .BOARD 


Self-diagnostics. That’s a 
special feature that makes it 
easy to give your computer a 
thorough check-up. 

Plus an even more reliable 
design. Achieved by reducing 
the number of components— 
which is to say, the number of 
things that could go wrong. 


And bear in mind, the lie 
still has all those other virtues 
that made the Apple II so very 
popular. Including access to 
more accessories, peripheral 
devices and software than any 
other personal computer you 
can buy. 

So visit any of our over 1300 


authorized dealers, and see the 
newest Apple for yourself. 

Like the original, it’s rather 
extraordinary. But then some 
things never change. 



Cippkz 


The most personal computer. 


Call ( 800 ) 538-9696 for the location of the authorized Apple dealer nearest you, or for information regarding corporate purchases through our National Account Program 
In California ( 800 ) 662 - 9238 . Or write Apple Computer Inc., Advertising and Promotion Dept., 20525 Mariani Ave.. Cupertino. CA 95014- ©1983 Apple Computer Inc. 

CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 











CES, continued... 


Mabel, You Won’t Believe These 
Computer Prices 

The first day and a half at CES, we 
hardly got out of our own booth. Every 
so often, someone would come by and 
say, “Didja see the new (fill in the blank) 
computer? It’s just $150.” (Or $100, or 
$199, etc.) Our mouths were watering by 
the time we finally got out on the show 
floor. And with good reason. 

When the dust finally settled, we 
counted four new computers under 
$100, three more under $200, two under 
$300, one at $349, and several more un- 
der $1000. Add this to the existing units 
under $1000 and you are faced with a 
bewildering array of choices. Our opin- 
ion is that it won’t be long before people 
recognize the advantage of having sev- 
eral computers, one for each family 
member or one for each application. 

For example, we do word processing 
and spreadsheet calculations on one 
computer, use a battery-powered unit 
when we travel, have two computers for 
games, and still another for the kids. 


With the prices continuing to plummet, 
it won’t be long before people in all 
walks of life (and not just those in the in- 
dustry) can afford multiple computers 
and game systems. 

With the more-or-less permanent $15 
rebate, the Timex Sinclair 1000 is still 
the low priced leader (suggested list 
$100 less $15 rebate equals $85). Com- 
mon street price in the New York area is 
closer to $70 after the rebate. 

A Sinclair look-alike called the Futura 
8300 was announced by Unisonic. It gets 
two(!) awards. 

License? What License? 
Award 

Since this is an exact clone of the 
Timex Sinclair 1000, we asked the Chi- 
nese manufacturer if they were licensed 
by Sinclair to offer the same Basic. “No, 
why should we be?” The main improve- 
ment on the Futura compared to the 
1000 is that it has real keys instead of a 
membrane keyboard. That’s nice. So is 
the price — expected to be around $90. 

Support is another story. We asked a 


gentleman from Unisonic whom we 
should contact for more information. 
His annoyed reply was, “We don’t have 
anyone to deal with the press.” 

“How can we get a unit for 
evaluation?” We asked, reminding him 
that we publish SYNC magazine. “Buy 
one,” he said as he walked away. Thus, 
we give Unisonic our 

Support? What Support? 
Award 

However, if Unisonic is doing things 
wrong, Texas Instruments is doing them 
right. The newly introduced TI 99/2 
computer is nicely styled, has a TI-9995 
16-bit mpu, 4.2K of RAM, a whopping 
24K of ROM with TI Basic, and 16 
built-in graphics characters. Support is 
unbelievable for a new product and thus 
TI gets our 

Best Support For a 
New Product Award 

No fewer than 19 software packages 


PRICE 



This chart shows two gaps in the continuum of price and per- 
formance 'of computers, one at around $200 and another at 
$700-800. The lower gap was totally erased by the new 
machines introduced at CES. With seven computers under 
$200 and the announcement of Vic and Atari price reductions, 
there is continuous overlap from $65 to $600. The price 


reduction on the Atari 800 and the new Atari 1200XL fall in 
the upper gap, however, we expect to see more entries before 
long. 

The chart is from Future Views ($365 per year), 900 Canyon 
Creek Road, Richardson, TX 75080. 


38 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



Extras can more than double the price of your per- 
sonal computer. Not so with the Franklin ACE 1200. 
It’s the professional computer system that includes 
the extras — and a long list of exclusive Franklin 
features that make it the most extraordinary value on 
the market today. 


The ACE 1200 has everything you’ll need 
to add a color or black and white monitor, 
modem, printer, back-up disk drive and 
other accessories. You can choose from 
the enormous selection of Apple programs 
and peripherals because the ACE 1200 is 
hardware- and software-compatible with 



the Apple II. And, with the built-in CP/M card, you 
can run both Apple II and CP/M programs. Franklin’s 
CP/M operates three times as fast as many com- 
peting systems, drastically reducing processing 
time for most business applications. 


The Franklin ACE 1200 — the most extraordinary value 
on the market today. Cal I or write today for 
the name of your local authorized Franklin 
dealer. 

Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc. 
VisiCalc is a registered trademark of Visi Corp. 


FRANKLIN 

COMPUTER CORPORATION 


7030 Colonial Highway, Pennsauken, NJ 08109 609-488-1700 
CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


CES, continued... 



TI 99/2 computer sells for $100. 


were announced for the 99/2 in three 
areas: entertainment, education, and 
information management. We are very 
impressed with the 99/2 in all respects 
except one. And for that one, we give TI 
our 

Rubber Keybounce Award 

It was probably because the units at 
the show were prototypes, but it was 
quite impossible to type with any speed 
due to the keybounce. One would think 
that TI would have learned their lesson 
about yucky keyboards after the debacle 
with the original 99/4 keyboard, but 
we’ll give them the benefit of the doubt 
on this one and trust that production 
units will be better than the prototypes. 
Price of the 99/2 is a delightful $100. 

TI introduced a second new com- 
puter, the Compact Computer 40 (CC- 
40), a unit aimed at the professional 
user. Like the Epson HX-20, the CC-40 
has an integrated LCD display (only 31 
characters) and runs on batteries (200 
hours on four alkaline AA cells). The 
CC-40 has 34K of ROM with extended 
Basic, 6K of RAM (expandable to 128K 
thanks to the 16-bit processor), a 65-key 
keyboard (no keybounce on this one), 
and a full range of peripherals (usable on 
both the CC-40 and 99/2). Price of the 
CC-40 is $249.95. 

The peripherals require the addition 
of a Hex-bus peripheral interface. The 
peripherals being shown included an RS- 
232 interface ($100), printer/plotter 



TI CC-40 computer is aimed at profes- 
sionals. 


with four-color capability on 2-/4" pa- 
per ($200), and Wafertape digital tape 
drive similar to the Exatron Stringy 
Floppy ($139). 

Again, software support is excellent 
with 22 packages being announced at the 
show. Eight were solid state plug-in car- 
tridges and 14 were on Wafertape. Prices 
range from $19.95 to $124.95. Another 
75 packages are promised by the third 
quarter of 1983. 



Milton Bradley voice recognition unit for 
TI 99 /4A computer. 


While we’re talking about TI, we 
should mention the voice recognition 
peripheral for the TI 99/4A computer 
just announced by Milton Bradley. Jim 
O’Connell, M-B’s vice president of 
R&D, pulled us into a soundproof 
booth, donned a headset and micro- 
phone (which come with the unit) and 
proceeded to train the computer how to 
play baseball. Initially, we were ready to 
give this our 

Can’t Tell First Base 
From Third Base Award 

but Jim got it going so that he could di- 
rect a player to catch a ball and throw it 
to the right base. The unit comes with a 
64-position key pad with overlays for 
each cartridge, a triple-axis joystick and 
a headset/microphone. No price as yet. 
Mattel announced the Aquarius com- 



Hey, I really like this rubber computer! 


40 



Mattel Aquarius system includes com- 
puter , printer, recorder, expander and 
game controllers. 


puter which, with 4K of RAM, is ex- 
pected to sell for $200. The array of 
peripherals for Aquarius is impressive. 
Immediately available are a thermal 
printer, cassette data recorder, memory 
expanders, and an interface unit with a 
pair of game controllers. Eight more 
peripherals were announced for ship- 
ment in late 1983. 

Aquarius uses a subset of Microsoft 
Basic and can also run several special ] 
Logo cartridges. Twelve game programs, 
four Logo programs and three house- 
hold management programs were being 
demonstrated. Many more programs are 
in the planning stage, one of which 
should probably be dropped. We give it 
our 

Typing Teachers Will 
Hate This Award 

A typing tutor was announced for 
Aquarius. The only problem is that the 
computer uses those little rubber keys 
and does not have a space bar. Instead, 
there is a space key located on the bot- 
tom row next to the Z where you would 
expect to find a Shift key. The Shift key 
is located next to the A, and, in place of 
the right hand Shift, we find the Return 
key. It is not a fun keyboard for touch 
typists. 

Sanyo was showing two prototype 
units, the PHC 20 for $99 and the PHC 
25 for $199. Both use Microsoft Basic, 
although the PHC 20 uses a small subset 
while on the 25, it is much more com- 
plete. The other major difference be- 
tween the two units is that the 25 has a 
high resolution display with eight colors 
and three sound channels while the 20 is 
a silent, low resolution, b&w unit. Un- 
fortunately, we couldn’t get as much 
information on the Sanyo computers as 
we would have liked since the designer 
was the only knowledgeable person in 
the booth, and he barely spoke English. 
Thus, we give Sanyo our 

Not Quite Finished Award 

Video Technology had a mini-booth, 
but a maxi-product, the VZ200. The unit 
has Microsoft Basic in a 12K ROM, 4K 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



How to chart your company’s fortune 
without spending one 



It’s a fact. A single chart or graph can tell you instantly what it 
takes hours to interpret from printouts or other raw data. 

Now, with the Strobe 100 Graphics Plotter and Software 
package, you can create superb hardcopy graphics directly 
from your computer. And you can do it for a fraction of the cost 
of most other systems. 

The Strobe System transforms complex data into 
dynamic, colorful visuals with a 
few simple commands from your 
computer. Charts and transparen- 
cies that once took hours to pro- 
duce are plotted within minutes. 

Information can be presented as 
bar charts, pie charts, curves or 
isometrics in a variety of colors. 

And with a resolution of 500 
points per inch, the Strobe 100 
matches or surpasses the quality 
of plotters costing thousands of 
dollars more. 


You can also save and modify your graphics through 
Strobe’s menu-driven programs. A broad selection of 
software — including data base management-compatible 
programs — is now available. 

When the Strobe Graphics System is interfaced to your 
computer, an 8-1/2 x 11 inch sheet of paper can speak any- 
one’s language — visually Visit your local dealer and learn 

how to start charting your for- 
tunes today. Because a perspective 
on the present can also be your 
window on the future. 


vSTROBEy 

INCORPORATED y 

Strobe Inc. 

897-5A Independence Avenue 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
Telephone 415/969-5130 


The Strobe Graphics System 

Seeing is believing 


CIRCLE 286 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




CES, continued... 


New 

Computers 

MPU 

Built-in RAM Memory 
Expandable To 
Built-in ROM Memory 
Type of Basic 
Number of Keys 
Standard Layout? 
One-Stroke Basic Cmds? 
Upper and Lower Case 
Graphics Characters 
Text Resolution 
(Chars X Rows) 
Resolution (Pixels) 
Colors 

Sound Channels 
Octave Range 
Cassette Baud Rate 
Serial Ports (RS-232) 
Parallel Ports 
Parallel Protocol 
Dimensions (Width X 
Depth X Height) 
Retail Price 


Unisonic 

Texas 

Futura 

Instruments 

8300 

99/2 

Z80A 

9995 

2K 

4.2K 

32K 

36.2K 

8K 

24K 

Sinclair 

TI 

42 

48 

No spcbar 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

20 

16 

32 X 24 

28 X 24 

64 X 48 

256 X 192 

B & W 

B & W 

1 

0 

n/a 

n/a 

250 

1200 

optional 

Hex bus 

n/a 

Hex bus 

n/a 

TI 

n/a 

n/a 

$90 

$100 


Video 

Sanyo 

Technology 

PHC20 

VZ200 


Z80A 

Z80A 

4K 

4K 

64K 

16K 

12K 

8K 

Microsoft 

Microsoft 

45 

56 

No spcbar 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

No 

64 

0 

32 X 16 

32 X 16 

128 X 64 

64 X 64 

8 

B & W 

1 

0 

n/a 

n/a 

600 

1200 


0 

optional 

0 

Centronics 

n/a 

1 1.5 X 

11.8X 

6.3 X 2.0 

6.3 X 1.6 

$99 

$99 


of RAM expandable to 64K, eight col- 
ors, and one sound channel. Although 
the screen is medium resolution (128 x 
64 pixels), the 64 built-in graphics 
characters permit excellent graphics to 
be displayed. A built-in cassette interface 
and optional Centronics parallel inter- 
face help make VZ200 the sleeper of the 
show at just $99! 

If you’ve been reading Creative 
Computing faithfully, you saw our in- 
depth review of the Sinclair Spectrum 
introduced in England about a year ago. 
Now, Timex has brought it to the U.S. 
as the Timex 2000. It carries a list price 
of $149 for the 16K model and $199 for 
the 48K one. 

The 2000 is an outstanding computer 
with 40 real keys, eight-color high 
resolution display (256 x 192 pixels), 
ten-octave sound channel (one of us 
can’t hear that much!), upper and lower 
case, and 16 graphics characters. Our 
only disappointment is that it does not 
have a space bar and thus, like the 
Aquarius, cannot be used for touch 
typing. 

Timex also announced the 2040 
printer, a 32-column thermal unit that 
uses white paper (not the silver stuff of 
the previous Sinclair printer). It works 
on both the 1000 and 2000 and costs 
$99. 

At this point it is probably appro- 
priate to announce the 

We’re Number 1 Award 

Three manufacturers tried to lay 
claim to this award before we even an- 
nounced it. Commodore, having just 
produced their 1,000,000th Vic 20 
claimed to be Number 1. TI pooh- 
poohed that and claimed that the 99/4A 
had made them Number 1. Clive Sin- 
clair was having none of it and claimed 
that he had been Number 1 for ages. 
Who is really Number 1? 


In terms of sheer number of units, 
Sinclair is if you add together those sold 
under both the Sinclair and Timex 
names (which we think is reasonable to 
do). If you insist on just one brand, then 
the Commodore Vic 20 is the leader. By 
next year, who can say? Maybe TI will 
claim the Number 1 spot. 

IBM, of course, was keeping a low 
profile. However, we’re sure they would 
insist that dollar volume is a better mea- 
sure, in which case they are clearly it. 
Despite having a fair size booth, IBM 
was not the hit of CES. Quite the con- 
trary, particularly since several trade 
magazines had predicted that IBM was 
about to release a consumer computer at 
CES (they didn’t). One even went so far 
as to put it on the front page of their 
daily publication on the last day of CES. 
For this, they and IBM must share the 


Computer? 

What Computer? Award 

Back to Sinclair printers and 
peripherals. Mindware introduced one 
of the strangest devices at the show, the 
Sidewinder, a sideways printer for Sin- 
clair computers. It is also available for 
the Vic 20, TI 99/4A, Atari and any 
computer with an RS-232 serial 
interface. 

Sidewinder uses l- 3 / 4 " adding ma- 
chine paper with a dot matrix print 
mechanism that allows reproducing ma- 
terial wider than the computer display 
by generating a 12-line printout that 
runs lengthwise on the paper. Price of 
the MW-100 is just $139.95. 

Data-assette showed several new add- 
ons and software packages for 


Video Tech VZ200 is a great bargain at $99. 




Timex 2000 computer. 


42 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


Sanyo 

Timex 

Mattel 

Texas 

Spectra 

Panasonic 

PHC25 

Sinclair 

Aquarius 

Instruments Video 

JR-200 


2000 


CC-40 

SV-318 


Z80A 

Z80A 

Z80A 

9995 

Z804 

6802 

16K 

16K 

4K 

6K 

32K 

32K 

48K 

48K 

52K 

128K 

128K 

32K 

24K 

16K 

8K 

32K 

32K 

16K 

Microsoft 

Sinclair 

Microsoft 

TI 

Microsoft 

Microsoft 

65 

40 

49 

65 

71 

63 

Yes 

No spcbar 

No spcbar 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

No 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 


16 (35) 

170? 

16 

52 

64 

32 X 16 

32 X 24 

40 X 24 

.40 X 24 

40 X 24 

32 X 24 

256 X 192 

256 X 192 

320 X 192 

256 X 192 

256 X 192 

64 X 48 

8 

8 

16 

16 

16 

8 

3 

1 

1 (2 opt) 

3 

3 

3 

n/a 

10 

n/a 

n/a 

8 

5 

1200 

1500 

1200 

1200 

300/1200 

2400 

optional 


optional 

Hex bus 

1 

optional 

1 

1 

n/a 

Hex bus 

1 

1 

Centronics 

Sinclair 

n/a 

n/a 

n/a 

Centronics 

11.8X 

9.2X 

13.0X 

9.5X 

n/a 

13.8X 

6.3 X 2.0 

5.6 X 1.2 

6.0 X 2.0 

5.7 X 1.0 


8.2 X 2.2 

$199 

$149 

$200 

$249 

$299 

$349 


Timex/Sinclair computers (read all 
about them in the big SYNC directory 
issue). Also at their booth was the Ju- 
piter Ace computer. While outwardly it 
resembles a Sinclair with real keys, in- 
side it speaks Forth rather than Basic. 
Forth aficionados will tell you, usually 
with no prompting, that Forth is 10 
times as fast as Basic, much more com- 
pact, and much more powerful. So it 
makes sense in a small computer like 
this one (3K). 

Commodore was showing several new 
peripherals, most notably the Vic- 1520 
four-color printer/plotter with 20, 40, or 
80 (tiny) characters per line. It prints 
sideways or lengthwise on 4 - l / 2 " wide 
paper. Price $199. A speech synthesizer 
spoke to us as we walked by and several 
new software packages tried to attract 
our attention as we headed toward the 


crowd in the back of the booth. 

There we found a Commodore 64 re- 
designed to fit in a portable case about 
half the size of an Osborne. It had a 
color display, was battery powered, and 
looked very inviting. It was just a proto- 
type, but judging from the enthusiasm at 
the show, it should find its way into 
production in short order. 

Commodore also announced a dealer 
price reduction on the Vic 20 which 
should have the effect of lowering the 
street price to $150, possibly less. 

While we’re talking about the Vic, we 
should mention that Cardco was show- 
ing two expansion boards (one with 
three slots and one with six), a cassette 
interface, a light pen, a printer interface, 
and, hold on to your hats, an adapter to 
allow the Vic to play Atari VCS car- 
tridges. This latter device was shown 



Jupiter Ace speaks Forth , not Basic . 


with much secrecy in an out-of-the-way 
hotel room with a rent-a-guard at the 
door. It gets our 

Best Protected Orange 
Cardboard Box Award 

Housed, temporarily we were told, in 
an orange cardboard and Scotch tape 
box, the device plugs into the expansion 
connector on the back of the Vic and has 
a slot into which VCS cartridges are 
plugged. It also brings the Vic connector 
out the back for added memory, etc. The 
Vic function keys take the place of the 
VCS switches and the whole thing works 
like a charm. Price is $89.95. 

Spectra Video introduced a new com- 
puter, the SV-318, with 32K, Microsoft 
Basic, CP/M compatibility, 71 -key full 
stroke keyboard, high resolution (256 x 
192 pixels) 16-color graphics, and three- 
channel music synthesizer — all for $299. 
For this feat, we award them our 

Most Bang For the Buck 
Award 

Not only is the basic computer quite 
astonishing, but Spectra Video’s ener- 
getic president, Harry Fox, showed us 



Commodore 64 in a compact package. 



Spectra Video SV-318 computer. 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


43 



If you just bought another computer, 
boy are you gonna be sorry 



The new Epson QX-10 is unlike any per- 
sonal computer you've ever seen. It's a com- 
puter for people who don't have the time to 
learn computers; a computer you can be 
using within minutes. 

And fortunately, you don't have to take 
our word for it. Here's how Byte, one of the 
computer industry's most prestigious maga- 
zines, describes the QX-10. 

The first anybody-can-use-it computer. 
"The Epson QX-10 (is) a computer for less 
than $3000 that may well be the first of a new 
breed of anybody-can-use-it 'appliance' 
computers ... In addition to being a highly 
integrated word processing/computer sys- 
tem that offers as much usable processing 
power as almost any existing microcompu- 
ter, the QX-10 . . . system is designed to be 
used by people with minimal technical 
knowledge. We've certainly heard that 
claim before, but Epson has delivered on 
this promise in a way and to an extent that 
no microcomputer manufacturer has done." 

That's nice to hear from a magazine like 
Byte, of course, but it doesn't surprise us. 
It's just what we intended the QX-10 to be 
all along. 

More computer. Less money. 

But useability isn't the only thing the QX-10 
has going for it. As Byte says, "the QX-10 
gives you a great deal for your money. 

"Help is available at any time through the 
HASCI (Human Application Standard 
Computer Interface) keyboard Help key . . . 
Text can be entered at any time just as you 
would in a conventional word processor. 
The Calc key turns the system into a basic 


4-function calculator. Graphics can be cre- 
ated via the Draw key. The Sched (schedule) 
key gives you access to a computer-kept 
appointment book, a built-in clock/timer/ 
alarm, and an event scheduler." 

Advanced hardware for advanced 
software. 

As for hardware. Popular Computing , 
another industry leader, says: "The QX-10 
includes ... a number of advanced hardware 
features . . . The basic components of the 
system are a detachable keyboard, a high 
resolution monochrome display, and a sys- 
tem unit containing two inch disk 
drives. The drives use double-sided, 
double-density disks (340K bytes per disk) 
and are amazingly compact . . . The QX-10 
uses an 8-bit Z80A microprocessor. The sys- 
tem contains 256 bytes of RAM. Some of the 
RAM is . . . battery powered . . . which lets 
the computer retain information when the 
power is off." 

You won't have to wait much longer. 

The new Epson QX-10 may very well be the 
computer you've been waiting for. And for- 
tunately, you won't have to wait much 
longer — it will be appearing soon in com- 
puter stores all across the country. In the 
meantime, write Epson at 3415 Kashiwa 
Street, Torrance, CA 90505, or call (213) 
539-9140. We'll be happy to send you copies 
of our reviews. 

After all, as Popular Computing puts it, the 
QX-10 will "do for computing what the 
Model T did for transportation." 

And we couldn't have said it better 
ourselves. 



EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISION 

3415 Kashiwa Street 
Torrance, California 90505 
(213) 539-9140 


CIRCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES, continued... 

14 hardware peripherals and a mind- 
boggling array of software all sup- 
posedly ready for immediate delivery. 

The modestly-priced hardware 
peripherals include an expansion inter- 
face, dual-channel cassette recorder, 
floppy disk drive, memory expanders, 
interfaces, dot matrix printer, modem, 
and a nifty touch sensitive graphics tab- 
let. Also available is an adapter to allow 
playing ColecoVision games on the com- 
puter ($70). 

Another step up in price is the 
Panasonic JR-200, a computer we pre- 
viously saw as a prototype but that is 
now ready for delivery. (In fact, we have 
one and will be reporting on it fully in 
the near future.) The JR-200 has 32K of 
RAM, 16K of ROM with extended Ba- 
sic, and built-in cassette, Centronics par- 
allel printer, and Atari-type joystick 
interfaces. It produces both a composite 
video signal for a TV or monitor and an 
RGB color signal. The cassette interface 
runs at 2400 baud — the fastest we’ve 
seen on a small computer. 



Panasonic JR-200 computer. 


Surprisingly, the graphics resolution is 
relatively low (64 x 48 pixels) but with 
the built-in 64-character graphics set, 
the effects are excellent. The JR-200 can 
generate sounds over a five-octave range 
on three channels. 

Also announced were a cassette re- 
corder, 80-column dot matrix printer, 
RGB monitor, RS-232 interface, and 
acoustic modem (hey, haven’t you guys 
heard about direct connect modems?). 

As expected, Atari introduced the 
1200XL home computer at the decid- 
edly uncompetitive price of $899. 
Compatible with the 400 and 800, the 



Atari 1200XL computer. 


1200XL has 64K of RAM, 12 user-pro- 
grammable function keys, a self- 
diagnose function, 256 colors(!), and a 
four-voice music synthesizer with a 
range of 3-y 2 octaves. 

Atari also announced several new 
peripherals including a two-channel cas- 
sette recorder, an 80-column printer, 
and a 40-column four-color 
printer/plotter ($299). 

A wide range of new software pack- 
ages was announced; reviews will appear 
in upcoming issues. 



Ultravision is a combination TV, game 
system and computer. 


Ultravision, a new company, in- 
troduced an all-in-one video game, color 
television, and personal computer sys- 
tem. It is a one-piece console with a 10" 
color TV, video game system for Atari 
VCS games, and a personal computer. 
The Z80-based computer has 64K of 
RAM and is said to be software compat- 
ible with the Apple at both the Basic and 
machine language levels. We don’t see 
how, since the Apple uses a 6502 chip. 
Accordingly, we give Ultravision our 

We ll Believe It 
When We See It Award 

Nevertheless, even if the system does 
only one half of what is claimed for it, it 
will be quite impressive. It uses special 
16-position joysticks for playing both 
VCS and Ultravision games. It has built- 
in sound effects and simulated stereo. 
And in the computer area, it has 64K 
RAM, 12K ROM, 16 colors, and every 
kind of interface in the book. Projected 
price is $995. 

Epson, on the other hand, is likely to 
deliver what they announce. They were 
showing the HX-20 (complete review in 
the March issue) and the new QX-10. 
The big difference between the QX-10 
and other computers is that it immedi- 



Epson QX-10 is exceptionally user 
friendly. 


ately comes up in Valdocs (short for 
Valuable Documents), an easy-to-use 
software package that includes word 
processing, information storage, a cal- 
culator, message center, and graph 
drawing routine. The system can also 
call up any CP/M program from disk. 

The QX-10 has a world of interesting 
features such as a key that gives the user 
the option of printing in three different 
sizes and typefaces. In fact, we think it 
deserves the 

Most User-Friendly 
Computer Award 

We used the computer for an hour or 
so and found it to be one of the most 
user-friendly (an overused term) units 
available. Price is “under $3000.’’ We’ll 
have a complete review just as soon as 
we get one. 

Another business-oriented unit being 
shown was the $2000 Sanyo MBC 1000. 
It has loads of features (CP/M, built-in 
business graphics, an excellent data stor- 
age and retrieval system, every imag- 
inable interface, and so on). We’ll be 
reviewing it in an upcoming issue. 

Once again Toshiba showed their 
T100 machine. Like the Sanyo, it uses 
CP/M, has 64K of RAM, and all kinds 
of goodies. We’ve been singularly un- 
successful in getting one of these for re- 
view in the past, but we’ll try again. 

Another business-oriented computer 
being shown was the Pied Piper by STM 
Electronics. This is a beautifully styled 
portable unit selling for a bargain $1299. 
Like most other business units, it has 
64K, runs CP/M and includes a wide 
range of software. 

Yet another business unit (what are 
all these people doing at CES?) being 
shown was the M20 from Olivetti. They 
were inviting comparison between their 
$3000 unit and the Apple III, IBM PC, 
and Xerox 820. With 128K of RAM, 
320K on a 5" disk and a 16-bit mpu, the 
M20 looks good. 

Printers and Peripherals 

While CES is hardly the place to look 
for new computer printers and 


46 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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BASF 


‘Contact BASF for warranty details. © 1982. BASF Systems Corporation. Bedford. MA 

CIRCLE 119 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Bear with us 




for the most fun 
kids -and 
gtown-ups- 

cannave 
on an 
Apple. 



I s Stickybear rM just for kids? Or can grown- 
ups have a barrelful of fun, too, with the 
first animated character created exclu- 
sively for the Apple® personal computer? 

The answer is crystal clear when the whole 
family sits down to play Stickybear Bo p, the 
action game with better than arcade-quality 
graphics that the three-year-olds can enjoy 
with grown-ups. 


Both ABC and Numbers include the program 
disk, a 32-page hardcover book by noted chil- 
dren’s author Richard Hefter, Stickybear stick- 
ers, a wipe-clean vinyl binder and a special 
full-color poster. Just $39 95 each! 


I ook for the Stickybear programs in finer 
computer stores everywhere. Dealers are 
invited to inquire by calling toll-free 
■ 1 - 800 - 852 - 5000 . 




It’s so simple even little kids can rack up big 
scores at the Stickybear Bo p shooting galleries. 
And so exciting, the grown-ups will join right 
in on the thrills! 

And Stickybear Bo p is a complete program. 
Besides the disk, there’s a full-size color poster, 
a bright, durable vinyl binder, a special stand- 
up game, Stickybear stickers and instructions. 
All for only $39-95! 

Stickybear makes learning a joy! 

Besides Stickybear Bo p, there are two special 
programs to help three- to six-year-olds build 
important school skills. 

Stickybear ABC helps kids learn the alphabet 
. . .and Stickybear Numbers helps them learn to 
add and subtract. And they do it with animat- 
ed objects that move over color backgrounds 
without the need for special hardware. 


Stickybear™ is a 
registered trademark 
of Optimum 
Resource, Inc. 

Apple® is a registered 
trademark of 
Apple Computer. Inc. 
AA/MS7-CC 


If there is no store 
near you, Visa and 
MasterCard hold- 
ers may order by 
calling toll-free 
1 - 800 - 852 - 5000 . 

Or, send a check or 
money order for 
$39-95 for each 
program, plus 
$2.00 per program for shipping and handling 
(please add state sales tax) to Xerox Education 
Publications/Weekly Reader, Dept. 33-A, 

245 Long Hill Road, Middletown, 

CT 06457. 


Apple II 
and 
Apple II Plus 
48K 3.3 DOS 


Developed by Optimum Resource, Inc. 
distributed by 

Xerox Education Publications 

Weekly Reader 

Computer Software Division 








CIRCLE 304 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




CES, continued... 

peripherals, at least one printer looked 
very interesting. That was the HR- 15 
daisywheel printer from Brother. Speed 
is an agonizingly slow 13 cps, but the 
printer is able to do subscripts and 
superscripts, do underlines and strike- 
outs, print in red and black, and operate 
with the Diablo 630 protocol. All this at 
a bargain-basement price of $595 for an 
RO (receive only) version and about 
$750 for one with a keyboard. 

TeleData announced three modems, 
one to simply receive messages and print 
them out (no computer needed), a basic 
modem, and a “smart” modem with 
auto answer, auto dial, and all the other 
expected features. The best thing was the 
price — about $60 for the first unit and 
$150 or so for the smart one. 

We mentioned earlier that the sales of 
audio and video products were on the 
decline. This is bad news for the 
audio/video furniture and accessory 
manufacturers too, so most of them have 
turned to the computer industry in some 
way. Some have leaped in with both feet; 
others are testing the water with an item 
or two. We saw several head cleaning 
kits from people previously in the record 
care business, and so on. 

American Innovations, a new manu- 
facturer, showed a basic line of furniture 
including a computer stand, monitor 
stand, and two printer stands. The price 
is right — $79.95 for the computer stand 
and $49.95 for the printer stand. But 
better than the price was the thoughtful 
detailing such as an inset continuous 
molding strip around the top (no sharp 
corners, no pealing molding). Also, a 
system of grooves makes assembly a 
snap — literally — no screws are used at 
all. As a result, we give American 
Innovations the 

Simple Assembly Award 

This was quite an unbelievable CES, 
but the products mentioned here are 
probably just a hint of the products 
about to hit the store shelves this year. 
You’ll notice that we did not get into 
computer software at all. That is not be- 
cause none was introduced — an enor- 
mous amount was. However, we prefer 
to review computer software rather than 
just report on new releases and, further- 
more, we just don’t have the room in 
this issue. Maybe next month. 

We would, however, like to make two 
awards to computer software manufac- 
turers. The first is the 

Grossest Game Name 
Award 

This goes to Synapse for Slime, a new 


Atari game. Actually, Synapse has some 
of the best Atari computer games 
around, including Shamus, Chicken, 
Nautilus, and Claim Jumper. Slime is 
probably a great game too, but the 
name .... 

The other award is the 

Most Licensed Characters 
Without A Product Award 

This goes to Datasoft for licensing the 
characters from the Dallas TV series; 
Banjo, the woodpile cat; Heathcliff, 
“America’s top cat” (wonder what Gar- 
field thinks of that!); and no fewer than 
200 Terrytoons characters including 
Heckle and Jeckle, Deputy Dog, and 
Pearl Pureheart. We like the Datasoft 
Atari computer games ( Canyon Climber, 
Tumble Bugs, Clowns & Balloons, etc.) 
but we think they’ll be hard pressed to 
come up with wonderful new games for 
all these characters. 

Another award we had was the 

Most Unplayable Game 
Award 

Since there were so many companies 
vying for this one with one or more 
games, we decided that someone was 
sure to get all bent out of shape if we 
awarded it to a competitor. So we de- 
cided to let this one go until the next 
CES. Another award that we should 
have presented months ago is the 


Next Time, Stay Home 
Award 

This goes to the gang from Craig 
Corporation, a manufacturer of auto 
sound equipment, who boisterously took 
their drunken carryings on to Garcia’s 
Mexican restaurant two nights in a row, 
thus making it extremely unpleasant for 
other paying patrons. So, if you’re look- 
ing for autosound equipment, and want 
intelligent, well mannered employees to 
help you with the decision, try Kraco or 
Sparkomatic or Panasonic or anyone but 
Craig. 

Our last award is the 

Magazine in Most Demand 
But Shortest Supply Award 

This clearly goes to Video & Arcade 
Games, our newest publication. We had 
only 100 copies at the show and could 
have sold 2000, even though everyone 
else was giving their magazines away 
free. If you’ve seen a copy, you know 
why — it’s the first literate magazine in 
an admittedly crowded field of arcade, 
video and electronic games magazines. If 
you haven’t seen a copy, pick one up at 
your local newsstand — if there are any 
left. 

We hope you have enjoyed our cover- 
age of CES. We’ve covered this show 
several different ways in the past; what 
do you think of this approach? Let us 
hear from you. 


The Perfect Press Conference 


The life of a journalist is glamourous 
and exciting. We find out about and get 
to use wonderful new products months 
before they are available to the public. 

The medium through which most of 
these products — from game cartridges to 
minicomputers — are introduced is the 
press conference and its close cousin, the 
press reception. 

Now press conferences and receptions 
come in a myriad of forms — long, short, 
entertaining, boring, luncheons, dinners, 
cocktail parties, wine and cheese — but 
they all have a common objective: to ob- 
tain media coverage for a product, per- 
son, or organization. 

Some companies achieve this objective 
better than others, and having just re- 
turned from a non-stop round of press 
conferences and receptions at the Con- 
sumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas, 
we thought we would take a little space 
to put forth our observations and opin- 
ions on what makes a good press 
conference. 


Our observations are, of course, aimed 
primarily at the public relations agencies 
and departments of the companies in the 
consumer electronics industry, but we 
hope that the rest of you will find them 
informative and entertaining as well. 

Rule Number One: 

Choose a Convenient Location. 

Obviously, the best coverage of a new 
product will come from the people who 
attend the introduction — those who 
have had an opportunity to play the 
game, type on the word processor, talk 
to the designer. So, the first step in plan- 
ning a press conference is to figure out 
how to get the people you want to 
attend. 

Perhaps the most important factor in 
determining whether a person shows up 
at your affair is location. The closer it is 
to wherever the attendees will be coming 
from, the better. For this reason, it is 
probably worth paying the exhorbitant 
rental and catering charges of the head- 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


49 


CES, continued... 

quarters hotel to ensure that people will 
be able to find your reception. 

A case in point: we received an invita- 
tion to a breakfast at which an appar- 
ently exciting product was to be 
introduced at CES. The motel in which 
it was to be held was one of which we 
had never heard. It was not on the maps 
distributed by the show management, 
and the invitation said only that it was 
“near the Convention Center." 

We didn’t know where the motel was, 
and an hour before the opening of the 
show didn’t have time to hunt for it, so 
we didn’t go. We finally did get to see 
the product one evening after the show, 
but although the motel was only a few 
blocks from the Convention Center, we 
drove around Las Vegas for half an hour 
before we found it. 

Rule Number Two: 

Choose a Convenient Time. 

After you have chosen a good, acces- 
sible location for the event, you must 
choose a time. At a show, dozens of 
manufacturers compete for the writer’s 
time in the evening, so forget that. Mid- 
morning and mid-afternoon hours 
should also be shunned because people 
tend to get involved on the show floor 
and either forget or don’t want to take 
the time to go to a press conference. 
Most people, however, eat breakfast, and 
almost everyone breaks for lunch. 

So, early in the morning, before the 
show starts, and around noon are good 
times to schedule a press event. Which 
brings us to the subject of food and Rule 
Number Three. 

Rule Number Three: Feed Them. 

One of the very best ways to get the 


attention of journalists is to offer them 
food. Freelance writers and staffers from 
small publications on limited budgets 
sometimes depend on the fare at press 
functions for their sustenance at shows. 
And although that is, from the manufac- 
turer’s point of view, not a reason to 
serve food at a press conference, it does 
get people — at least some of them the 
ones you want — to attend. 

What kind of food should you serve? 
Well, we won’t go into menu planning 
here any more than to say that it need 
not be elaborate as long as it tastes good 
and there is plenty of it. 

Several years ago, Infoworld gave a 
party at the West Coast Computer Faire 
for members of the press and industry 
friends. Shortly after the announced 
starting time, an assortment of hot and 
cold hors d’oeuvres was placed on a long 
table in the middle of the room. Guests 
descended like locusts on the feast, and 
in a matter of minutes, the serving trays 
were bare. Everyone stood around wait- 
ing for refills to appear. None ever did. 
In fact, in what seemed like record time, 
the table was cleared, folded up, and re- 
moved. It was an event that will be long 
remembered — for the wrong reasons. 

Rule Number Four: 

Choose Your Spokesperson Carefully. 

Most press functions include some 
sort of formal presentation during which 
writers and editors are asked to suspend 
their repast long enough to listen to the 
official introduction of the product. 

Frequently, this announcement is 
made by the president of the company or 
the designer of the product. Almost as 
frequently, this is a disaster, because 
executives and engineers are not nec- 
essarily good speakers. They walk to the 
podium, thank you for coming, and pro- 
ceed to read a speech prepared for them 


by a PR agency. Much more often than 
not, this speech tells the guests nothing 
they could not read in the press kits sit- 
ting in their laps. 

The job of the person making the for- 
mal presentation should be to commu- 
nicate enough of his own enthusiasm for 
the product to make the members of the 
press examine the press kit for details. 
Reciting specifications and marketing 
strategies leads only to frustration and 
boredom. 

It is certainly a good idea to have the 
president or designer present to answer 
individual questions for those who have 
them, but unless he is an accomplished 
speaker, keep him away from the micro- 
phone. And under all circumstances, 
keep the presentation brief. 

Rule Number Five: 

Have the Product Available 

The person who comes to a press con- 
ference to get a story looks for an angle 
or personal observation that will make 
his story different from everyone else’s. 
Having the product in the room and 
running — even if only in prototype 
form — provides an opportunity to create 
that difference. 

Having the product available also 
lends credibility to the announcement. It 
shows that the manufacturer is at least 
within striking distance of a production 
model. A press conference announcing a 
product that will exist someday, some- 
how lacks substance, and the person 
who writes optimistically about it is al- 
most as susceptible to ridicule as the 
manufacturer if the product never 
materializes. 

Rule Number Six: 

Have People Available to 
Demonstrate the Product. 

If it is important to let your guests 
experiment with the product, it is 
equally important to have an informed 
member of your organization available 
to answer questions and get people 
started using the product. 

For example, if your product is a 
game, it is foolish to leave the controls 
completely unattended so that would-be 
players who have no idea how to play 
are wiped out within seconds and soon 
give up in disgust. Better to have an em- 
ployee nearby to explain the rules and 
give a short demonstration. Employees 
should be cautioned not to monopolize 
the controls or let other guests monopo- 
lize them. 

So there you have it — the perfect press 
conference in a nutshell. Unfortunately, 
none of the functions we attended a CES 
met all our requirements, but we’ll keep 
our eyes, ears, and mouths open at NCC 
and summer CES, and who knows, 
maybe there will be a Perfect Press Con- 
ference Award in our report from those 
shows. 



50 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



Explore the Frontiers of Intelligence 



FOR ALL GENERATIONS— 

A NEW GENERATION OF 
INTERACTIVE INTELLIGENCE 


Chess, Checkers, and Odin (as played by U.S. 
Othello Association rules) are classic games ot 
the intellect. They evolved over the centuries as 
a way to understand complex situations and 
achieve mastery in action. 

•Now, by interacting with the intelligence 
embodied in these programs, you can 
participate in the exciting challenge ot the 

Mind of Man. 


Chess, Checkers, and Odin are unique-in 
playing strength and in what they let you do. 
You can try out any idea-and even get ideas 
from the programs themselves. Plus, it is easy 
and fun to play the games and use their many 
features: 

• Different levels of play, from beginner to 
expert* Advice on best move* Take back and 
replay moves • Auto and manual modes • 
Instant replay of games • "Change" feature 
adds or subtracts pieces • Sophisticated 
opening libraries • Clear graphics • 
Instructions include chapter on skillful play. 


Checkers 


BY DAVID SLATE 


THE PEOPLE BEHIND THE PROGRAMS 

LARRY ATKIN AND DAVID SLATE 

Authors of the Northwestern University 4.7 
Computer Chess program, Winners of the 
World Computer Chess Tournament, 
1977-1980, Winners of 8 North American 
Computer Chess Championships between 
1970 and 1979, Two of the world's authorities 
on machine intelligence. 

PETER FREY 

Professor at Northwestern University, teaching 
courses in Psychology and Computer Science. 
Editor of and contributor to the definitive text on 
computer chess: Chess Skill in Man and 
Machine. One of the U.S. Othello Association's 
top-ranked players. 



ODIN 


BY LARRY ATKIN 
AND PETER FREY 



CHALLENGES THE PROFICIENT; 
INSTRUCTS THE BEGINNER. 

A new microcomputer standard for what many 
" consider to be the ultimate game of the intellect. 
In addition to its superior playing strength, 
Chess from Odesta introduces a new 
generation of interactive intelligence — with 27 
cursor-controlled features, including: 

• Advice and prediction of best moves • Save 
games to disk • Graphic illustration of attacks 
and defenses • Variations of blind-fold chess • 

1 7 levels of play, including postal and 
mate-finder modes • Enactment of over 30 
classic human and computer chess games • 
Plus— an opening library of over 7000 moves. 

* For those who want the best. 


YOU'VE NEVER KNOWN CHECKERS 
LIKE THIS! 

Learn the complexities of this surprisingly 
sophisticated strategy game by interacting with 
Checkers' 24 user features. 

• Play against 1 6 levels of difficulty • Watch 
Checkers play against itself-one level against 
another • Switch to "Give-away" mode, where 
the object is to make your opponent take your 
pieces • Watch the Checkers movie-an 
instant replay of a whole game • For those 
interested in the inner-workings of "programs 
that think", adjust 58 program parameters, so 
that you can experiment with the way 
Checkers itself thinks, and how it plays. 

An ideal introduction to artificial intelligence. 


WHY ARE 20 MILLION PEOPLE PLAYING 
THIS GAME? 

A classic board game, where the object is to 
entrap your opponent's pieces-but only at the 
right time. The rules of play are simple and the 
game fast. At your disposal are the full range of 
features found in all of Odesta's Mind of Man 
series. You will need them, along with your 
keenest insight and deepest perception, to 
master the secret ot Odin (playing by U.S. 
Othello Association rules). Join the growing 
number of strategists exploring the subtleties of 
a game that may change the way you think. 




Chess: $69.95 

930 Pitner Checkers: $49.95 

Evanston, IL 60202 Odin: $49.95 
(U.S.A.) 


See your local software dealer, or order For Apple II, Apple II Plus 48K disk 
(Mastercard or Visa): systems, and Atari 48K disk systems. 

800-323-5423 Odin is also available for TRS-80 Model 

(in Illinois, call 312-328-7101 ; 1 & 3 32K disk systems. 


CIRCLE 228 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


©1982 OD^TA 





CES: Another Perspective 

Ken Uston 


My reaction to the Consumer Electron- 
ics Show in Las Vegas can be summed up 
in one phrase, with apologies to the Val 
Gals: “Totally awesome— To The Max.” 

I spent four full days wandering from 
exhibit to exhibit, talking to manufactur- 
ers, playing dozens of new video games, 
and experimenting with other software. 
Then I took three more days to read the 
three-foot stack of literature accumulated 
during the show. 

My basic conclusion: the dominant 
implication of 1983 WCES is that the line 
of demarcation between video game sys- 
tems and home computers is vanishing. I 
predict that, by the end of 1983, the 
functions performed by most game sys- 
tems and home computers will be identi- 
cal. 

Video Systems Are Being Converted To 
Home Computers 

Four companies announced modules 
that will convert the King of Home Video 
Systems, the Atari VCS, into a real, live, 
honest-to-goodness computer. These units 
are made by SpectraVideo, Entex, Uni- 
tronics and Emerson. Most have a key- 
board, 2K or 3K of RAM, and built-in 
Basic. 

Mattel finally replaced their antedilu- 
vian Intellivision with a compact, sleek 


Sroderbund 



On behalf of Video & Arcade Games, 
Betsy Staples (L) presented a Gamester 
of the Year certificate to Cathy Carlston 
of B rode r bund Software in honor of Sea- 
Fox being selected for use in the com- 
petition. 


game system called Intellivision II. They 
displayed a “Computer Adaptor” and key- 
board which converts Intellivision II into 
a 2K RAM computer, with 16-bit micro- 
processor and built-in Basic. The key- 
board is attractive and full sized with 49 
keys. (Remember, though, that Mattel has 
been announcing computer modules for 
years and has yet actually to deliver them 
in quantity.) 

Mattel plans to produce games, educa- 
tional, programming and music cartridges 
for the Intellivision II, which is also com- 
patible with existing Intellivision car- 
tridges. In a move which could really hurt 
the Atari VCS, they showed a module 
which allows play of Atari VCS games on 
the Intellivision system. 

Mattel also displayed a powerful new 
game system, called Intellivision III. This 
product was so secret that many Mattel 
employees first found out about it at CES. 
It was displayed in a private room, by 
invitation only. Thanks to a friend at 
Mattel, I managed to see it. It’s fabulous. 
It includes 320 x 192 pixel screen resolu- 
tion, a “nearly infinite” selection of colors, 
up to 64 moving objects, and built-in 
stereo sound effects. A remote control 
joystick replaces the infamous Mattel 
disk. Intellivision III will be convertible 
into a home computer with the Computer 
Adaptor and keyboard. 

On display at the Odyssey booth was a 
“Command Center,” with full size key- 
board and a modem, which allows the 
Odyssey game system to function as a 
dumb terminal, linkable to information 
services as The Source and CompuServe. 

Company reps for both Atari and 
Coleco stated that they had plans to pro- 
duce modules to convert the Atari 5200 
and ColecoVision into home computers, 
although no equipment was on display. 

Home Computers Are Being Converted 
To Video Systems 

Cardco announced a module that lets 
the Vic 20 play Atari VCS games. 

When Coleco came out with a VCS 
module for their ColecoVision, they were 
slapped with a patent infringement lawsuit 
by Atari. (They counter-sued, filing a 
restraint of trade complaint.) Wary of 
legal entanglements, Cardco secretly dis- 
played their product in the bedroom of a 
Vegas motel. They claimed it would be 
available during the last week of January 
and list for S90. 

SpectraVideo did to Coleco what 
Coleco did to Atari. They announced a 
$299 home computer, the SV-318, with a 

52 



unit that allows all the ColecoVision 
games to be played on the SV-318. (I 
wonder if Coleco will sue them for patent 
infringement.) 

More And More Companies Are Pro- 
ducing Both Video Systems And Home 
Computer Games 

In a further erosion of the line between 
home systems and home computers, sev- 
eral companies have announced plans to 
produce game software for both types of 
systems. Imagic plans to make games for 
the Atari VCS, Intellivision, Odyssey, Vic 
20 and Atari computers. Activision 
announced plans to provide games for 
the Atari computers. When I asked presi- 
dent Jim Levy whether Activision might 
produce Vic 20 or TI 99/4A games, he 
said the company is “studying” that pos- 
sibility. 

The Vic 20 and TI 99/4A computers 
sold heavily in late 1982. This has not 
escaped the attention of software houses, 
and more and more companies are pro- 
ducing games for these two computers, 
including Thome EMI Video and Human 
Engineered Software (HES). The net 
result, of course, will be that these com- 
puters will become even more viable 
game-playing systems. 

The result of all of this is good news to 
the consumer. We’ll have a wide range of 
home systems that: 

• will play a wide variety of new, better 
games. 

• will include a complete line of educa- 
tional, home finance, music, art and other 
software. 

• will be fully programmable, to the 
delight of computer hackers. 

A Couple Of Gripes 

Now don’t get me wrong. I had the 
time of my life at WCES. I hope never to 
miss a CES for the rest of my life— God 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





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Why Wabash is Special 

The quality of Wabash diskettes is stressed throughout 
the entire manufacturing process. After coating, all Wabash 
diskettes go through a unique burnishing process that 
gives each diskette a mirror-smooth appearance. Wabash 
then carefully applies a lubricant that is specially form- 
ulated to increase diskette life. This saves you money, 
since your discs may last longer. It also assists your disk 
drives in maintaining constant speed which can reduce 
read and write errors. 

Special Seal... Helps Prevent Contamination 

To keep out foreign particles, a unique heat seal bonds the 
jacket and liner together. A special thermal seal which 
avoids contamination from adhesives, is then used to fold 
and seal the jacket. This results in outstanding perfor- 
mance and true reliability. Wabash then packages each 
diskette, (except bulk pack) in a super strong and tear 
resistant Tyvek® evelope. The final Wabash product is 
then shrink-wrapped to insure cleanliness and reduce 
contamination during shipment. 

Each Diskette is 100% Critically Tested 

Since each step in the Wabash diskette manufacturing 
process is subject to strict quality control procedures, you 
can be sure Wabash diskettes will perform for you. And 
every Wabash diskette meets the ultra-high standards of 
ANSI, ECMA, IBM and ISO in addition to the many critical 
quality control tests performed by Wabash. Wabash does 
all of this testing to provide you with consistently high 
quality diskettes. Reliability and data integrity - that’s 
what Wabash quality is all about. 

Flexible Disc Quantity Discounts Available 

Wabash diskettes are packed 1 0 discs to a carton and 1 0 
cartons to a case. The economy bulk pack is packaged 
100 discs to a case without envelopes or labels. Please 
order only in increments of 100 units for quantity 100 
pricing. With the exception of bulk pack, we are also 
willing to accommodate your smaller orders. Quantities 
less than 1 00 units are available in increments of 1 0 units 
at a 10% surcharge. Quantity discounts are also avail- 
able. Order 500 or more discs at the same time and deduct 
1 %; 1 ,000 or more saves you 2%; 2,000 or more saves you 
3%; 5,000 or more saves you 4%; 1 0,000 or more saves 
you 5%; 25,000 or more saves you 6%; 50,000 or more 
saves you 7% and 1 00,000 or more discs earns you an 8% 
discount off our super low quantity 100 price. Almost all 
Wabash diskettes are immediately available from CE. Our 
warehouse facilities are equipped to help us get you the 
quality product you need, when you need it. If you need 
further assistance to find the flexible disc that’s right for 
you, call the Wabash diskette compatibility hotline. Dial 
toll-free 800-323-9868 and ask for your compatibility 
representative. In Illinois or outside the United States dial 
312-593-6363 between 9 AM to 4 PM Central Time. 


SAVE ON WABASH DISKETTES 

Product Description 

Part # 

CE quant. 
100 price 
per disc ($) 

8" SSSD IBM Compatible (128 B/S, 26 Sectors) 

Fill 

1.99 

8" Same as above, but bulk pack w/o envelope 

F111B 

1.79 

8" SSSD Shugart Compatible, 32 Hard Sector 

F31 A 

1.99 

8" SSDD IBM Compatible (128 B/S, 26 Sectors) 

FI 31 

2.49 

8" DSDD Soft Sector (Unformatted) 

FI 4 A 

3.19 

8" DSDD Soft Sector (256 B/S, 26 Sectors) 

FI 44 

3.19 

8" DSDD Soft Sector (5 12 B/S, 15 Sectors) 

FI 45 

3.19 

8" DSDD Soft Sector (1024 B/S, 8 Sectors) 

FI 47 

3.19 

5Va" SSSD Soft Sector w/Hub Ring 

Mil A 

1.59 

5V4" Same as above, but bulk pack w/o envelope 

Mil AB 

1.39 

5V4" SSSD 10 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M41 A 

1.59 

5V4" SSSD 16 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M51 A 

1.59 

5V4'' SSDD Lanier No-problem compatible 

M51 F 

2.99 

5V4" SSDD Soft Sector w/Hub Ring 

M13A 

1.89 

5 V 4 " Same as above, but bulk pack w/o envelope 

M13AB 

1.69 

5 V 4 '' SSDD Soft Sector Flippy Disk (use both sides) 

M18A 

2.79 

5V4” SSDD 10 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M43A 

1.89 

5 V 4 " SSDD 16 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M53A 

1.89 

5V4" DSDD Soft Sector w/Hub Ring 

M14A 

2.79 

5 V 4 " DSDD 10 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M44A 

2.79 

5V4" DSDD 16 Hard Sector w/Hub Ring 

M54A 

2.79 

5V4" SSQD Soft Sector w/Hub Ring (96 TPI) 

M15A 

2.69 

5V4" DSQD Soft Sector w/Hub Ring (96 TPI) 

M16A 

3.79 


SSSD = Single Sided Single Density; SSDD = Single Sided Double Density; 
DSDD = Double Sided Double Density; SSQD = Single Sided Quad Density; 
DSQD = Double Sided Quad Density; TPI = Tracks per inch. 

Buy with Confidence 

To get the fastest delivery from CE of your Wabash computer 
products, send or phone your order directly to our Computer 
Products Division. Be sure to calculate your price using the CE 
prices in this ad. Michigan residents please add 4% sales tax or 
supply your tax I.D. number. Written purchase orders are accep- 
ted from approved government agencies and most well rated 
firms at a 30% surcharge for net 30 billing. All sales are subject to 
availability, acceptance and verification. All sales are final. Prices, 
terms and specifications are subject to change without notice. All 
prices are in U.S. dollars. Out of stock items will be placed on 
backorder automatically unless CE is instructed differently. Min- 
imum prepaid order $50.00. Minimum purchase order $200.00. 
International orders are invited with a $20.00 surcharge for 
special handling in addition to shipping charges. All shipments 
are F.O.B. Ann Arbor, Michigan. No COD’S please. Non-certified 
and foreign checks require bank clearance. 

For shipping charges add $8.00 per case or partial-case of 
1 00 8-inch discs or $6.00 per case or partial-case of 1 00 5V4-inch 
mini-discs for U.P.S. ground shipping and handling in the con- 
tinental United States. 

Mail orders to: Communications Electronics, Box 1002, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A. If you have a Master Card 
or Visa card, you may call and place a credit card order. Order 
toll-free in the U.S. Dial 800-521-4414. If you are outside the 
U.S. or in Michigan, dial 313-994-4444. Order your Wabash 
diskettes from Communications Electronics today. 

Copyright 1982 Communications Electronics'' Ad #1 10582 



OrderToll-Free! 

800 - 521-4414 

In Michigan 313-994-4444 


wabash 

error-free 

diskettes 



COMMUNICATIONS 

ELECTRONICS™ 


Computer Products Division 

854 Phoenix □ Box 1 002 □ Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U S A. 

Call TOLL-FREE (800) 521 *4414 or outside U.S.A. (31 3) 994-4444 

CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CES, continued... 

willing and the creek don't rise. But why 
on earth don't the companies train their 
people to use the products they’re demon- 
strating? Some horror stories: 

I went to the TI booth to review a 
music program for the 99/4A. I put the 
cartridge in, but couldn’t get it to work 
properly. I asked a company representa- 
tive standing nearby for help. He said, 
“Well, my daughter can run it, but I don't 
know much about it.” (His daughter 
couldn’t help; she was in L.A.) After 10 
minutes or so, I collared another TI rep 
and asked for help. She said, “I’m sorry. 
The person who demonstrates this is on 
break.” 

I found a third person with a TI badge. 
She said, “I've picked up a cold and have 
to leave the floor.” (The Southern Cali- 
fornia flu had a field day circulating 
among the 70,000-1" people at CES— it 
got hundreds of us, including my girlfriend 
and me). 

I spent two hours experimenting with 
the cartridge before I fully understood 
how it worked. (It’s pretty good.) 

Then I tried to play a 99/4A Scott 
Adams adventure. I went through three 
more company representatives before I 
found someone who could load the pro- 
gram for me. The game requires both a 
cartridge and a floppy disk; two out of 
the three didn’t even know that. 

Then it was off to Mattel. They were 
demonstrating their new Aquarius com- 
puter in a separate section. Three of the 
computers were supposed to be hooked 
up to CompuServe, the information ser- 
vice. I tried to operate one to no avail 
and finally asked for help. The first fellow 
said, “I only show the word processing 
package.” The second, to her credit, tried, 
but couldn’t raise CompuServe (I later 
found out it was because she forgot to 
dial the number). A third finally managed 
to get things started, but we got a busy 
signal. 

The gal told me, “They're probably real 
busy because of the show. We might not 
be able to get through for a half hour or 
so.'' I sensed that she just wanted me to 
go away. I did. 

As I left, I first wondered whether this 
meant that users might as well forget 
trying to use CompuServe during the eight 
days each year that CES is running. Then 
I wondered how 30 or so CES hookups 
out of a customer base of over 30,000 
could cause a logjam in the system. 

I went to see a couple of new Sony 
computers. When I first asked for litera- 
ture, the rep said, “We’ve barely got the 
equipment together in time for the show, 
let alone having time to print anything 
up.” 

O.K. Fair enough. I asked “What com- 
patible software will be available?” The 


rep had no idea. After a few more ques- 
tions I just left, convinced from the rep's 
evasiveness and vagueness, that the com- 
puters might never see the market. 

At a press conference held by Ultra- 
vision, the company president announced 
that his system would be sold for $999. 
All the press handouts said $595. Incred- 
ibly, the president made no mention of 
the discrepency in his speech. David Ahl 
finally asked him about it (answer: the 
keyboard, not shown in the press package, 
will be included, and the whole package 
will cost $999). 

During his speech, the president said 
the unit would be expandable to 128K. 
Afterwards, I asked how that would be 
possible with an 8-bit microprocessor. He 
gave me a funny look and remained silent. 
I said, “Are you going to get around that 
by using bank switching?” 

He nodded affirmatively, but somehow 
I felt he did it just to duck the question. 

In some instances I was given tours by 
knowledgeable company spokesmen. The 
best took place at the Spectravision and 
Data Age booths. But in far more cases, 
the company reps didn’t seem to have 
enough knowledge about their products 
to be able to explain it to others. Espe- 
cially annoying was the way they guessed 
at the answers. I was supplied answers I 
knew were wrong at least a dozen times. 
Picture the poor retailer, making buying 
decisions based on that information! 

One final gripe. Here we are in the 
center of the technological revolution of 
the world. Now, just take a guess as to 
what equipment I’m using in the press 
room to type this piece. No, it’s not a 
word processor. No, not even an electric 
typewriter. I'm using a manual Remington 
Rand! I haven’t tried working one of these 
confounded gadgets since high school 
typing class. 

Now I'm not suggesting that CES should 
put a word processing system in their 
press room — I know they’re expensive. 
But what if some company donated one? 
Can you imagine the gratitude that would 
result — from reporters from The New 
York Times, Newsweek, and countless 
newspapers, magazines and other publi- 
cations? Maybe even more than gratitude 
— hundreds of thousands of dollars of 
favorable publicity. Here’s hoping somone 
shows this article to Steve Jobs (yeah, I 
know Apple doesn't show at CES — but so 
what?) 

Musical Note 

I know this is a little off-the-wall for a 
computer magazine, but I've got to inform 
you about the most revolutionary musical 
instrument invention since the electric 
piano, in my opinion. 

An electronic trumpet was demon- 
strated at WCES that sounds exactly like 
a trumpet. It can be played with no 
“embrochure”; in other words, you just 


54 



Steiner Electronic Valve Instrument. 


blow into it. If you've ever tried playing 
trumpet, you know that you must make 
your lips vibrate to make sound. To play 
high notes, you must compress your lips 
really tightly. Only a handful of players 
can play “screech" notes, the high scream- 
ing sounds that made Maynard Ferguson 
famous. 

The instrument, called the Electronic 
Valve Instrument (EVI), was invented by 
Nyle Steiner. It allows you to play as high 
or low as you want, simply by blowing 
into the instrument and turning a can- 
nister with your left hand to select one of 
seven octaves. 

I heard Nyle play the EVI at the show 
accompanied by a keyboard player. I 
couldn’t believe the results. EVI can pro- 
duce the rich broad tones of Harry James 
or the narrow shrill lines of Dizzy 
Gillespie. Until now, this could be accom- 
plished only by subtle, artful changes in 
embrochure. At first, I thought that EVI 
had obsoleted all trumpet players. Upon 
reflection, however, I realized that some 
players, such as Dizzy, have so much 
“soul” in their improvisational lines that 
most of us couldn't come close to dupli- 
cating it. But wait. I predict there will 
soon be a device to pre-record lines into 
EVI, just as Casio keyboards can now 
“read” and play music, as shown in the 
attached photograph. 

I sheepishly asked the two questions 
you’re probably wondering about: when 
is EVI available and how much will it 
cost? I braced myself for a multi-thousand 
dollar response. I nearly fell off my chair 
when told that the EVI is in stores now 
and lists for $350! 







. .faithfully captures 
the look, spitit and 
play of a’icade 
Space < tJnvade’is 

-John Anderson, 

Creative Computing 


versions 


\e games 


soun 


uhe graphics display, 
sounds and game logic < 
so close to the original, 
that you might find you 
looking fot the coin slot 

ft 

on yout computet. 

-Gary and Marcia Rose 


)pace Onvade’is ploglam 
. evet teleased fot a 
petsonal computet. ” 

I -Leigh Goldstein, 
Electronic Games 


'eltous 


’ ames 


CIRCLE 257 ON READER SERVjCE CARD 



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The new TI 
Professional Computer. 
It makes you the one 
with the answers. 


Today’s business executive is faced with 
a world of questions. Questions about 
productivity. Cost control. And the 
bottom line. 

To help you come up with the 
answers and alternatives, we introduce 
the newTexas Instruments Professional 
Computer The one with the power, 
the expandability, the easiest-to-use 
keyboard, extremely high resolution 
graphics, and a broad array of software. 



All the leading operating systems 
and programming languages are avail- 
able. You can use many popular applica- 
tion programs from the best software 
suppliers to help you create spread' 
sheets, do word processing, construct 
graphics, communicate with other 
data bases or create your own. All of 
which lets you control assets, manage 
your time, and make projections for 
tomorrow’s performance — today. 


SPECIFICATIONS 

System Unit 

16-bit, 8088 microprocessor 
64K byte RAM, expandable to 256K bytes 
4K byte graphics display memory 
5-slot expansion bus 

Keyboard 

Specially designed low profile 
Popular typewriter layout 
97 keys, including 12 function keys 
Separate numeric keypad and cursor control 
clusters 

Tactile response, for quick positive entry 
Upper- and lower-case letters 
Display Units 

12-inch monochrome (green phosphor) or 
13-inch full-color, 25 lines x 80 columns 
High resolution, 720 x 300 pixels 

lUlocc ^tnranp 

Built-in 320K byte diskette standard 
Additional internal storage of 320K byte 
diskette, or 5 or 10 Mbyte Winchester disks 
optional 


Communications Options 

300 BPS or 300/1200 BPS internal modem 

TTY. 3780 

3270 SNA stand-alone (Summer 1983) 

3270 BSC and SNA cluster (Fall 1983) 

Operating Systems 

MS™-DOS, Digital Research™ CP/M-86®, and 
Concurrent CP/M-86™, UCSD p-System™ 

Languages 

BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal 
Applications Software 
Over 100 programs available from the most 
popular software vendors such as Micro- 
soft. AshtonTate, Micro-Pro, IUS, Sorcim, 
Peachtree. BPI, Lifeboat and others. 
Printers (Available Spring 1983) 

150-cps TI 850 Series for most applications 

FOOTNOTES: MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft 
Corporation. CP/M-86 and Concurrent CP/M-86 are 
trademarks of Digital Research, Inc. UCSD p-System 
is a trademark of the Regents of the University of 
California. 


And for a clear “hard copy” print- 
out of information, you can rely on the 
new 850 Series printers, made by Texas 
Instruments especially for the new TI 
Professional Computer 

In short, the TI Professional Com- 
puter helps you make better business 
decisions based on better information. 
With the performance and reliability 
you expect from TI. 

If you’re on your way up, the new 
Texas Instruments Professional Com- 
puter can help. Because it makes you 
the one with the answers. 

For full information and a demon- 
stration, visit your local computer 
dealer, or write: Texas Instruments, 
Dept. 1A, RO. Box 402430, Dallas, 
Texas 75240. Or call toll-free: 
1-800-527-3500. 

Creating useful products 
and services for you. 

, Texas 
Instruments 

CIRCLE 293 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Copyright © 1983 Texas Instruments 


291427 E 





SUPER-TEXT Professional da 
everything the competition 
except one thing. 


"HELP" 




ON-SCREEN FORMATTING 


. 

sn’t cost nearly as much. 


SUPER-TEXT PROFESSIONAL (40/80) gives you valuable ON- 
SCREEN FORMATTING and "HELP" GUIDES*, unique AUTOLINK, 
SPLIT SCREEN and MATH MODE. Plus all the functions you'd expect 
from an expensive word processor, like an 80 column screen 
display.* Automatic page headers and footers. Automatic page and 
chapter numbering. Preview Mode to check page endings. Easy text 
editing. Special block operations for text copy, save and delete. 
Automatic tabbing and formatting. Multi-file search and replace. 
Superscripting and subscripting. All for only: $175.00 

Compare Super-Text Professional with the other professionals. You'll 
find there's no comparison. Available now for Apple 11+ and 
Apple He. 

*These features available with the use of an 80 column board. 


SUPER-TEXT HOME/OFFICE (40/56/70) is the best choice for i 
ducing word processing efficiency into your home. It offers yq 
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guages, with special symbols, for any personal application. AH 
price you can live with: $125.00 

Available now for Apple 11+ and Apple lie. 


INTRODUCTORY OFFER! 

YOUR CHOICE SUPER-TEXT 
PROFESSIONAL OR HOME/OFFICE 


$ 99 . 




Manufacturers Mentioned in CES Coverage 


Manufacturers of Video Games 
and Game Controls 

Activision, Inc. 

2350 Bayshore Frontage Rd. 
Mountain View, CA 94043 
(415) 960-0410 

Answer Software Corporation 
20863 Stevens Creek Blvd. 

Bldg. B-2, Suite C 
Cupertino, CA 95014 
(408) 253-7515 

Atari Incorporated 
1265 Borregas Ave. 

P.O. Box 427 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 743-4124 

CBS Software 
41 Madison Ave. 

New York, NY 10010 
(212) 481-6400 

Coin Controls, Inc. 

2609 Greenleaf Ave. 

Elk Grove, IL 60007 
(312) 228-1810 

Comma-Vid Inc. 

1470 Farnsworth, Suite 203 
Aurora, IL 60505 
(312) 851-3190 

Compro Electronics, Inc. 

365-B Clinton St. 

Costa Mesa, CA 92626 
(714) 641-9156 


Data Age, Inc. 

62 S. San Tomas Aquino Rd. 
Campbell, CA 95008 
(408) 370-9100 

Discwasher 

1407 North Providence Rd. 
P.O. Box 6021 
Columbia, MO 65205 
(314) 449-0941 

Electra Concepts Corporation 
P.O.Box 6479 
23882 Pipit Court 
Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 
(714) 831-7641 

Emerson Radio Corp. 

One Emerson Lane 
Secaucus, NJ 07094 
(201) 865-4343 

Entex Industries, Inc. 

303 W. Artesia Blvd. 

P.O. Box 8005 
Compton, CA 90220 
(213) 637-6174 

Fox Video Games, Inc. 

4701 Patrick Henry Dr., 

Bldg. #9 

Santa Clara, CA 95050 
(408) 988-6666 

Frobco 

603 Mission St. 

Santa Cruz, CA 95060 
(408) 429-1552 



Gakken Toy & Electronic Division 
Retrix Systems, Inc. 

2832-B Walnut Ave. 

Tustin, CA 92680 
(714) 731-0960 

General Consumer Electronics, Inc. 
233 Wilshire Blvd. 

Santa Monica, CA 90401 
(213) 458-1730 

Human Engineered Software 
71 Park Lane 
Brisbane, CA 94005 
(415) 468-4900 

Imagic 

981 University Ave. 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 
(408) 399-2200 

Kraft Systems Company 
450 W. California Ave. 

Vista, CA 92083 
(619) 724-7146 

Mattel Electronics, a division of 
Mattel, Inc. 

5150 Rosecrans Ave. 

Hawthorne, CA 90250 
(213) 978-5150 

N.A.P. Consumer Electronics Corp. 
Interstate 40 and Straw Plains Pike 
P.O. Box 6950 
Knoxville, TN 37914 
(312) 266-7200 

Questar Controls, Inc. 

670 N.W. Pennsylvania Ave. 
Chehalis, WA 98532 
(206) 748-8614 

Sega Enterprises, Inc. a division of 
Paramount Pictures Corp. 

5555 Melrose Ave. 

Hollywood, CA 90038 

(213) 468-5000 

SpectraVideo, Inc. 

39 West 37th St. 

New York, NY 10016 
(212) 869-7911 

Starpath Corporation 
324 Martin Ave. 

Santa Clara, CA 95050 
(408) 748-8551 

TG Products 

1104 Summit Ave., Suite 110 
Plano, TX 75074 

(214) 424-8568 


Tiger Electronic Toys, Inc. 
909 Orchard 
Mundelein, IL 60060 
(312) 949-8100 

Unitronics 

401 Grand Ave., Suite 350 
Oakland, CA 94610 
(415) 839-2301 

US Games 
1515 Wyatt Dr. 

Santa Clara, CA 95054 
(408) 748-9800 

Video Product Sales 
Earl Laskey Video 
20 Morning Dove 
Irvine, CA 92714 
(714) 857-6370 

Video Technology Inc. 

2633 Greenleaf 

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 

(312) 640-1776 

Wico Corporation 
6400 W. Gross Point Rd. 
Niles, IL 60648 
(312) 647-7500 

Manufacturers of 
Computers and Peripherals 

Atari Incorporated 
1265 Borregas Ave. 

P.O. Box 427 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 942-6790 

Androbot, Inc. 

1287 Lawrence Station Rd. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 745-1084 

Brother International Corp 
8 Corporate PI. 

Piscataway, NJ 08854 
(201) 981-0300 

Cardco, Inc. 

313 Mathewson 
Wichita, KS 67226 
(316) 267-6525 

Commodore Inc. 

487 Devon Park Dr. 

Wayne, PA 19087 
(215) 687-9750 

Data-assette 
56 South 3rd St. 

Oxford, PA 19363 
(800) 523-2909 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


59 


CES, continued... 


Epson America 
3415 Kashiwa St. 

Torrance, CA 90505 
(213) 534-0360 

Mattel Electronics, a division of 
Mattel, Inc. 

5150 Rosecrans Ave. 
Hawthorne, CA 90250 
(213) 978-5150 

Milton Bradley Company 
443 Shaker Rd. 

East Longmeadow, MA 01028 
(413) 525-6411 

Mindware Inc. 

15 Tech Circle 
Natick, MA 01760 
(617) 655-3388 

Olivetti Corporation 
155 White Plains Rd. 
Tarrytown, NY 10591 
(800) 431-1366 


\r 

it 


CpMSurAER. 
ELECTRONICS I 

I 

I 



Now this is especially designed for the author-housewife. 
It's a combination food and word processor. 


Panasonic 

One Panasonic Way 
Secaucus, NJ 07094 
(201) 348-7182 


Sanyo Electric, Inc. 
1200 W. Artesia Blvd. 
Compton, CA 90220 
(213) 537-5830 


Semi-Tech Microelectronics 
Corporation 

525 Middle Field Rd., Suite 130 
Menlo Park, CA 94025 
(415) 326-6226 


SpectraVideo, Inc. 

39 West 37th St. 

New York, NY 10018 
(212) 869-7911 

TeleData Products 
P.O. Box 16771 
Irvine, CA 92713 
(714) 751-5163 

Texas Instruments, Inc. 

P.O. Box 53 
Lubbock, TX 79408 
(800) 858-4565 

Timex Computer Corporation 
P.O. Box 2655 
Waterbury, CT 06725 
(203) 573-5000 

Toshiba America, Inc. 
Information Systems Division 
2441 Michelle Dr. 

Tustin, CA 92680 
(714) 730-5000 

Ultravision, Inc. 

2315 N.W. 107th Ave. 

Miami, FL 33172 
(305) 592-0878 

Video Technology Inc. 

2633 Greenleaf Ave. 

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 
(312) 640-1776 


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CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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(o the user port. On Tape (supports disk). $34.95. 

ZAP!— Climbing the corporate ladder could be fun except for all that falling paperwork, 
this Hires arcade type game allows up to 4 players to advance through each floor and 
change levels to scale the corporate ranks. Be careful, it’s easy to be ZAPPED! 
CARTRIDGE for VIC 20.® $29.95 


systematic computer technique. Included are approximately 50 different 
puzzles. You can even enter your own cryptic messages. HIDDEN WORDS will 
display a matrix of seemingly random letters on the screen. Upon closer inspection, 
you will be able to find many words. Included are approximately 25 different puzzles. 
For VIC 20®. ONLY $29.95 for all 3 

Sketch Pad & Char-Gen— This hi-resolution drawing program will allow you to draw 
pictures in detail. Use either the keyboard or optional joystick. A fill command will 
allow you to fill a block and other commands allow you to easily clear the screen. You 
can also save and load pictures. Char-Gen is a simple to use custom character 
generator that will allow you to design different characters for each printable key on 
the computer. This program is an excellent device to design game creatures, foreign 
alphabets, secret symbols, or other special characters. One set is included and you 
can make and store others quite easily. Both for VIC 20®. ONLY $24.95 

HARDWARE 


Somber Word-A unique graphic word game on cartridge that provides the full thrill of 
arcade action. Complete with six modes of play options for added enjoyment Play 
against the computer or another player. 6 to adult. For VIC 20®. $29.95. 

Tic Attack-A fast action arcade game on Cartridge that challenges all of your 
dexterity. Written in machine language for special audio & visual effects. Over 100 
levels of play. High score indication. For VIC 20®. $29.95 

Oot-A-Lot— As you wander through the maze of life collecting Berries, you happen upon 
some magical fruit. Pick one and the treasures appear, but the Meanies are out today 
looking to spoil your fun. Defeat them and continue on to a higher level. An ever 
changing maze plus arcade type animation and sound will provide a real winning 
CARTRIDGE for the VIC 20® $29.95 

Triple Play-Three word games that are both fun and educational. The games that are 
included are CROSSWORDS (requires at least 8 K expansion). Five complete puzzles 
sre included and each puzzle has up to 1 00 different words. CRYPTO-SOLVE will help 
you solve those cryptic messages found in newspapers, books, and magazines with a 


Expand-O-Ram- 1 6K Expansion Board for the VIC 20” with reset, memory write 
protect, full memory allocation, plus TWO expansion slots. Like having 2 products in 
1. Can even be used as a cartridge development system. $11 9.00 

Universal Tape Interface & Duplicator— (Use on the CBM 64® and VIC 20®). With this 
device, you can easily load, save or even duplicate tapes easily with your recorder. 
Full 3 LED indication of Data transfer makes this the most reliable way to Load, Save 
and Duplicate. A complete I/O device with extras. NOTE: Duplication requires 2 
recorders. Only $49.95 

Universal Parallel Interfaces-Now you can use most any parallel Centronics® type 
printer with your VIC 20®/CBM 64®. The inexpensive model will allow you to access 
your printer through the user port. This cable and driver is 
only $19.95. Our other model from TYMAC is more 
extensive with graphic capabilities. Call or 
write for more information and ^ 

prices. 


Dealer and Distributor 
Inquiries Invited 

NOTE: We solicit hardware and software items for the VIC 20® and CBM 64® 1 . Royalties, license fees, or outright purchases 
an be negotiated. CBM 64 " & VIC 20® are Registered Trademarks of Commodore Business Machines Inc. 

CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


micro 

2 umrE 

DISTRIBUTING INC. 
1342 B Rt. 23, Butler, NJ 07405 
201-838-9027 



The SyQuest 306 


The pace of technological develop- 
ment in the computer industry is too 
rapid for the human eye to see, much 
less for the human mind to comprehend. 
Just as we think we have mastered some- 
thing, its replacement is announced, or 
we discover that it has been made ob- 
solete by an entirely new development. 
For the most part, however, these things 
are not particularly revolutionary. They 
have an effect, but most don’t change 
the face of the industry. 

That is why I was so excited to find 
myself with a few extra hours before my 
plane left San Jose several months ago, 
and why I was overjoyed when Syed 
Iftikar, chairman and president of 
SyQuest Technology, agreed to meet 
with me. I made a mad dash for Fre- 
mont and with little trouble found the 
brand new, 65,000 square foot head- 
quarters of this less than one-year-old 
company. 

What has me so excited is a new disk 
drive Mr. Iftikar and his company are 
manufacturing. It is a 5Mb, removable 
media Winchester disk drive with some 
characteristics that I think will cause 
quite a revolution in the small systems 
market, especially if Mr. Iftikar is able 
to achieve what I think are some pretty 
ambitious goals, but about which he is 
confident. 

Here are the significant attributes of 
the drive. First, of course, it uses re- 
movable media. A cartridge drive can be 
an excellent alternative for backup, es- 
pecially because it can be used as direct 
storage. It can also stand alone as pri- 
mary mass storage. Second, the SyQuest 
306 is half the size of the industry stan- 
dard (5%") mini-floppy. It is the height 

W.H. Fastie, 7110 Sheffield Rd., Baltimore, MD 
21212. Correspondence can only be acknowledged 
when a stamped, self-addressed envelope has been 
provided. Source Address: TCP 394. 


Will Fastie 


that has been halved, so two SQ306s 
will fit in the same space occupied by a 
single mini-floppy drive. Third, it con- 
sumes about the same amount of power 
as a mini-floppy. This important factor 
means that it can directly replace a 
floppy in a system without requiring 
changes to the power supply. Even 
though it consumes less power, it has an 
average access time of 75 milliseconds 
and a data transfer rate of 5 megabits 
per second, giving it much better perfor- 
mance than floppies. Last, and most im- 
portant, the price is aggressive. 

Pricing 

At the moment, the factory price for a 
single unit is $800. SyQuest is a manu- 


facturer, however, and so does not sell 
directly to the consumer. They sell to 
integrators who package the drive with 
control electronics, software, or what- 
ever else is needed to produce a complete 
system. The integrator who buys in 
quantity will pay less than $500 today. 
Translated into retail terms, this implies 
an end-user price of under $2000; prices 
of $1800 for systems using the SQ306 
are already a fact. 

Considered in a broader context, the 
price becomes more interesting. Since 
the drive uses an industry standard 
ST506 interface, it can be integrated 
with existing subsystems so that it shares 
the power supply, enclosure, and 
controller electronics. Since the inte- 
grator will have good margin built in to 
his subsystem price to begin with, it is 
possible that the SyQuest drive can be 
added as a backup device for just a little 



62 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


BUY SOME TIME 

FOR s 169 


Time is money. You have a computer 
system because you know that it saves 
you money by simplifying procedures and 
reducing time normally involved in your 
work. Time is an important resource which 
should not be wasted. You are wasting 
valuable time if you ever wait for your 
printer. 

No waiting. Now with Microfazer by 
Quadram there is no more waiting. 

Microfazers are inexpensive universal 
printer buffers which any computer user 
cannot afford to be without. Any 
computer— any printer (or plotter!), 
whether parallel or serial. Microfazer 
receives information from the computer at 
ultra high speeds causing the computer to 
think the printer is printing just as fast as 
the computer can send. Microfazer holds 
the information until your printer can 


More copies. Microfazer is equipped 
with a copy feature allowing additional 
copies of the buffered information— from 
one to as many as you want— with the 
mere press of a button. When you need 
your information repeated, for whatever 
reason, its always right there— inside 
Microfazer. 


Microfazer™ stack. Microfazer can be 
stacked with popular modems or other 
peripherals. Some models can plug directly 
onto the back of your printer. Install it in 
less than 60 seconds, and choose the 
amount of buffer memory you need— 8K, 
16K, 32 K, or 64K. One model even comes 
with up to 512K! You may use several 
Microfazers in series to create just what’s 
right for you. Take data in from a serial 
computer and out to a parallel printer. Or 


in from a parallel computer and out to a 
serial printer. Microfazer is just as flexible 
as you need it to be. 

Low price. Only $169 for 8K of 
buffering, $189 (16K), $225 (32K) and 
$299 for a full 64K. Serial-to-Parallel, 
Parallel-to-Serial and Serial-to-Serial 
models have slightly higher prices. 



QUADRAM 

CORPORATION 


4357 Park Drive/ Norcross, Ga. 30093 
(404) 923-6666 

CIRCLE 243 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SyQuest 306, continued... 

bit more than the integrator’s cost. And 
that also implies that a subsystem 
consisting of two SyQuests can be built 
rather inexpensively. 

That’s where I really begin to get ex- 
cited. Once you own a disk subsystem, 
cartridge or not, convenient backup is 
essential. With one SQ306 and even a 
large main memory, a cartridge-to-car- 
tridge copy is cumbersome. With two 
cartridges, it is a snap. Not only that, 
but you have 10Mb online. I think about 
this the same way I think about floppies, 
except suddenly the capacity is ten times 
greater. When I think about reducing 
my library of floppies to just a few car- 
tridges, my mouth begins to water. I 
start to get dizzy when I think about not 
having to change disks every five min- 
utes. At least one company has an- 
nounced a product with two SQ306 
drives for the IBM Personal Computer, 
and several others are thinking about it. 

Bold Claims 

Mr. Iftikar, however, is not satisfied 
with the price. He has set a goal of $150 
in large quantities, and intends to 
achieve the goal with automated assem- 
bly and volume manufacturing. He says 
he will compete with the Japanese, and 
is quick to point out that he is far ahead 
of everybody, including Japan, Inc. 

Bold claims. And frankly, I was a lit- 


tle skeptical before I visited SyQuest. As 
I listened to Syed explain his machine 
and his plans, and as he took me on a 
tour of his facility, I became more and 
more impressed. He is a quiet, thought- 
ful man. His answers to my questions 
were direct and lucid. There was no false 
modesty, and no false pride. As he de- 
scribes how his company moved so rap- 
idly, it becomes obvious that he 
personally designed the entire drive. He 
talks about how each engineer had spe- 
cific, objective goals: make this part thus 
and so, and make it cost no more than 
this. He points to his robotics lab, where 
engineers are building a robot to install 
the spindle motor of the drive, a robot 
that will reduce labor costs by 20%. We 
hover over a table with two drives in op- 
eration; the heads and media are com- 
pletely exposed to the environment, and 
a sign states “You are encouraged to 
smoke.’’ 

It is more than self-confidence. This is 
a man who knows what he is doing, and 
who knows that you know it. This is a 
man who plays for keeps; he personally 
financed SyQuest, and remains the sole 
investor. I walked away from the inter- 
view thinking that if Syed Iftikar said it, 
it would be. 

SyQuest knows what they have. They 
believe that the SQ306 will sell in place 
of lower capacity hard disks because of 


the removable media. As the cost drops, 
and SyQuest expects that to happen fast, 
a dual-drive cartridge subsystem will 
compete effectively with mini-floppies. 
Mr. Iftikar sees SyQuest inserted be- 
tween floppies and hard disks; he thinks 
he’ll win head-to-head with floppies and 
will force the Winchesters into higher 
capacities. He thinks he will undercut 
flexible or hard disk devices using verti- 
cal recording technologies. 

Others seem to know what SyQuest 
has as well. A SyQuest press release at 
Comdex stated that more than 200 sys- 
tem builders were evaluating the drives. 
I took an informal poll of vendors of 
disk subsystems for the IBM PC and 
found that 90% were already SyQuest 
customers. At Comdex, about 30 firms 
exhibited the drive. 

Assuming that SyQuest can build all 
the drives they say they will (200,000 in 
1983, with a second source already li- 
censed), and assuming they can produce 
the cartridges (a SyQuest subsidiary, 
MicroDisk is in operation, second 
sources licensed again) in sufficient vol- 
ume, it certainly sounds as though they 
have a winner. Look for the unit to pop 
up everywhere. No matter what kind of 
computer system you own, I predict 
availability of this drive for it soon. 

SyQuest Technology, 47923 Warm 
Springs Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538. □ 


How to Choose the Best Modem 
For Your Apple 


Features: 

Hayes 

Micromodem ll™ 

Novation 
Apple cat II™ 

SSM Apple 
ModemCard ™ 

110/300 baud operation 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Half/Full Duplex 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Auto-Dial/Auto-Answer 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Fits completely inside Apple 

NO 

NO 

Yes 

Operates without additional 
serial interface 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Touch-Tone® Dialing 

No 

Yes 

Yes 

"Single-Modem-Chip" Reliability 

NO 

No 

Yes 

Audio Monitor 

No 

NO 

Yes 

Self Testing 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Warranty period 

2 yr 

1 yr 

2 yr 

Suggested Retail Price 

$379 

$389 

$299 


Trademarks Micromodem Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc Applecat II: Novation ModemCard SSM Microcomputer 

Products inc The Source Source Telecomputing Corporation, a subsidiary of the Reader s Digest Association Dow Jones News/Retrieval 

Dow Jones & Company, me Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Corporation 


Count the Yes-es. SSM's 
Apple ModemCard: the most 
advanced features for the least 
money. No external equipment 
required. All other modems are 
now obsolete. 

And with SSM's Transend soft- 
ware, your Apple can send 
electronic mail or talk to other 
computers or information ser- 
vices such as the Source SM and 
Dow Jones News/Retrieval®. (The 
ModemCard is also compatible 
with software for the Micro- 
modem II). 

The SSM ModemCard: The only 
choice for choosy Apple owners. 
Available from your local compu- 
ter dealer. Satisfaction is guaran- 
teed. Or your money back. 

SSM Microcomputer Products Inc. 

2190 Paragon Drive, San Jose, 

CA 95131 (408) 946-7400, 

Telex: 171171 SSM SNJ 


non p oftn nu ppahpr Qpnvirp rAon 





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creotiue 




computing 

equipment 

evnluotion 








SemiDisk Disk Emulator 


Most computerists are speed freaks. 
No, that doesn’t mean we take drugs, it 
just indicates that we have an almost un- 
natural hangup about how fast our ma- 
chines execute. Witness the continuing 
popularity of benchmarks that purport 
to measure how fast some standardized 
programs will run on a given collection 
of computer equipment. 

Most of the tests don’t really provide 
meaningful information on how a com- 
puter will run real world applications, 
but they are fun anyway. Sometimes the 
gloating of the “winners” and the 
rationalizations of the “losers” remind 
me of children claiming that “my Dad is 
bigger than your Dad.” 

This emphasis on speed is doubly odd 
considering that even a “slow” micro- 
computer is blindingly fast in human 
terms. Nevertheless, raw speed is an al- 
most tangible element in the human- 
machine interaction. Anything that can 
make a 30-second process take half or a 
quarter of that brief period seems like a 
tremendous advance. It makes the ma- 
chine feel more responsive and much 
less sluggish. 

There are two main avenues to speed 
enhancement. The clock rate of the cen- 
tral processor is the main determinant of 
pure processing speed for any given 
processor chip. A faster clock executes 
more quickly. Since the clock speed is 
designed into the system, it cannot 
readily be changed, so there is not much 
the average user can accomplish with 
processor speed. 

The main road to higher speed leads 
to mass storage. I recently wrote an arti- 
cle for Creative chronicling my growth 
from cassette to 5" floppy disk to 8" 
floppy to Winchester hard disk. Each 


Glenn A. Hart, 51 Church Road, Monsey, NY 10952. 


Glenn A. Hart 


upgrade resulted in a significant speed 
increase and made my evolving systems 
far more pleasant and powerful. 

Now there is a “mass storage” device 
that is a speed freak’s dream with speed 
that exceeds even the hard disks. The 
SemiDisk is a very high capacity RAM 
memory board that emulates a disk 
drive. 

The SemiDisk is available in either 
512K or 1 meg versions — all on one 
standard S-100 board. New versions are 


The SemiDisk worked 
perfectly the very first 

time! 


also available for the IBM Personal 
Computer and the TRS-80 Model II. 
Such incredible memory density is made 
possible by the new 64K memory chips 
(4864s on the SemiDisk). Data are trans- 
ferred to and from the SemiDisk at the 
rate of 11 OK bytes per second. Power 
consumption is extremely low for the 
amount of memory involved — typically 
about 0.6 amp for the 512K board and 
0.9 amp for the full megabyte board. 
Such figures would have been almost 
unthinkable only a short while ago. 

Installation 

Installing the SemiDisk is absolute 
simplicity. The SemiDisk requires four 
sequential I/O ports, and any addresses 
can be selected with a DIP switch. Other 


switches and jumpers can configure vari- 
ous operating characteristics, but the 
board is set up at the factory for the 
most normal configuration. Multiple 
SemiDisk boards can reside in a system 
to provide up to an unbelievable eight 
megabytes. Even with multiple 
SemiDisks, the same four ports are all 
that’s necessary; on-board switches set 
up the added boards to simply expand 
the “disk” capacity of the SemiDisk. 

Like most RAM, the SemiDisk can- 
not store data when power is removed. 
However, the board includes provisions 
for battery backup. An 8-12 volt battery, 
preferably nickel-cadium, is trickle 
charged by the SemiDisk. Special 
arrangements are made for power down 
and power up so data are retained. 

SemiDisk Systems claims that the 
software provided with the board allows 
the SemiDisk to run with any standard 
CP/M system. Two main installation 
paths are possible: the supplied drivers 
can be built in to the BIOS like any 
other disk driver if the user knows how 
to do this, or the SEMIDISK.COM file 
can be executed. SEMIDISK.COM (for 
which source code is also provided) al- 
lows complete control over the operation 
of the hardware. Table 1 details the vari- 
ous options available. 

The SemiDisk driver is positioned im- 
mediately below the normal CP/M Con- 
sole Command Processor. The 
Hyper-Boot option speeds execution by 
preventing the CCP from being reloaded 
on every warm boot. SEMIDISK.COM 
can optionally check the hardware 
configuration and abort if there is an 
I/O conflict or request the address of the 
SemiDisk if it is not where the program 
has been instructed to look. This option 
is quite useful when first installing the 
system. Other options control parity 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


68 




JxkLhL 


ATARI SCREEN SHOT 

The battle begins! Atari version features 
colors and sounds that YOU can change! 


TRS-80 SCREEN SHOT 

The TRS-80 version blows you away with its 
Arcade Action Graphics(tm)! 


© COPYRIGHT 1982 


INTERNATIONAL 


To der, see your local dealer. If he does not have the program, then call 
1-800-327*7172 (orders only please) or write for our free catalog. 
Published by ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 
a subsidiary of Scott Adams, Inc. 

BOX 3436 • LONGWOOD, FL 32760 • (305) 8308194 


TRS-80 16K TAPE 010-0161 $24.95 

TRS-80 32K DISK 012-0161 $24.95 

PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE 


NOW! 

050-0161 $34.95 
052-0161 $34.95 


A MICROCOMPUTER 
EXPERIENCE 
FOR TODAY 


And these crafty alien critters are 
just part of a rapid-fire graphics 
bonanza that includes meteor swarms, 
multiple attack waves, and even a free- 
moving saucer that will repair your 
city’s damaged force field on the ATARI 
version. 

GOOD NEWS 

You don’t have to wait years for 
the spectacular — STRATOS is 
available now for the ATARI and TRS-80 
systems. 

STRATOS. Entertainment of the 
future — today. 


Arcaders who’ve seen and played 
the ATARI and TRS-80 versions of 
STRATOS came to the same 
conclusions — these state-of-the-art 
games were ahead of their time. After 
i all, any program that boasts crisp 
graphics, punchy sounds, joystick 
compatabllity and a full complement of 
extras, like high score saving and 
multi-player option has a definite touch 
of tomorrow. 

THE GAME’S SCENARIO IS A REAL 
KNOCKOUT 

The object is to successfully 
defend a futuristic city from waves of 
attacking alien ships. 


CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Plug 3,000 new applications 

into your Apple' 


THE CP/M Card™ plugs CP/M Plus™ into your Apple. 

The CP/M Card gives you the option of running your Apple II 
with the speed and capability of a professional Z-80 system 
with CP/M®-compatible software. You plug in the CP/M 
Card. Then choose CP/M or your standard Apple software 

at your option. 

Plug into a big, new world of software. 

The CP/M Card gives you instant access to the world's largest 
selection of microcomputer software— more than 3,000 
CP/M-compatible applications, languages, and 
programming utilities. So, you, too can use pro- 
fessional business programs such as WordStar,® 

SuperCalc™ Condor,™ and other high-performance 
software from Day One. Yet, you still have access 
to your present library of Apple software. 

Plug into incredible performance. 



300% faster than your Apple system! The CP/M Card is the 
only Apple II performance package that offers the speed and 
efficiency of CP/M Plus. 

A plug about quality. 

The CP/M Card was designed and built by Digital Research, 
the creators of CP/M, and Advanced Logic Systems, the most 
respected manufacturer of Apple performance products. So 
you know the CP/M Card is the most perfectly integrated 
Apple performance package you can buy. 

Why just keep plugging along? The CP/M Card 
provides everything you need — including 64 K of 
on-board memory, CP/M Plus, CBASIC? 
GSX™-80 and full documentation— for just $399. 

Now available through the CP/M library. 

See your local microcomputer dealer today. Or 
contact Advanced Logic Systems, 1195 East 


Together, the ultra-fast CP/M Card and A . i - • ^ r\ Arques Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (800) 

CP/M Plus run applications up to AQVQnCOQ LOQIC oySTGrTlS 538-8177. (In California (408) 730-0306.) 

The CP/M Card for your Apple II. 

Also available for the Apple lie. 

CP/M, CP/M Plus, the CP/M Card and CBASIC are either trademarks or registered trademarks of Digital Research Inc. Z-80 is a registered trademark of Zilog, Inc. 
WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corporation. SuperCalc is a trademark of Sorcim Corporation. Condor is a trademark of Condor Computer 
Corporation. GSX-80 is a trademark of Graphics Software System. Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. ©1982 Digital Research Inc. 


CIRCLE 106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 









SemiDisk, continued... 


Avvv Set SemiDisk base address (0-248 decimal) 

B+ Enable Hyper-Boot 

B- Disable Hyper-Boot 

C+ Check for correct SemiDisk hardware configuration 
C- Install without checking hardware configuration 
D: Select default drive for SemiDisk (B:-P:) 

M + Configure for 1 Meg SemiDisk 

M- Configure for 512K SemiDisk 

P+ Enable parity checking 

P- Disable parity checking 

R Remove SemiDisk driver 

ST- Update SEMIDISK.COM with current options 

S- Install SemiDisk without updating SEMIDISK.COM 

V Display current option configuration 

Z+ Enable Auto-Format 

Z- Disable Auto-Format 

? Display list of options 


Table 1. SEMIDISK.COM Options. 


checking, what disk to call the 
SemiDisk, etc. The changes made by the 
user can be temporary to check opera- 
tion or can permanently modify the 
SEMIDISK.COM program itself for 
everyday operation. 

A few other utilities are provided to 
test the board, brute clear and format 
the disk, etc. They are not normally 
needed. A program which allows the 
customized SemiDisk driver to execute 
upon cold boot to make initialization of 
the SemiDisk board proceed automati- 
cally is also supplied. Otherwise, the 
user must explicitly execute the 
SEMIDISK.COM to clear and format 
the board before use. 

My computer is complex, with a card 
in nearly every slot of the 20-slot 
motherboard. Operating software is 
accordingly also rather complicated and 
has been extensively patched. Thus I was 
both skeptical and a bit apprehensive 
when trying the SemiDisk for the first 
time. I have tried some other hardware 
and software which “guaranteed” 
compatibility and been disappointed. 

After adjusting the SemiDisk address 
to non-conflicting ports, but not chang- 
ing anything else, I ran 
SEMIDISK.COM. The SemiDisk 
worked perfectly the very first time! The 
memory clears and formats in a bit less 
than ten seconds, and that’s it. From 
then on you have a half a megabyte disk 
drive that runs fast. 


How fast? I ran four tests to get a feel 
for the speed of the SemiDisk compared 
to 8" single and double density on my 
fast Innotronics drives and my 40 
megabyte Quantum Winchester. IMS’s 
CPM 2.24E was the operating system. 
The results are shown in Table 2. 


Without battery 
backup, work in 
progress is liable to 
total loss if there is a 
power failure or 
serious system crash. 


First I tried a linkage with Microsoft’s 
L80 of a long Fortran program. The L80 
linker is terribly slow, and I had always 
thought it must have something to do 
with disk access. Well, it does, but not to 
the degree I had expected. The SemiDisk 
was about twice as fast as a single den- 
sity floppy; the advantage over my hard 
disk was only about 20%. 

Next I loaded Wordstar and a 70K 
text file and did a aQC to go to the end 
of the file and a aQR to get back to the 
beginning again. Now the differences 
really began to show up. The advantage 
of the hard disk over floppies was signifi- 


cant, but the SemiDisk was more than 
twice as fast again. Comparing the 
SemiDisk with floppies provided no 
contest. 

Then I pipped a 224K data file from 
hard disk to each destination device with 
verify. Copying from one area of the 
hard disk to another was disappointingly 
slow, but this time varied somewhat 
depending on the surface being copied 
to. Again the SemiDisk was more than 
twice as fast as the hard disk. 

Finally, I wrote a Basic program 
which generated 1000 sequential 
records, wrote them to disk and then 
read them back in again to simulate a 
business application. The SemiDisk 
wasn’t quite twice as fast as the hard 
disk, but its advantage was still 
noteworthy. 

In all cases, the speed gained through 
use of the SemiDisk compared to hard 
disk was significant, and even double 
density floppies couldn’t come close. 
Perhaps even more important, the “feel” 
of the system was dramatically im- 
proved. When I got my hard disk I was 
quite pleased with the response time, but 
now I have been spoiled even more by 
the SemiDisk. 

Are there any disadvantages? 
Yes — two. One is the volatile nature of 
RAM. Without battery backup, work in 
progress is liable to total loss if there is a 
power failure or serious system crash. 
Saving files to the SemiDisk occa- 
sionally, as one would do with a normal 
disk, just doesn’t provide real security. 
Even though power failures are rare in 
my area and my system is very reliable, I 
sometimes get a bit nervous when work- 
ing on the SemiDisk and back up to 
hard disk or floppy. This can negate at 
least a small part of the time advantage 
provided by the board. 

The second problem is cost. The retail 
price of the 512K SemiDisk is $1995, 
and the 1 meg veision costs $2995. 
These prices can be considered in several 
lights. Compared to normal S-100 64K 
memory cards, the SemiDisks are a bar- 
gain. IBM PC memory, on the other 
hand, seems to be available for as little 
as $600-700 for 256K. Finally, 5%" 
Winchester hard disks have come so far 
down in price that 5 or even 10 megs of 
hard disk may be available for less than 
the SemiDisk. In a system without hard 
disk, many people would think the hard 
disk a better first purchase. 

But even if the SemiDisk is a bit of a 
luxury, it is simply a delight to use. It is 
easy to install and works exactly as ad- 
vertised. If you work with long compila- 
tions, large text files or other serious 
applications, the SemiDisk will make 
your life a lot more pleasant. 

SemiDisk Systems, P.O. Box GG, 
Beaverton, OR 97075. □ 


Table 2. SemiDisk Speed Tests. 




WordStar 

PIP 

1000 record 


L80 

70K file 

224K 

Sequential file 

Storage Device 

Linkage 

aQC/aQR 

file 

I/O 

Single Density 8" 

1:59 

2:54 

3:46 

1:06 

Double Density 8" 

1:24 

1:54 

2:42 

:42 

Hard Disk 8" 

1:07 

:59 

2:24 

:3 1 

SemiDisk 

:55 

:27 

:58 

:18 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


71 


Accounting System for Apple 


GOIttI MlfcIRd ■ 

> m 



software c 


Dakin5 Controller 1 .1 


Controller 1.1. from Dakin5 is an 
accounting system for the Apple. 
Accounting systems are complex pro- 
grams, so perhaps I should give you a bit 
of personal background information 
regarding my qualifications to review 
one. 

By education and experience I am 
first an accountant and second a user of 
computers. Consequently, when I exam- 
ine an accounting system I first look for 
conformity with Generally Accepted 
Accounting Principles and how well a 
system fits into the accounting cycle. 
Then I look at how well a system op- 
erates from a computer standpoint. I 
also play “dumb” with the system and 
see how little knowledge of accounting 
and computers I can get by on. After all, 
most people have very little experience 
with either let alone both. 

Briefly, there are two types of 
accounting systems: accrual and cash 
basis. The main distinguishing 
characteristic is whether revenue is re- 
corded in the accounting period in 
which it was earned or in the period in 
which it is collected as cash. A parallel 
question is whether expenses should be 
recorded in the accounting period in 
which they are incurred or recognized 
when they are paid. A business which 
recognizes revenues in the period during 
which they are earned and deducts ex- 
penses when they are incurred is using 
the accural basis of accounting. 

For example, in March you receive a 
$100 invoice from Ace Widget Co. for 
supplies purchased. When you enter this 


Ron Exner, 309 Potter St.. 
Bellingham, WA 98225. 


Ron Exner 


in the Accounts Payable module, Sup- 
plies Expense of $100 is recorded and a 
liability for $100 is entered in favor of 
Ace Widget. When Ace is paid in April, 
cash is decreased by $100 and the liabil- 
ity to Ace eliminated. 

The important point is that supplies 
expense is recorded in the period in 
which it was incurred (March) regard- 
less of the fact that payment is made at a 
later date (April). The same principle 
holds true for sales. All sales are re- 
corded as revenue regardless of when 
they are collected. The positive dif- 
ference between revenue and expenses is, 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Controller 1.1 
Type: Accounting package 

System: Apple II 48K, dual drives, 
96 column printer. 

Format: Disk 

Summary: Professional, 

comprehensive 
accounting system. 

Price: $625 

Manufacturer: 

Dakin 5 Corporation 
P.O. Box 21187 
Denver, CO 80221 
(800) 525-0463 


of course, what being in business is 
about. 

The bottom line, or net income, has 
meaning only if it is related to a specific 
period of time. Since income is deter- 
mined by subtracting expenses from rev- 
enue, both the revenue and the expenses 
used in the calculation must relate to the 
same time period. This matching of rev- 
enue and expenses gives a realistic pic- 
ture of the profit performance of the 
business each period. Since accurate in- 
come measurement is a major objective 
of the whole accounting process, the ac- 
crual basis of accounting is widely used 
throughout the business community. 
However, it is not the only system in 
use. 

The alternative to the accrual basis of 
accounting is the cash basis. Under cash 
basis accounting, revenue is not re- 
corded until it is received in cash, and 
expenses are not recognized until they 
are paid in cash. Consequently it is not 
likely that expenses and revenues will be 
matched to the proper period. This sys- 
tem is limited mostly to individuals and 
to accounting records of physicians and 
other professional firms. 

Design 

Most accounting systems consist of a 
general ledger with add on accounts 
receivable and accounts payable mod- 
ules. The Controller, however, is de- 
signed as a comprehensive accrual based 
accounting package. Although any of 
the three modules, general ledger (G/L), 
accounts receivable (A/R), and accounts 
payable (A/P) may be used individually 
or in conjunction with the others, they 
are most impressive when used together. 


72 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 



Makers of Raster Blaster 
winner of the Softalk 
Award for most popular 
program of 1981. 


The First 



Software loy 


BudgeCo announces The Pinball Construc- 
tion Set, the first entertainment software 
that has the simplicity and freedom of inter- 
action of a toy. You don’t use this program— 
you play with it. 

The Pinball Construction Set allows you to 
build your own video pinball games by pro- 
viding a library of conventional (and unconven- 
tional) pinball pieces and a set of video tools. 



Use the video hand to put library 
pieces on the game board— as many 
as you want, where you want them. 


Use the polygon tools to make QO ■! 

A borders and obstacles, 

Add game logic and V 
I scoring rules with the wiring kit. 
Create hi-res designs and logos using 
the BudgeCo magnifier and paintbrush. 
Change gravity, time, elasticity 
\J0 and bumper strength. 

Load and save de- j JsA 
signs to/from disk. [_ [ 

Available for the Apple 11® 42! 

and Atari 800. Piet 

Suggested retail price $39.95 94611 41: 


'S’Tt 

ring kit. 4 
3 using r 
tbrush. % I 


428 Pa la Ave. 
Piedmont, CA 
94611 415-658-8141 


CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 





■ j i ■ j i j : ; i ; : 



Draw attention to yourself. 

(Write a program for the IBM Personal Computer.) 


Let your imagination take wing. 

Think charts. Graphs. Shapes. Images. 

Use originality, creativity and color in programs 
that entertain. Educate. Organize. Analyze. And 
programs that get down to business. 

Maybe you’ve written software like that. Or 
perhaps you’re thinking about it. 

If so, consider this. 

You could draw attention to yourself by writing 
programs for the IBM Personal Computer on the 
IBM Personal Computer. Because all our advanced 
features (see the box at right) make it faster and easier 
to do so. 

Enhanced BASIC already in ROM, for example, 
has graphics commands already built in. 

And if you write a program using our Advanced 
BASIC, you’ll find the DRAW command 
particularly appealing. It’s virtually a separate 
graphics language within a larger language. 

Put your visual together with any of the 128 
characters and symbols in ROM for a simultaneous, 
text-and-graphics mix. 

Have musical accompaniment as well. 

It’s easy, because BASIC controls the built-in 
speaker with a single command. 

Utilize the ten, programmable 
function keys. Try F3 to paint. 

F4 for lines. F5 for circles. Or 
F6 for boxes. 


IBM PERSONAL COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS 


User Memory 

64K-640K bytes* 
Microprocessor 
16-bit, 8088* 
Auxiliary Memory 

2 optional internal 
diskette drives, 5>4" 
160K bytes or 320K 
bytes per diskette 
Keyboard 
83 keys, 6 ft. cord 
attaches to 
system unit* 

10 function keys * 
10-kev numeric pad 
Tactile feedback* 


Display Screens 

Color or monochrome 
High-resolution* 

80 characters x 23 lines 
Upper and lower case 

Operating Systems 

DOS, UCSD p-Svstem, 
CP/M-86t 

Languages 

BASIC, Pascal, FORTRAN, 
MACRO Assembler, 
COBOL 

Printer 

Al 1-points-addressable 
graphics capability' 
Bidirectional * 

80 characters/second 
18 character styles 
9x9 character matrix* 


Permanent Memory 

(ROM) 40 bytes* 

Color/Graphics 

Text mode: 

16 colors* 

256 characters and 
symbols in ROM* 
Graphics mode. 

4-color resolution: 

320hx200v* 

Black & white resolution: 

640h x 200v* 
Simultaneous graphics & 
text capability'* 

Communications 

RS-232-C interface 
SDLC, Asynchronous, 
Bisynchronous protocols 
Up to 9600 bits per second 



Diagnostics 

Power-on self testing 
Parity checking* 

♦ADVANCED FEATURES FOR PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

i i 

Remember that these function keys make your 
program more “friendly” to the user and, therefore, 
more appealing to us. 

In fact, if you’re interested in licensing your 
software, we could be interested in publishing it. 

We could also be interested even if it runs on 
another computer. If we select your software, we’ll 
ask you to adapt it to our system. 

So if you think your software is close to 
picture perfect, consider sending it in. 

For information on how to submit 
your completed program, write: 

IBM Personal Computer, 

External Submissions, Dept. 765 PC, 
Armonk, New \brk 10504. 


The IBM Personal Computer 

A tool for modern times 


For more information on where to buy the IBM Personal Computer, call 800-447-4700. In Alaska or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 

tUCSD p-System is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California. CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 


CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







The Qume SPRINT 11 PLUStm is the new stan- 
dard of quality for professional, letter-perfect 
daisywheel printing. And for just $1776, 
you can have it for your personal or desk- 
top computer. It comes complete with a 
Qume Connection interface module to fit 
popular computers from IBM, Radio Shack, 
Commodore, Xerox, Hewlett Packard, North 
Star and many others. Its 96-character daisywheel 
delivers letter-quality text at a steady 40 cps. And 


with an average of 5,500 trouble-free hours 
(3 years typical use) between maintenance, 
the SPRINT 11 PLUS is unmatched in 
reliability. Qume quality is the choice of 
sophisticated, professional users. At $1776, 
there's no reason for you to settle for any- 
thing less. Make the Qume Connection by 
calling one of our authorized distributors. 
Or write Qume, 2350 Qume Drive, 
San Jose, California 95131. 


Our new 

SPRINT 11 PLUS 

fits every computer. 

$1776. 



Abacus Data Services 

(416)677-9555 Ontario 
Anacomp 
(213)516-7480 CA 
(206) 641 -4990 WA 
(206) 881-1 113 WA 
509) 624-1308 WA 
800) 426-6244 Outside WA 
Anthem Systems 
(415)342-9182 CA 
Audiovisual Services 

(713) 659-1111 TX 
(800)392-7770 TX Only 
Bohlig and Associates 

(612) 922-7011 MN 
Butler Associates 
(203) 653-7158 CT 
(61 7) 964-5270 M A 
Byte Industries 

(800) 972-5948 CA Only 
(800) 227-2070 Outside CA 
C & G Distributors, Inc. 

(513) 435-4340 OH 

(800) 245-1084 Outside OH 
(412)366-5056 PA 

(800) 245-1084 Outside PA 
D.J Carlyle Corp. 

(213) 277-4562 CA 

(714) 640-0355 CA 

(415) 254-9550 CA 
(808) 531-5136 HI 

(312) 975-1500 IL 
(201) 780-0802 NJ 

(214) 458-0888 TX 

(713) 530-4980 TX 
Computer Mart of N.J. 

(201) 283-0600 NJ 
Computermax Corp. 

(505) 883-0048 AZ 
(602) 997-8900 AZ 
(303)773-1169 CA 
(904)878-4121 FL 
(404) 458-6500 GA 
(704) 542-0091 NC 
(512)654-4711 TX 
Datamex Ltd. 

(613) 224-1391 Ontario 

(416) 781-9135 Ontario 

(514) 481-1 116 Quebec 
(604) 684-8625 Vancouver 
Data Systems Marketing 

(602) 833-0061 AZ 
(916)891-8358 CA 

(714) 540-2312 CA 
(209) 237-8577 CA 
(213) 344-7097 CA 
(213)641-2050 CA 

(415) 941-0240 CA 
(213)796-2562 CA 
(213) 796-2631 CA 
(714) 560-9222 CA 

(213) 344-7097 CA 
(303) 371-4140 CA 
(303) 694-1710 CA 

(313) 254-2830 Ml 
(406) 586-1511 MT 

(603) 673-0765 NH 
(505) 294-1531 NM 
(503) 641-2469 OR 
(412) 486-2676 PA 

(214) 960-1604 TX 

(713) 789-0803 TX 

(801) 292-6666 UT 
(206) 575-8123 WA 
Datatech Systems, Ltd. 
(403) 483-3947 Alberta 

(416) 255-9351 Ontario 

(604) 765-7781 Victoria 
Data Technology Industries 

(415) 638-1206 CA 
(910) 366-2072 (TWX) 

Data Terminal Mart 
(403) 270-3737 Alberta 

(403) 420-1755 Alberta 
(604) 872-8482 B C. 

(902) 469-3782 Nova Scotia 

(416) 495-2001 Ontario 
(416) 677-0184 Ontario 
(613) 729-5196 Ontario 
(416) 245-4780 Ontario 
(514) 288-1555 Quebec 
Equipment Resources 

(404) 995-0313 GA 
(901) 794-4635 TN 
General Electric 
(205) 479-6547 AL 
(602) 278-8515 AZ 

(714) 231-0309 CA 
(415)436-9260 CA 
(203) 628-9638 CT 

(202) 737-6211 DC 
(305) 921-0169 FL 
(904) 751-0615 FL 
(305) 904-7723 FL 
(404) 452-4913 GA 
(404) 452-4919 GA 
(219) 933-4500 I L 
(217)424-8495 IL 
(312) 780-2994 I L 
(812)473-6161 IN 
(317) 241-9330 IN 
(219) 933-4500 IN 
(319) 285-7501 IA 
(502)452-3311 KY 
(301) 332-4710 MD 
(61 7) 938-1920 MA 
(800) 343-4411 MA 
(612) 522-4396 MN 
(816) 231-6362 MO 

(314) 993-0537 MO 
(201)227-7900 NJ 
(609) 488-0244 N J 


(716) 876-1200 NY 
(201) 227-7900 NY 
(518) 385-4888 NY 
(704)525-3011 NC 
(513) 874-8512 OH 
(216) 441-6111 OH 

(503) 221-5095 OR 
(901) 527-3709 TN 

(214) 243-1106 TX 
(713)672-3575 TX 
(801)973-2253 UT 
Gentry and Associates 
(205)534-9771 AL 
(305) 791-8405 FL 
(305) 859-7450 FL 
(813) 886-0720 FL 
(404)998-2829 GA 

(504) 367-3975 LA 
(919) 227-3639 NC 
(803) 772-6876 SC 
(901) 358-8629 TN 
(615) 977-0282 TN 
Inland Associates 
(913) 764-7977 KS 
InterACT Computer Systems 
(305)331-7117 FL 

(404) 953-8213 GA 
(704) 254-1949 NC 
(704) 552-7502 NC 
(919) 275-3305 NC 
(919) 876-6379 NC 
Manchester Electronics 
(800) 342-1382 CT 
MicroAmerica 
(800)421-1485 CA 
(800) 262-4212 CA 
(617)431-7660 MAOnly 
(800) 343-4411 Outside MA 
(800) 527-3261 Outside TX 

(800) 442-5847 TX Only 
Micro Computers 

of New Orleans 

(504) 885-5883 LA 

Nat l. Computer Syndicate 

(312) 459-6400 I L 

Pac. Mountain States Corp. 

(213) 989-61 13 CA 
PAR Associates 
(602) 243-4267 AZ 
(303)371-4140 CA 

(801) 292-8145 UT 
Pioneer Electronics 
205) 837-9300 AL 
305) 859-3600 FL 
(305) 771-7520 FL 
(404)448-1711 GA 
(301)948-0710 MD 
(919)273-4441 NC 

(215) 674-4000 PA 
Pioneer Std. Electronics 

(312) 437-9680 I L 
(317) 849-7300 IN 

(313) 525-1800 Ml 
(612)935-5444 MN 

(216) 587-3600 OH 
(513) 236-9900 OH 
(412) 782-2300 PA 

(512) 835-4000 TX 

(214) 386-7300 TX 
(713) 988-5555 TX 
Schweber 

(205) 882-2200 AL 
(213) 999-4702 CA 

(213) 537-4321 CA 
(916) 929-9732 CA 
(408) 496-0200 CA 
(203) 792-3500 CT 
(305)331-7117 FL 
(305)927-0511 FL 
(404) 449-91 70 GA 

(312) 364-3750 IL 
(319)373-1417 IA 
(301) 840-5900 MD 
(61 7) 275-5100 M A 

(313) 525-8100 Ml 
(612) 941-5280 MN 
(201) 227-7880 NJ 
(716) 424-2222 NY 
(516) 334-7474 NY 
(216) 464-2970 OH 

(513) 439-1800 OH 
(918) 622-8000 OK 

(215) 441-0600 PA 
(412) 782-1600 PA 
(512) 458-8253 TX 

(214) 661-5010 TX 

(713) 784-3600 TX 

(414) 784-9020 Wl 
Tek Aids Industries Inc. 
(312) 870-7400 I L 
(512) 835-9518 TX 
Terminal Rentals, Inc. 

(602) 258-4466 AZ 
(213) 637-3413 CA 

(714) 235-9268 CA 

(415) 956-4821 CA 
(408) 292-9915 CA 
(714) 832-2414 CA 
Terminals Unlimited 
(800) 336-0423 
(800)572-0164 VA 
(703) 237-8666 VA 
Unico 

(512)451-0251 TX 

Victor Electronics 
(617) 481-4010 MA 
Western N Y. Computer 
(716) 381-4120 NY 
2M Corporation 
(201) 625-8100 NJ 


Hume 

A Subsidiary of ITT 


Dakin5, continued... 

I must emphasize that this is an accrual 
based system; it is aimed at a business 
that recognizes income and expenses 
when they are earned or incurred. If you 
have a cash based system, Controller will 
be awkward to use. You may want to 
consider, instead, one of the numerous 
checkbook management programs. 

Controller is an excellent example of 
the proper use of automation. One small 
but typical example of the proper use of 
automation can be seen in the accounts 
receivable module. To start, you simply 
insert the master disk, choose accounts 
receivable and plug in the A/R systems 
disk. If you pick the wrong disk or put 
the right disk in the wrong drive, the 
system notes the error and tells you 
which disk to put in which drive. In fact, 
if you are totally confused, (not likely) 
don’t put a disk in either drive and the 
system will tell you which disk should be 


The Controller is 
designed as a 
comprehensive 
accrual based 
accounting package. 


in which location. If at any time you 
don’t like a menu option, you can simply 
press escape, and you will be returned 
to the previous menu. If that menu is on 
a different disk, the system will tell you, 
for example to . .insert System Disk 
006 in drive 1.” Of course if you antici- 
pate which disk is needed this message is 
omitted. 

Frequently, a high degree of automa- 
tion limits the applications of a program. 
Even as an accountant I find this to be 
refreshingly not the case with Controller. 
Coupled with automatic data disk back- 
ups and automatic report generation at 
strategic times in the accounting cycle, 
the automatic features of the Controller 
allow you to forget about the possibility 
of inserting the wrong disk in the wrong 
drive and bombing the program or wast- 
ing your data disk. You concentrate, in- 
stead, on just making sure you are 
providing the right data to the system. 

Dakin5 not only provides you with 
unprotected program disks, but provides 
a utility system that is used to make 
backups of the data and system disks. 
What it comes down to is this, if you are 
not functionally illiterate and can open a 
disk drive door without assistance, you 
can operate Controller with confidence. 

Features 

Without turning this review into a 
user’s manual, the best way for me to 

77 


give you an idea of the features of 
Controller is to examine its capabilities. 
Briefly, some of the most distinguishing 
program and report characteristics are 
the following: 

Accounts Receivable 

• Can hold 250 customers per disk 
with a maximum of 1000 trans- 
actions per month per disk. The sys- 
tem will accommodate up to nine 
data disks, each with its own volume 
number. 

• Identifies up to 100 separate 
salespeople. 

• Accepts sales amounts up to 
$99,999.99. Accepts tax amounts up 
to $999.99. This amount must be 
calculated manually and entered 
separately on each invoice. 

• Allows up to 250 statements per 
month per data disk. 

• Allows a maximum balance per 
customer per aging period of 
$99,999.99. 

• Allows overall customer balance of 
$399,999.96. 

• Allows sales and payment entries in 
batches of up to 100. 

• Can transfer up to 100 journal en- 
tries per disk to the general ledger at 
one time. 

A/R Reports 

• Customer Master List: A reference 
for all customers of your business 
and their customer number, address, 
telephone number, discount percent- 
age, last activity, year to date billing 
and balance due. 

• Customer Mailing Labels. 

• Sales Journal: Shows a batch reg- 
ister of sales invoices, adjustments, 
and finance charges entered. Makes 
an excellent audit trail back to the 
source document. 

• Payment Journal: Reports payments 
and adjustments made to customers’ 
accounts. Like the Sales Journal, it 
produces an excellent audit trail. 

• Summary Aged Trial Balance: Prob- 
ably the most valuable tool available 
for spotting slow or delinquent cus- 
tomers. Shows customer number, 
name, phone number, aged 
amounts, and total due. 

• Detailed Aged Trial Balance: Simi- 
lar to the Summary report but it 
shows customer’s balance forward, 
credits, invoices, payments, and fi- 
nance charges for the current 
period. 

• Monthly Activity Report: Shows, by 
customer, the total activity for the 
month including transaction date; 
transaction type, i.e. sale, adjust- 
ment, etc.; sale amount; other 
amount; tax amount; total amount; 
and date each entry is paid. 


CIRCLE 245 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Get Omni quality 
for as little as $1.99. . . 

even if all you want is a 
10 pack. 


ARCHIVE 

152 Boston Turnpike 
Shrewsbury, MA 01545 
(800) 343-0314; 

In Mass: 

(617) 756-2960 


Call toll-free for great savings on Omni s complete 
line of 514" and 8" premium disks. Each is 
certified error-free at a minimum of twice the 
error threshold of your system. Each is rated for 
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fabricated to exceed all ANSI specifications with 
such standard features as reinforced hub rings and 
Tyvec sleeves. Get next day shipment 

and an unconditional, no hassle 
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Call toll free 
(800) 343-0314 
In Mass: (617) 756-2960 

Call if you’re not sure which disk is compatible with your 
system. Call for prices on 96 tpi and special formats. We offer an 
unconditional money-back warranty. Were here to help. 

Be sure to indicate system/drive name and model # below. 


Single side/single density 

Single side/double density 

Double side/single density 

Double side/double density 

Flip/Floppy reversible 

Plastic library case 
(in lieu of soft storage box) 

Shipping and handling 


implete line 
and 5W 
including 
TPI and 
ial format. 


5% sales tax (Mass only) 

□ Check DCOD DMa 

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5 l A" disks 

8 " disks 


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10 pack Quantity 

10 pack Quantity 

Cost 

$19.90 

$24.90 

$ 

$23.90 

$31.90 

$ 


$34.90 

$ 

$37.50 

$37.50 

$ 

$39.90 

$39.90 

$ 

$ 2.99 

$ 3.49 

$ 



$ 

i 10 packs. Continental U.S. only.) 




$.- 

;ter Card EH VISA 

Total 

$ 


_ Exp._ 


Name . 


System/drive model # _ 
Tel. 


Address . 


DakinS, continued... 

• Statements: Printed only for cus- 
tomers with balances, and may be 
produced for specific customers or a 
range of customers. Each statement 
indicates the balance forward pay- 
ments, adjustments, charges and fi- 
nance charges. The last statement is 
a summary of all the statements 
printed. 

• Sales Commission Report: Details 
each salesperson’s activities and 
shows the customer name, sales 
amount, commission percentage, 
and total commission for each sale 
and for each customer. 

Accounts Payable 

• Holds up to 125 temporary or 
permanent vendors from whom you 
make purchases. 

• Can print as many as 300 checks in 
any one month. 

• Has the capacity to hold up to 300 
open invoices at any one time. 

A/P Reports 

• Vendor Master List: Similar to the 
Customer Master List except it lists 
vendors instead of customers. 

• Vendor Labels: Produces vendor 
mailing labels. 

• New A/P Invoice Register: Lists 1 
each new invoice in computer as- 
signed voucher number sequence. 
Shows voucher number, vendor 
name, vendor number, invoice num- ' 
ber, invoice date, check number (if 
invoice is paid), check due date, dis- 
count amount, G/L account dis- 
tribution, invoice amount to be 
distributed, total invoice amount, 
and batch totals for discount 
amount and for all invoices. 

• Accounts Payable Cash Require- 
ments: Based on the due dates of all 
unpaid invoices, this report gives the 
total per invoice, total per due date, 
and running totals for all unpaid 
invoices. 

• Open Invoices by Vendor: Lists in 
vendor sequence all unpaid invoices. 
Has the same level of detail as the 
New A/P Invoice Register. 

• A/P Paid Invoice Register: Acts as 
a check register of all invoices paid 
during the period. Shows hand writ- 
ten checks first. 

• A/P Distribution Journal: Details 
the dollar amount distributed to the 
respective general ledger accounts in 
general ledger account number 
sequence. 

• A/P Disbursement Journal: Pro- 
vides all the detail you would expect 
in a simple check register including 
check number, vendor name, check 
date, check amount and discount 
taken, and totals by check amount 
and discount taken. 


CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




Introducing 



5.25" Removable GENIE Winchester Cartridge Drive 


IIBM • APPLE II PLUS • RADIO SHACK • S-100 



The Genie Cartridge Drive is a revolutionary new 10 Megabyte Hard Disk 
Drive that includes a 5 Megabyte removable Winchester catridge. The 
cartridge Drive system simply plugs into your computer, and includes all 
necessary software and hardware. Genie Drives are compat- 
ible with most popular software, 
j and each cartrid 9 e replaces 

over 30 double-density 
ISP floppy disks. 


Imagine, 5 Megabytes in the 
palm of your hand. These small Winchester cartridges 
are only .75 inches thick and 5.50 inches square. The 
disk itself is completely sealed from theoutsideand all 
its hazards by a sliding door that opens only once the 
cartridge is firmly seated inside the drive. Long term 
availability of this cartridge is assured by its adoption 
by several well known manufacturers including Dysan 
and Memorex, the world leaders in computer mass 
storage media. 

Comprehensive system utilities package. 

Al lows eight-character names to be assigned to virtual 
volumes. 

User Can back-up to any Genie REMOVABLE Cartridge 
Drive, or to diskettes. Mix & Match different system file 
types on the same disk. 

System status screen messages. Up to 16 volumes on- 
line at a time. 


10 Megabytes of on-line storage. 

File sizes to 5 Megabytes. 

Power-on self-test. 

Easy back-ups in minutes. 

System expandable to eight drives. 

Built-in error detection and correction. 

No preventative maintenance required. 

Comes complete with all necessary software 
and hardware. 

MTBF 8000 Hours. 

Built-in fan. 

Operates 110/220 VAC 50-60 Hz. 

One year limited warranty. 

Only $399500* 

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CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Manufacturer’s suggested retail price. Includes all required components. 
Concurrent CP/M-86 is a registered trade mark of Digital Research. 

IBM Personal Computer is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

Radio Shack is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. 

Dysan is a registered trademark of Dysan Corp. 




“I built this 16 -bit computer and 
saved money. Learned a lot, too.” 

o 


Save now by building the Heathkit H-100 
yourself. Save later because your computer 
investment won’t become obsolete for 
many years to come. 

Save by building it yourself. You can save hundreds of 
dollars over assembled prices when you choose the new 
H-100 16-Bit/8-Bit Computer Kit - money you can use 
to buy the peripherals and software of your choice. 


The H-100 is easy to build - the step-by-step Heathkit 
manual shows you how. And every step of the way, you 
have our pledge - “We won’t let you fail.” Help is as close 
as your phone, or the nearest Heathkit Electronic Center.t 

And what better way to learn state-of-the-art computing 
techniques than to build the world’s only 16-bit/8-bit 
computer kit? To run today’s higher-speed, higher-per- 
formance 16-bit software, you need an H-100. It makes a 
big difference by processing more data faster. 





H-100 SERIES COMPUTER SPECIFICATIONS: 


USER MEMORY: 
128K-768K bytes * 

MICROPROCESSORS: 
16-bit: 8088 
8-bit: 8085 

DISK STORAGE: 

Built-in standard 
5.25 disk drive, 

320K bytes/disk 

KEYBOARD: 

Typewriter-style, 

108 keys, 13 
function keys, 

18-key numeric pad 

GRAPHICS: 

Always in graphics mode. 
640h/225v resolution; 
up to eight colors 
are available** 

COMMUNICATIONS: 

Two RS-232C Serial 
Interface Ports and 
one parallel port 

*128K bytes standard 
**Optional. 


DIAGNOSTICS: 

Memory self-test 
on power-up 

AVAILABLE SOFTWARE: 
Z-DOS (MS-DOS) 

CP/M-85 

Z-BASIC Language 

Microsoft BASIC 

Multiplan 

SuperCalc 

WordStar 

MailMerge 

Data Base 

Manager 

Most 

standard 

8-bit cp/m m 

Software Am 


The H-100 gives me the most 
for my computer dollar! 


Dual microprocessors for power and compatibility. The 
H-100 handles both high-performance 16-bit software 
and most current Heath/Zenith 8-bit software. 


Want room to grow? The H-IOO’s standard 128K byte 
Random Access Memory complement can be expanded 
to 768 K bytes - compared to a 64 K standard for many 
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And the industry-standard S-100 card slots support 
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increasing future upgradability of the H-100. 

High-capacity disk storage, too. The H-I00’s5.25"floppy 
disk drive can store 320 K bytes on a single disk. The 
computer also supports an optional second 5.25" and 
external 8" floppy disk drives. And an optional internal 
Winchester disk drive will be available soon. 


For more information, circle the reader service number 
below. Better yet, visit your Heathkit Electronic Center for 
a demonstration! 


Heathkit Electronic Centers are units of Veritectmotogy Electronics Corporation. 

Heath Company and Veritechnology Electrotfwcs Cor|»oration are subsidiaries of Zenith Radio Corporation. 


CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CA» 



Dakin5, continued... 

General Ledger 

• Can handle up to 250 accounts with 
a maximum balance of 
$90,000,000.00 per account. 

• Allows standard entries: This fea- 
ture is used to batch enter amounts 
that are the same each period. For 
example, rent expenses and depreci- 
ation. You can have a maximum of 
100 standard entries. 

• Can handle up to 1000 journal en- 
tries including up to 100 standard 
entries per month. 

G/L Reports 

• Chart of Accounts: May be printed 
with or without balances. With bal- 
ances it shows current month bal- 
ance, current month transaction 
total, transaction total for next 
month, and transaction total for 
third sequential accounting month. 

• Chart of Accounts Changes: Shows, 
in account number sequence, any 
additions, changes, or deletions to 
the chart of accounts. 

• General Journal Report: Shows all 
entries that have been made to the 
general ledger. 

• Standard Entries Journal: Shows the 
current set-up of accounts that can 
be batch entered into the general 
ledger. 

• Trial Balance: Available in detail or 
summary format. The detail report 
must be printed before closing the 
month in G/L. 

• Balance Sheet: Available in sum- 
mary or detail format. 

• Income Statement: Shows sales, cost 
of sales, gross profit on sales, operat- 


ing expenses, and net income. Avail- 
able in summary or detail format. 

• Income Statement for Departments: 
Available in summary or detail 
format. 

As you can see the capacity and re- 
port options of the Controller are exten- 
sive. I worked with this system for 
several months and with the exception of 
wanting standardized accounts receiv- 
able sales entries, could not think of a 

The capacity and report 
options of the 
Controller are 

extensive. 


feature or report it did not offer. 

Setup 

Flexibility, which can be lost in the 
trade for automation, is most evident 
when setting up A/R, A/P or G/L for a 
specific business configuration. Control- 
ler gets around what it gives up in this 
exchange by being so complete that all 
the conceivable choices are built in. Con- 
sequently there is very little “I wish I 
could. . . ” with this system. If you think 
you need to, you probably can. 

As with most other aspects of the 
Controller , module set-up is simple and 
complete. In accounts payable, for 
example, you indicate: fiscal year-end 
date; current month-end date; complete 
company address; whether or not you 
are using the general ledger; whether or 


not you will be printing checks on your 
printer, and the account numbers of the 
general ledger summary accounts to 
which A/P will post. To top it all off, 
when you are finished you can generate 
a printed copy of this setup for future 
reference. 

A similar procedure is followed for ac- 
counts receivable and general ledger. All 
you have to do is follow the simple, easy 
to understand instructions in the 
documentation. 

Documentation 

Controller comes wrapped in a glossy, 
white, oversized, three-ring binder with 
327 pages of documentation, 24 program 
and data disks and everything else you 
could possibly need to make the system 
work well, including 36 archive disk la- 
bels, a user input report, and a handy 
adhesive label with Dakin5’s toll free hot 
line phone number. 

At first the package is slightly 
intimidating. Then you realize that of 
the 327 pages of documentation 109 are 
sample reports and their descriptions, 1 1 
are index pages, and 16 are miscella- 
neous. The remaining 191 pages are di- 
vided between a familiarization tutorial 
and a setup/reference manual. Each of 
the two sections is further divided into 
A/R, A/P, and G/L chapter compo- 
nents. The format for all is basically the 
same. 

In Chapter 5, General Ledger Tu- 
torial, for example, you are first told 
what you will learn and then how to go 
about learning it. There is quite a bit of 
“hand holding” with instructions like 
“1. Choose selection 1, THE 
CONTROLLER. . . and press return,” 
but given the complexity of doing the job 
right, this style is a real confidence 
builder. 

Not only are you told what to do, but 
equally important, you are told why. 
When you realize that each option, i.e. 
to use departments or not; to use A/R 
and/or A/P or not; to print checks or 
not, requires instruction and explanation 
it is amazing that the documentation is 
as brief as it is. 

If at any time you get unusual results 
or simply don’t understand what is go- 
ing on, just dial Dakin5’s toll free hot 
line for assistance. The staff on the other 
end is just like the program — user- 
friendly and professional. 

Summary 

Here is where I put it all 
together — the good and the bad. My big- 
gest complaint is the limitation of 
Controller to compatibility with 96-col- 
umn printers. This excludes the latest 
generation of popular printers, such as 
the Epson and Okidata. (I have an 
Epson MX-80.) Although changing over 



“ Come on, now! Explain to the nice man, like you did to me, why I 
don 't have to pay taxes this year!!” 




April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


81 





Any arcade game can be fun the first 100 times you play it. It's the jewels 
that play 200. . .or 300. . .or 500 times. Marauder - "You get your money's 
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Marauder is available for Apple ll/ll + (48K) and Atari 400/800 (40K) for $34.95. Order from your 
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CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


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CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Dakin5, continued... 

to condensed 132-column format allows 
the reports to fit on the page, not only 
doesn’t it look quite right but, more im- 
portant, it doesn’t overcome the problem 
of how to produce statements. 

The standard form assumes a 96-col- 
umn printer. Elowever, since the pro- 
gram is unprotected, I simply wrote a 
brief Basic program that produces blank 
statement forms and then went into the 
program and changed the print state- 
ments to conform to 80 columns. Using 
my newly created forms, 1 succeeded in 
producing some very attractive state- 


My biggest complaint 
is the limitation of 
Controller to 
compatibility with 
96-column printers. 


ments. Why Dakin5 couldn’t have in- 
cluded the same kind of option I don’t 
know. 

If you have the proper printer, you 
will definitely like the Controller. The 
program is menu driven and proceeds 
logically from one menu to the next or 
back to the previous menu without 
much thought. The automatic design of 
the program makes user mistakes ex- 
tremely unlikely and contributes greatly 
to the overall professional operation of 
the program. This is true even if the user 
has limited accounting or computer 
experience. If you know the difference 
between .50 and .05 and can read this re- 
view, then you have sufficient back- 
ground to succeed with the Controller. 

Despite the user-friendliness, excellent 
documentation, superb support from 
Dakin5, and bullet proof design of the 
system, the real strength of this program 
lies in the fact that it is one element of a 
family of business programs. For exam- 
ple, I had the opportunity to examine 
one of Dakin5’s latest offerings, the 
Depreciation Planner. 

Although this program is not the sub- 
ject of this review it is important in the 
way it works with the Controller. It not 
only changes the Controller menu op- 
tions so that it is included, it also auto- 
matically posts depreciation amounts to 
the general ledger and updates the cur- 
rent month, year-to-date, and life-to- 
date-amounts. 

Like the three elements of the Control- 
ler, the Depreciation Planner may be 
used itself or in conjunction with the 
Controller. The value of this family 
concept of software is that each member 
can be used by itself or, when combined 
with other members, can produce an 
overall system that is far more powerful 
than if the members were unrelated. □ 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




WORD PROCESSING 

SIMPLER 


Broderbund’s Bank Street 
Writer turns your Apple or Atari computer into a powerful 
word processor, with many of the advanced features you’d 
expect to find only in an expensive business system. Powerful, 
yet purposefully simple, Bank Street Writer has no complex 
codes to memorize. The screen 
guides you every step of the 
way. It’s everything you’re ever 
likely to need in a word proces- 


functions with password pro- 
tection, ♦ Document chaining allows you to print documents 
of unlimited length, ♦ Page headers and automatic page 
numbering — top or bottom, ♦ Highlighting of text, ♦ Upper 
and lowercase without additional hardware. 

Broderbund’s Bank Street 
Writer comes complete with 
Tutorial and Utility programs, a 
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♦ Universal search and replace, ♦ Automatic centering and 
indent, ♦ Automatic word wrap, so you don’t have to hy- 
phenate or “return” at the end of each line, ♦ Potent print 
format routines all in memory, ♦ Disk storage and retrieve 



ual and a free back-up disk. 

Student approved, the en- 
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Bank Street Writer. The ground-breaking, sensible combi- 
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The First Word Processor For The Entire Family. 


Hardware requirements: Apple version requires Apple II or 3.3. Atari 400/800 version requires 48K and BASIC cartridge. Both 
Apple II + with 48K and Applesoft in ROM of language card, DOS versions require only one disk drive. 


W Broderbund Software 

1938 Fourth Street, San Rafael, California 94901, Telephone (415) 456-6424 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Atari is a registered trademark of Atari, Inc. 

CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Ultimate Program? 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Total Systems Concept 
Type: Integrated Work Station 
Author: Bob Cretin 
System: IBM PC and others 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Comprehensive word 
processing, spreadsheet, and 
communications package 
Price: $18.95 
Manufacturer: 

Bob’s Software 
P.O. Box 71 
Waunakee, WI 53597 


The advent of the second generation 
microcomputers — machines with 16-bit 
architecture, capable of addressing as 
many as a million bytes of memory — has 
significant implications for business. 
These machines are so fast and powerful 
that they tend to invalidate the tra- 
ditional distinctions between micro, 
mini, and mainframe computers. 

This explosion of new hardware has 
caught the applications software devel- 
opers with their trousers belted some- 
where near the knees. They haven’t quite 
figured out what to do with a “mini- 
mainframe” so “surprisingly affordable” 
that it can be planted on the individual 
business executive’s desk like a dedicated 
digital security blanket. 

The trendy buzzword these days in 
micro software development circles is 
the “integrated work station” (IWS). 


James Yerges, P.O. Box 71, Wanakee, WI 53597. 

April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


James F. Yerges 


The compatible *Easy” packages from 
IUS appear to be a nod in this direction. 
The integrated MBA package from CMS 
probably augurs the wave of the future. 

I got a call recently from Bob Cretin, 
the principal mover and shaker at Bob’s 
Software, a local applications house. Bob 
asked me to evaluate his new entry into 
the IWS race — Total Systems Concept. 
At first I demurred, pointing out that I 
am not, by vocation, a software devel- 
oper, and that my programming skills 
are rather rudimentary. I am running al- 
most exclusively canned software on my 
IBM PC. 


Word processing is the 
mortar between the 
building blocks of any 
IWS package. 


“Not to worry,” Bob assured me. To- 
tal Systems Concept is aimed squarely at 
the businessman with little or no “com- 
puter literacy.” Bob is a believer in the 
“transparent machine.” Anything that 
requires more than ten minutes to learn 
fails to qualify as user-friendly in Bob’s 
“operating system.” Besides, I was the 
only guy he knew who had been able to 
scrounge up the six grand for a PC and 
letter quality printer (LQP). 

A Total System 

TSC, as Bob calls it, is a software set 
consisting of: word processing ( Tedious- 


Writer ); spreadsheet (VisiCrash); graph- 
ics ( Win-Lose-or-Draw ); and communi- 
cations ( WrongNumber ). 

The package shipped is on single- 
sided 5 1 // floppy disks. I questioned 
Bob about the wisdom of marketing a 
system, ostensibly for novice computer- 
philes, that required so much un- 
prompted disk swapping. Bob explained 
that he is pretty much locked into using 
ten diskettes until he can solve his media 
error problems. 

I should explain that Bob uses his own 
proprietary disk media. In an effort to 
exploit the opportunity of the moment, 
he has initiated a hardware and supplies 
division, Bob’s Enterprises. He believes 
that stringent cost controls and compet- 
itive pricing are going to separate the 
survivors from the also-rans in the field 
of computing supplies. 

I will admit that Bob’s diskette prices 
are attractive. At $1.89 a dozen, few 
other vendors can touch him. However, 
I have heard it suggested that he has had 
to make certain compromises in quality 
to achieve this remarkable economy. 
Consider, for example, the diskette en- 
velopes and jackets. They look remark- 
ably like the brown kraft paper used in 
supermarket shopping bags. 

On the back side of the envelopes, 
there are little swatches of what cer- 
tainly appears to be Scotch Magic 
Transparent Tape. In fact, the Pastor at 
St. Bjorn Lutheran Church, in 
Waunakee, once mentioned to me (more 
or less in passing) that he thought OP 
Bob might be running some sort of sweat 
shop up at the Rest Home . . . dozens of 
old people, frantically cutting and fold- 
ing and taping supermarket shopping 
bags . . . but, hey, that’s just idle gossip 
and has nothing to do with this software 
review. 


85 



Ultimate Program, continued... 

Word Processing 

Word processing is the mortar be- 
tween the building blocks of any IWS 
package. So I first turned my attention 
to Tedious Writer. The documentation is, 
in a word, unique. Perhaps a better word 
would be concise. It is handwritten, in 
#2 lead pencil, on the back of the 
diskette envelopes. Bob says that this ap- 
proach is more user-oriented, because it 
eliminates the hassle of separate docu- 
mentation, which can easily be mis- 
placed, or even lost in mailing. 

Bob has, in his words, “busted his 
cheeks” to minimize the agony of the 
first-time computer user. He has at- 
tempted to make it as simple as possible 
for the experienced typist to transfer his 
or her existing skills directly to the 
computer. 

Most of the WP programs currently 
on the market claim to be either file-ori- 
ented or page-oriented. According to 
Bob, TediousWriter is line-oriented. The 
word-wrap scheme is a good example. 
When the cursor reaches column 73 of 
the 80-column display, the IBM PC 
speaker sounds a remarkably bell-like 
tone, warning the typist that only seven 
spaces remain. Striking the return key 
moves the cursor to the first space of the 
next line down. According to Bob, this 
gives the data entry technician (DET) 
exceptional control over the right mar- 
gin of the text, including forced 
hyphenation. 

The indentation procedure is equally 
human-factors-oriented for the con- 
verted typist. The DET simply strikes 
the spacebar five times before typing the 
first character of a new paragraph. 
Alternatively, the tab key can be set to 
perform the same function with a single 
keystroke. 


The pagination procedure is of the 
what-you-see-is-what-you-get school. 
First, the DET fills the 25-line screen of 
the standard IBM PC display with text. 
Then, a sheet of paper is inserted into 
the LQP. (I used a 25 cps C. Itoh 
Starwriter, but it probably doesn’t make 
a heck of a lot of difference.) Then, the 
arrow up key and the PrtSc key are 
pressed simultaneously, to dump the en- 
tire contents of the screen onto the page. 

Next, additional lines of text are typed 
onto the screen until the original 25th 
line scrolls off the top, and the paper 


I would have been 
willing to invest a bit 
more time in learning 
macro-instructions 
initially, in order to 
save time and effort 
later on. 


dump procedure is repeated. According 
to Bob, page length and top and bottom 
margins are totally under the control of 
the DET by virtue of hands-on control 
of the sheet of paper in the LQP. 

I asked Bob what induced him to uti- 
lize this countertrendy approach. 
“Experience,” replied Bob. This al- 
gorithm enjoyed years of success, 
according to Bob, on the legendary IBM 
Selectric. Even before that, it was 
successfully executed on the pioneer 
IBM Executive. 

I can’t quarrel with the fundamental 


premise on which Bob designed this 
piece of software. It was very easy to 
conceptualize. However, I found it 
somewhat tedious to execute. I would 
have been willing to invest a bit more 
time in learning macro-instructions ini 
tially, in order to save time and effort 
later on. But that is just my personal 
viewpoint. I could be wrong. 

Consider this: Bob doesn’t believe that 
the ten extra function keys on the PC 
keyboard are a good idea for the busi- 
ness user. In fact, Bob’s Enterprises of- 
fers a prefabricated cardboard mask to 
cover almost all of the non-standard 
keys not found on a typical typewriter. 
(The Simplifier, from Bob’s Enterprises, 
P.O. Box 71, Waunakee, WI 53597. 
$8.95. Send cash or money order — no 
personal checks.) 

I asked Bob if the package uses DOS 
files, or some other scheme. He ex- 
plained that ITC doesn’t have a file sys- 
tem yet, but it should be coming in an 
update pretty soon. 

Graphics 

Graphics is an area in which I have 
very little experience, and even less 
equipment, but I am currently lusting af- 
ter several of the multi-color plotters 
that have reached the marketplace at un- 
der $2500. So I decided to give Win- 
Lose-or-Draw a try. At least I could 
watch it strut its stuff on the CRT. 

Once again, in this program, Bob has 
placed great emphasis on immediate 
accessibility for the first-time user. The 
screen represents a master 80-columns 
wide and 25-rows high. The cursor can 
be moved to any location within this co- 
ordinate array with the four cursor con- 
trol arrow keys. (There is a sort of a 
little trap door in the cardboard Sim- 
plifier mask that opens to expose these 
extra keys.) 

Any of the standard keyboard sym- 
bols may be inserted at any location by 
moving the cursor to the desired po- 
sition and striking the appropriate key. 
This, according to Bob, gives complete 
flexibility in the design of graphs, charts, 
and so forth, without the use of confus- 
ing or difficult curve fitting or plotting 
routines. Once again, the arrow-up and 
PrtSc keys are pushed simultaneously to 
begin printing. 

Spreadsheet 

I set the graphics software aside, and 
turned my attention to the spreadsheet 
program. Frankly, when I booted the 
VisiCrash program, I felt that uneasy 
sense of embarrassment that I experi- 
ence when face-to-face with a blatant 
ripoff. This spreadsheet program is 
pretty obviously a look-alike to that 
Gran’Daddy of them all, Visi-what’s-its- 
name. I quickly keyed in a fairly trivial 



86 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




. IT SSI, WE GROW MORE THAN APPLES. 




I NTRODUCING SOME NEW FRUITS 
OUR LABOR... FOR THE ATARI: 


OF 


At SSI, we cultivated our fine reputation 
the computer gaming world by produc- 
ig some of the best Apple® games around, 
ut to paraphrase an old saying, “Man 
oes not live by Apples alone.” 

So we bent our backs to the task of con- 
! rting some of our Apple crops to the 
fARI® 400/800. The three games you see 
oove are the new fruits of our labor. 

As part of our exciting RapidFire series, 
*ey contain all the ingredients needed to 
ake the perfect strategy simulations for 
)ur Atari. Rooted in popular science- 
iction and fantasy themes, they are 
nallenging and sophisticated — yet fast 
ad full of fun! 

Best of all, they’re ripe for the picking at 
>ur local computer/game store today! 


■ CYTRON MASTERS'" puts you in charge of a 
small army of Cybernetic Electronic Devices. 
Your forces consist of laser-blasting shooter 
units, kamikaze-like mine cytrons, mobile 
bunker cytrons, guided missiles and anti- 
missiles. Use these mindless but deadly 
machines to crush your hapless foes, and you 
will someday become a...Cytron Master ! 

On 48K disc for *39.95; 32K cassette for *34.95. 

■ GALACTIC GLADIATORS’" takes you to a 
remote comer of our vast universe to participate 
in a wild and crazy cosmic shootout. We’re talk- 
ing about four-armed Froglodytes with phasor 
rifles. Viking-like Wodanites wielding laser 
swords, and ugly Mutants whose only socially 
redeeming feature is their Death Touch. And 
these are the nice folks! On 48K disc for *39.95. 


®ATARI is a registered trademark of Atari Inc. 


■ THE COSMIC BALANCE 1 " is a tactical space 
game that not only lets you wage magnificent 
starship battles, it gives you the chance to 
design and build your ships from the ground 
up! With a host of variable parameters to choose 
from, you can equip your fleet with ships optimal- 
ly designed to suit your style of space warfare. On 
48K disk for *39.95. 

Coming soon — COSMIC BALANCE II - the 
strategic-level adjunct to The Cosmic Balance. 


If there are no convenient stores near you, 
VISA and M/C holders can order direct by calling 
800-227 -161 7, x335 ( toll free). In California, call 
800-772-3545, x335. 

To order by mail, send your check to: Strategic 
Simulations Inc, 465 Fairchild Drive, Suite 108, 
Mountain View, CA 94043. California residents, 
add 6 l / 2 % sales tax. 


CIRCLE 284 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
WRITE FOR A FREE COLOR CATALOG OF ALL OUR ATARI GAMES TODAY! 



"The Inflation Fighter is Here” 
Thef' QRANGe+”$995 0? 



Finally, a dynamic powerful, practical personal computer that is 
fully Franklin Ace 1000 and Apple R II compatible, yet, lower in 
price than the competition. Uses existing available software. The 
"ORANGE*" is the pacesetter of the future, with a swftchable 
1 10-220 volt power supply, upper and lower case with lower 
case locking key, enhanced audio and color functions, 8 slot 
motherboard, game port, fully socketed I.C. board, a 3 ROM 
operating system, 48K ram, fully expandible. 

The "ORANGE*" will interface with peripherals that will work on 
both the Franklin ACE 1000 or the Apple R II. Thousands of 
existing software programs, hardware, games, peripherals and 
accessories will plug right into the New "ORANGE*" COMPUTER. 

Best of all is the Price. 

The “ORANGE*" could easily be sold for $1500.00, But no, the 
inflation fighter retail orice is only $995.00, thats right, Only 
$995.00. 


Schools, Groups and Companies can now purchase a quality 
computer at a down to earth price. At these prices, now 
everyone can afford a powerful personal computer for work or 
play, add various peripherals and software to build a powerful 
computer that can do everything the cpmpetition can, but for a 
lot less money. 

Ask your favorite dealer for the “ORANGE*" today, if he doesn't 
have one in stock tell him to write or call his local distributor 
now. 

The “ORANGE*" is fully Apple II and Franklin ACE 1000 compatible 

The “ORANGE*" is fully warranteed for 90 days, with a 9 month 
extended warranty available for an additional $99.00. 

Watch for future exciting products from the manufacturers of 
the “ORANGE*" COMPUTERS. 

Selected Distributorships Available. Dealer Inquiries Invited. 


For further information, contact Collins International Trading Corporation, 1631 1 Ventura Blvd., Suite 500, Encino, California 91436. 



V 


213 - 906-3776 

Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
Orange* is a trademark of Collins International Trading Corpot 

CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Ultimate Program, continued... 

example problem, just to watch the piece 
work. 

The first time I asked for a re- 
computation of the sheet, I was re- 
warded with a display as surprising as it 
was aesthetically fulfilling. Waves of 
alphanumerics cascaded down the 
screen. A frantic, frenzied scrolling oc- 
curred, employing every character in the 
PC repertoire. And the colors! The in- 
credible diversity of shades and hues was 
breathtaking. 

I found this especially interesting, 
since I have only a standard mono- 
chrome display. 

1 could easily have watched that dis- 
play for hours, but I began to detect the 
tell-tale scent of smoldering bakelite, so I 
stopped the program execution by strik- 
ing the Ctrl and Break keys simulta- 
neously. The PC took less than half an 
hour to cool down to where it was safe 
to use again. I don’t think the slight 
thermally-induced warping of the boards 
is going to be a significant problem. 

Communications 

I must express certain reservations 
about the communications program, 
WrongNumber. I booted the first disk, 
and as I waited for the first prompt to 
follow the Bob’s Software logo, the disk 


drive began to chatter furiously. I have 
never seen such emphatic software in- 
compatibility. The standard Tandon- 
built drive sort of puckered up its little 
trap door, emitted an unmistakably 
anthropomorphic sound (sort of a 
ptooi!) and violently regurgitated the 
diskette, which struck me near the cor- 
ner of my right eye, inflicting a nasty pa- 


/ felt that uneasy sense 
of embarrassment that 
I experience when 
face-to-face with a 
blatant ripoff. 


per cut. I did not attempt to re-boot the 
disk. 

After I got the bleeding stopped, I 
called Bob and asked him about this 
bug. He said that it would be fixed in a 
future version, which would also include 
a lot more of the features found in other 
packages. For example, there will be a 
database called Misfiler, and even an ar- 
cade-style game called HemaRoids 
(Bob’s spelling). I asked him when we 


could expect to see the update, and he 
explained that he couldn’t be sure. 
Computerland East said he couldn’t use 
their IBM PC demo unit anymore unless 
he bought something. 

At SI 8.95, Total Systems Concept is 
definitely competitively priced. How- 
ever, I would like to see some of the 
promised refinements before I could 
wholeheartedly endorse the package. I 
understand the importance of timing in 
securing a share of the market, but I am 
afraid that Bob may be trying to move 
too fast. 

I also think he should consider releas- 
ing versions for more of the popular ma- 
chines. At the moment, TSC is available 
only for the IBM PC, the Instructional 
Assembly Language Simulator at Madi- 
son Area Computing Center, and the 
Hybrid Computer on the tenth floor of 
the Engineering Research Building of 
the University of Wisconsin. I am afraid 
that this is going to limit demand for the 
package. □ 

Easy Writer II, etc. are registered trademarks of Informa- 
tion Unlimited Software. MBA is a registered trademark of 
Context Management Systems. IBM, Selectric, and Exec- 
utive are registered trademarks of International Business 
Machines. Scotch Tape is a registered trademark of the 3M 
Company. Visi-what’s-its-name is a cloying reference to the 
products of VisiCorp. “Surprisingly affordable” is an outra- 
geous euphemism first perpetrated by Mr. Roark, Rich 
Corinthian Leather Software, Inc. 


PUT PRICES IN CHECK 


CARTRIDGE RIBBONS FOR 

CARTRIDGE RIBBONS FOR 

EPSON 

EPSON 

MX-80 o 

MX-100 

$7 99 

m m ea 

12.T 

MIN. ORDER OF 4 RIBBONS 

MIN. ORDER OF 3 RIBBONS 

MEMOREX 

LABEL 

DISKETTES 

SPECIAL 

5 SINGLE SIDE DUAL DENSITY 


$24 " 

$Q 99 

^■/K 

10 PACK 

(5K/MIN 

1 ACROSS 3 x15 16 CONTINUOUS LABELS 


COMPLETE LIME OF OTHER RIBBONS AVAILABLE, PLEASE CALL 


ALL ABOVE PRICES INCLUDE SHIPPING 

Check-Mate 

51 DIAUTO DR. asr P.O. BOX 103 
RANDOLPH, MA 02368 

TOLL FREE 800-343-7706 IN MASS 617-963-7694 

WE ACCEPT MASTER CARD & VISA 
MASS RESIDENTS ADD 5% SALES TAX 

PHONES OPEN 9AM-7PM EASTERN TIME 


' FREE CATALOG ' 


WORLD’S LARGEST SELECTION OF 
COMPUTER/WP SUPPLIES AND ACCESSORIES! 


■ One-Stop Shopping. More than 
2000 products - from line-printer 
paper to connectors and cables - 
to help keep your minicomputer 
or word process ing system up 
and running. 

■ Quick, Convenient Ordering. 

Expert assistance. By mail, 
phone or TWX. Your verbal PO.s 
are always welcome. 

■ Fast Delivery. Your order shipped 
in 24 hours from the Inmac Center 
nearest you. Overnight emergency 
shipments also available. 


Risk-Free Trial. Work-test any pro 
duct in the catalog for 45 days. If 
not satisfied, return for full refund. 
Guaranteed Quality. Field tested 
for precision performance and 
compatibility. Backed by warran- 
ties ranging up to 10 years - and 
some with Lifetime Guarantees. 

inmac 

Catalog Dept., 2465 Augustine 
Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95051. 


SEND TODAY FOR YOUR FREE 100-PAGE 
INMAC CATALOG OR PHONE (408) 727-1970. 

Please RUSH my copy of the Inmac Catalog. 



CIRCLE 194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


CIRCLE 125 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Computer Exchange — The Supply Center for the IBM-PC 


SOFTWARES 


★ Means a BEST buy. 

Ad #962 


Hot Line For Information 
On Your Order 
(503) 772 3803 


BUSINESS 


LIST 

OUR 


PRICE 

PRICE 

* ASHTON TATE. dBase II, requires CP/M-86 & 128K 

$ 700 

$419 

dBase H. requires PC-D0S & 128K 

$ 700 

$449 

APPLIED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, Versatorm NEW' 

$ 389 

$265 

DATAM0ST, Real Estate Investment Program NEW! 

$ 130 

$ 89 

Write-On 

$ 130 

$ 89 

EAGLE SOFTWARE, Money Decisions NEW' 

$ 150 

$129 

H0WARDS0FT, Real Estate Analyzer II 

$ 250 

$189 

INFORMATION UNLIMITED. Easywriter II (a WPS) 

$ 350 

$259 

Easyspeller (88K Words) 

$ 175 

$129 

Easyfiler (a DBMS) 

$ 400 

$299 

INNOVATIVE SOFTWARE. T 1 M III (a DBMS) 

$ 495 

$369 

¥ INS0FT. Data Design (a powerful easy to use DBMS) NEW' 

$ 225 

$169 

ISA. Spell Guard 

$ 295 

$220 

ISM. MatheMagic 

$ 90 

$ 69 

* MICROCRAFT. Requires CP/M-86 



Legal Billing & Time Keeping — Verdict 

$ 750 

$395 

Professional Billing & Time Keeping — Billkeeper 

$ 750 

$395 

¥ MICRO LAB. The Tax Manager 

$ 250 

$189 

+t MICROPRO. WordStar* plus free WordStar Training Manual 

$ 495 

$249 

MailMerge T M 

$• 250 

Call 

SpellStar 1 M 

$ 250 

Call 

3 Pak. Word & Mail & Spell, above 3 

$ 845 

Call 

InfoStar NEW! 

$ 495 

$335 

ReportStar NEW! 

$ 350 

$235 

Note Price increase due soon on Mtcropro Cali first. 



MICROSOFT. FLight Simulator (by Sub Logic) NEW' 

$ 50 

$ 35 

N0RELL, Visualize 

$ 100 

$ 75 

Easy Data DBMS 

$ 250 

$189 

NORTH AMERICAN BUS SYSTEM. The Answer 

$ 250 

$169 

PBL CORPORATION. Personal Investor NEW' 

$ 145 

$ 99 

¥ PEACHTREE. Peach Pak 4 (GL. AR & AP) 

$ 595 

$395 

PERFECT SOFTWARE. Perfect Writer * 

$ 389 

$239 

Perfect Speller' M 

$ 189 

$119 

Perfect Filer T M 

$ 289 

$179 

SELECT INFO Select (a WPS) 

$ 595 

$339 

SORCIM/ISA. SuperCalc 

$ 295 

$199 

SuperWriter 

$ 395 

$269 

STC. The Creator NEW' 

$ 200 

$139 

SYNERGISTIC, Data Reporter NEW' 

$ 250 

$169 

¥ VISICORP, VisiCalc®/256K 

$ 250 

$179 

VtsiDex or VistSchedule. each 

$ 250 

$199 

VisiTrend/Plot 

$ 300 

$219 

VisrFile or Desktop Plan 1, each 

$ 300 

$239 

UTILITY 

1983 CE SOFTWARE AWARD: 

“Copy II PC by Central Point Software is the best CE software buy of 1983. It will 

copy more copy protected software and faster than any other backup system 

Unlike other copiers it makes an exact duplicate of your original and it does 100% 

verification of copy Documentation is excellent.*' 



¥ CENTRAL POINT. Copy II PC, Backup and Utility NEW! 

$ 40 

$ 35 

NORELL DATA, System Backup 

$ 50 

$ 39 

NORTON. Norton Utilities, 14 powerful programs, 3 disks 

$ 80 

$ 65 

HOME & EDUCATIONAL 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS, Temple of Apshai 

$ 40 

$ 29 

Oil Barons NEW! 

$ 100 

$ 75 

BRODERBUND. Apple Panic 

$ 30 

$ 22 

•^CONTINENTAL, The Home Accountant Plus 

$ 150 

$112 

DATAMOST, Pig Pen or Space Strike, each 

$ 30 

$ 22 

DAVIDSON. The Speed Reader 

$ 75 

$ 55 

INFOCOM, Deadline 

$ 50 

$ 39 

Zork 1 or Zork II or Zork III. each 

$ 40 

$ 29 

* INSOFT, WordTrix NEW! 

$ 35 

$ 29 

QuoTrix NEW! 

$ 35 

$ 29 

ON-LINE. Golf Challenge NEW' 

$ 25 

$ 19 

Ulysses & The Golden Fleece 

$ 35 

$ 25 

PBL CORP . Personal Investor 

$ 145 

$ 99 

SENTIENT. Cyborg NEW' 

$ 35 

$ 25 

SIRIUS. Conquest or Call to Arms, each 

$ 30 

$ 23 

SPINNAKER, Snooper Troops, ffl or #2, each 

$ 45 

$ 35 

Story Machine or Face Maker, each 

$ 35 

$ 25 

STRATEGIC. The Warp Factor 

$ 40 

$ 30 


DISKETTES 



Control Data Corporation 12 for 10 Special. Limited Time! 

CDC, 120 each. 5'/» with ring, SS, SD (Apple, IBM. etc.) 

$ 450 

$195 

12 each, 5'4, with ring, SS SD (Apple, IBM, etc.) 

$ 40 

$ 22 

12 each 8", SS. SD 

$ 51 

$ 28 

10 each, 5'/«, SS, DD (H/P, IBM, etc.) 

$ 65 

$ 49 

IBM. 10 each, 5U. SS, SD (Apple, IBM, etc.) 

$ 60 

$ 45 

10 each, 5 U, SS. DD (H/P, IBM, etc.) 

$ 65 

$ 49 

VERBATIM, 10 each 5'/«, with ring, SS, SD or SS, DD 

$ 50 

$ 28 

MAXELL, 10 each, 5 [ A, SS. DD or SS, SD 

$ 55 

$ 35 

DYSAN. 10 each, 5 'A, SS, SD 

$ 55 

$ 39 

10 each, 5, DS, DD 

$ 65 

$ 49 



64K IBM-PC 

^2850 

System Includes 
Two 320K Disk Drives 
12" Green Amdek Monitor 

90 Day Warranty 

Call For Details And 
Other Configurations 


IBM is a trademark of IBM Corporation 



HARDWARE 


for the 
IBM PC 


ACSCAftCH 


ComX 


CURTIS. PC Pedestal’ 1 


LIST OUR 
PRICE PRICE 

MEMORY CHIP KITS * 64K addon to your memory cards. 9 chips 

200NS, tested and burned-in. 90 day warranty $ 150 $ 59 

Combo Plus, 64K with async. port $ 495 $359 

Combo Plus. 64K with parallel port $ 495 $359 

Combo Plus. 64K w/async & para $ 555 $395 

Combo Plus. 64K w/async para & clock/cal $ 595 $429 

For above Combo Plus of 128K add $85. lor 192K add $192. for 
256K add $256 

BUY VALUE of the YEAR: 

RAM Cards come with DISRAM 1 M software. Disk/RAM 
software that makes your RAM look like a disk. 

64 K RAM Card (192K when full) 

*■ 2 year warranty $ 395 $149 

192K RAM Card ♦ 2 year warranty $ 675 $249 

tor Display on PC $ 80 $ 65 

9 Foot Cable for IBM Keyboard (extends 3' to 9’) $ 50 $ 35 

Mono Extension Cables, Power and Signal $ 55 $ 45 

DS 1-501 Hard °' sk - 5 Me 8 *1995 $1495 

UFWVHIvl OS 1 501, 6 MB Hard Disk $1995 $1495 

DS1-512. 12 MB Hard Disk $2495 $1895 

DS1 519. 19 MB Hard Disk $2995 $2295 

MAYNARD, Floppy Drive Control Board, for up to 4 drives $195 $165 

With Serial Port add $40 For Parallel Port add $70 

t ll^n/^VCACT 64K RAM Card w/Pauty $ 350 $259 

IVlIVynUoUr I 128K RAM Card w/Par.ty $ 525 $395 

256K RAM Card w/Parity $ 875 $659 

QC.S « Big Blue 

# QUADRAM CORPORATION 

Quadboard. 64K. expandable to 256K. 4 function board $ 595 

Quadboard. 128K, expandable to 256K 4 function board $ 775 

Quadboard. 192K. expandable to 256K. 4 function board $ 895 

¥ Quadboard, 256K. four function board $ 995 

Microfazer, w/Copy. Par/Par. 8K. #MP8 $ 159 

Microfazer, w/Copy, Par/Par, 64K, #MP64 $ 299 

Microfazer, w/Copy, Par/Par, 128K, #MP128 $ 445 

Microfazer, Snap-on, 8K, Par/Par, Epson, #M£B, w/PSI $ 159 

Microfazer, Snap-on, 64K, Par/Par, Epson. #ME64, w/PSI $ 299 

All Microfazers are expandable (w/copy to 512K) (Snap on to 64K). 

TG PRODUCTS. Joystick $ 65 

xEDE*x«nbtl «hw 

Control Data OR Taridon 

DISK DRIVES. Double Sided 320K Same as now 

supplied with IBM— PC. Tested, burned-in and with 1 each $ 650 $249 

installation instructions. 90 day warranty by us. 2 or more $ 650 $239 


$ 595 $449 


$435 
$565 
$635 
$670 
$119 
$235 
$345 
$145 
$235 

$ 49 

b4K plus 

CP/M 80 operation 

$ 600 $399 


PRINTERS AND ACCESSORIES 


EPSON. 

CALL 

CALL 

* NEC. Dot Matrix, 8023 Printer F/T 

$ 695 

$525 

STAR MICRONICS. 9x9 Dot Matrix, lOOcps, 2 3K, Gemini 10" 

$ 499 

$385 

9x9 Dot Matrix, lOOcps. 2. 3K, Gemini 15” 

$ 649 

$495 

ANADEX. DP8000 Dot Matrix. 120cps, Serial & Cent. Para l/F 

EPSON, 

$ 995 

$495 

IBM PC to Epson or Star Micromcs 

$ 60 

$ 45 

Apple Interlace and Cable for Epson 

$ 95 

$ 59 

Grapples by Orange Micro, specify printer 

$ 165 

$119 

Apple Graphics Dump Program 

$ 15 

$ 9 

APPLE COMPUTER INC.. Silentype Printer for Apple II 
LETTER QUALITY - DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS: 

OLYMPIA. ES-100, Printer/Typewriter, complete with serial 

$ 395 

$335 

interfacing to the Apple II or IBM-PC 

$1735 

$1295 

COMREX. Comriter CR 1, RS232 Serial l/F, 200 wpm 

$1199 

$845 

Comriter Tractor Feed for CR-1 

$ 118 

$ 99 

SUPPLIES: Tractor Feed Paper, Ribbons, Heads. Qume Daisy 

Wheels & Ribbons. 


8" CP/M-80 

LIST 

out 

BUSINESS! SYSTEM SOFTWARE 

PRICE 

PRICt 

* ASHTON TATE dBase II 

$ 700 

K ’ 

COMSHARE TARGET. Target PlannerCalc 

$ 99 

$ n 

Masterplanner 

$ 325 

$771 

PlannerCalc Applications Pkg 

$ 50 

1 4 

PlannerCalc Combo Pkg. 

$ 125 

$ u 

INFOCOM. Deadline 

$ 60 

$ 41 

Zork 1 or Zork II or Zork III. or Starcross, each 

$ 50 

1 '1 

ISM. MatheMagic 

$ 100 

$ 71 1 

MICROCRAFT. Legal Billing & Time Keeping 

$ 750 

$391 

★ Prof Billing & Time Keeping — Billkeeper 

$ 750 

$391 

MICROPRO, WordStar® plus free WordStar Training Manual $ 495 

$741 

MailMerge’ M 

$ 250 

$ 71 

SpellStar’ M 

$ 250 

Cm ! 

3 Pak, Word & Mail & Spell. 3 above 

$ 845 

Ca 

InfoStar NEW! 

$ 495 

$331 

ReportStar NEW' 

$ 350 

$731 

Multiplan 

$ 275 

$m 

Fortran 80 

$ 500 

$371 

BASIC Compiler 

$ 395 

$211 

COBOL 80 

$ 750 

$ % 4 * 

BASIC 80 

$ 350 

$271 

muLisp/muStar-80 

$ 200 

$141 

M Sort-80 

$ 195 

$141 

Edit-80 

$ 120 

$ M 

Macro- 80 

$ 200 

$141 

OASIS. The Word Plus (45,000 word verification) 

$ 150 

CaN I 

PEACHTREE. Magic Wand 

$ 500 

$111 

Series 4 GL. AR, AP or Inventory, each 

$ 600 

$311 

Series 8 GL. AR. AP, Inv. or Pay each 

$ 750 

14'.- 

Series 9 Peach Text 

$ 500 

$330 

Series 9 Spelling Proofreader 

$ 300 

$111 

Series 9 Calc. Mail List or Telecomm., each 

$ 375 

V*' 

PERFECT SOFTWARE. Perfect Writer ’ M 

$ 389 

$231 

Perfect Speller’ M 

$ 189 

$11* 

Perfect Filer 

$ 289 

$171 


MONITORS 



NEC. 12" Green 

$ 249 

$151 

12" Color, Composite 

$ 450 

$341 

SANYO. 9“ B&W 

$ 190 

$141 

9" Green 

$ 200 

$131 

12” Green 

$ 260 

$m 

13" Color. Composite 

$ 470 

$341 

13" Color RGB 

$ 995 

$711 

ZENITH. 12" Green 

$ 150 

$11* 

AMDEK. 12" Green #300 

$ 200 

$111 

13" Color 1. Composite 

$ 449 

$311 

13" Color II. RGB, Hi Res (Ap II. Ill & IBM PC) 

$ 899 

$711 

13" Color III. RGB. Commercial. (Ap II. Ill) 

$ 569 

$4(1 

DVM. Color II or III to Apple II Interface 

$ 199 

$171 

Note: Color II and III come with cable lor IBM-PC 




MODEMS AND 



TELE COMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL 

HAYES, Micromodem II (for the Apple II) 

$ 379 

$271 

Apple Terminal Program for Micromodem II 

$ 99 

$ 61 

MICROCOM. Micro Courier for Apple II 

$ 250 

$171 

Micro Telegram for Apple II 

$ 250 

$171 

SSM. Transcend 1 for Apple II Data Comm. 

$ 89 

$ 61 

NOVATION. Applecat II Modem 

$ 389 

$261 

212 Apple Cat 

$ 725 

$591 

HAYES. Stock Chronograph (RS-232) 

$ 249 

$181 

Stock Smartmodem (RS-232) 

$ 289 

$221 

Smartmodem 1200 (RS-232) 

$ 699 

$535 

Micromodem 100 (S- 100 bus) 

$ 399 

$271 

SIGNALMAN, Modem MKI (RS-232) 

$ 99 

$ 7* 

IBM-PC to Modem Cable 

$ 39 

$ 21 

AXLON. Datalmk 1000 Hand Held Communications Terminal $ 399 

$321 

. . CORVCJS SYSTEMS 

^ 6 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface 

$2995 

$1891 

A * 11 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface 

$4795 

$2691 

20 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface 

$5795 

$3491 

IBM PC Interface (IBM DOS). Manual & Cable 5 

$ 300 

$239 

Mirror built in for easy backup 

$ 790 

$591 

Apple Interface. Manual & Cable 5 

$ 300 

$239 

Omni Disk Server for Apple II (Special) 

$ 990 

$491 

Omni Transporter Card Apple II (Special) 

$ 495 

$275 

Omni Junction Box Set (Special) 

$ 39 

$ 75 

Other Interfaces. Omni-Net Constellation Mirror All in Stock. 


H/P 7470A Graphics Plotter 

$1550 

$1191 

■ AnW H/P 41C Calculator 

$ 195 

$141 

H/P 41CV Calculator with 2.2K Memory $ 275 

$219 

Full 41 accessory and software in stock. Call. 




— — 


Portland, OR Cash & Carry Outlet. 11507-D SW Pacific Hwy , Terrace Shop 
ping Center, Portland. OR. Over-the-counter sales only. On 99W between Rte 
217 and Interstate 5 Open M-F 10-6. Sat. 10-3. Call 245-1020. 


ORDERING INFORMATION AND TERMS: All items usually in stock We immediately honor Cashiers Checks, Money Orders. Fortune 1000 
Checks and Government Checks Personal or Company Checks allow 20 days to clear. NoC.O.D Add 3% for VISA or MC. Include telephone number Add 3% for shipping 
insurance and handling (S l&H) with $5 minimum UPS ground is standard so add 3% more for UPS Blue with $10 minimum Add 12% total for S .l&H for US Postal, AP0 or IPO 
with $15 minimum For Hawaii, Alaska and Canada. UPS is in some areas only, all others are Postal so call, write, or specify PO Foreign orders except Canada for S l&H add 1 8 > 
or $25 minimum except for monitors add 30% or $50 minimum. Prices sublet to change and typo errors, so call to verify All goods are new. include factory warranty and 
are guaranteed to work Due to our low prices, all sales are final Call before returning goods lor repair or replacement. Orders received with msufficent S l&H charges wii 
be refunded. ORDER DESK HOURS 8 to 6 PST M-F and 10 to 4 Sat. 1 PM here is 4 PM in NY 

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A Master Looks At 
Computer Card Games 


The Card Stars— 
Cribbage and Solitaire 

The instructions that come with this 
package make the point that video 
games tend to come and go, since they 
eventually lose their appeal to players. 
On the other hand, some card games, 
such as cribbage and solitaire, have 
been played for centuries by millions of 
players. 

That point would appear to establish 
the need for a computerized version of 
these games. With cribbage, a compet- 
itive game played against other players, 
this certainly makes sense; the computer 
provides a handy opponent, available 
whenever one feels like playing. 

However, I question the need for com- 
puter solitaire. The four solitaire vari- 
ations on this program are authentic 
portrayals of their pasteboard counter- 
parts and are indeed quite playable. 
However, are these programs really nec- 
essary? I, personally, would prefer to 
play solitaire with actual playing 
cards — they can be moved around more 
easily, without referring to computer 
codes, they’re easier to read, and I, for 
one, enjoy the tactile experience of han- 
dling and shuffling the cards. 

Cribbage 

Datamost has come up with a winner 
in its cribbage game. The display is 
colorful, with an attractive green back- 


Ken Uston 


ground, a cribbage board in the center of 
the screen, and the player’s and Apple’s 
cards on either side. 

The play of this game is faster than if 
playing cards were used. Dealing is com- 



puter-rapid, and the computer further 
speeds up the game by rapidly calculat- 
ing the value of each of the hands and 
the Crib — not an easy task. 

It would be difficult to play this for 
very long without getting much better at 
the game. Aside from getting more 
knowledgeable through more playing, 
the player can also observe which cards 
the computer saves for the crib and how 
the cards are played on the field. 

This version of cribbage has signifi- 

92 


cant differences from the cribbage game 
developed for the Atari by Thorn EMI 
Video Programmes Ltd. Despite the 
Atari capability for colorful graphics, 
surprisingly the Apple version is in 
color, and the Atari version is not. The 
Apple package does a lot of the work for 
the player, such as calculating the total 
on the field and displaying the total 
score. While this makes for easier play- 
ing, the Atari package more closely 
resembles playing in a card game, where 
the player, of course, must do these 
calculations. 

Several other options assist the player 
in learning the game. He may ask the 

creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: The Card Stars — Cribbage 
and Solitaire 

Type: Card Games 

System: Apple II 

Format: Disk 

Summary: The standard game of 
cribbage, played against the 
computer, and four variations 
of solitaire. 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Datamost 

9748 Cozycroft Ave. 

Chatsworth, CA 91311 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




NOBODY EVER PLAYS 
JUST ONE HAND OF STRIP POKER. 


There’s no such thing as a quick 
game of Strip Poker. With two 
captivating female opponents, this 
fast-paced program features graphics 
and game play so realistic that players 
tend to lose track of time. Decorum 
forbids that we actually show you what 
happens on the screen. Suffice it to say 
that our sophisticated software gives you 
ample incentive to stretch your poker 
skills to the limit! 

Just to sweeten the pot, we’ve 
added two new data disks . . . one with 
two new female opponents, the other 
with two males. The action is intense 
and the stakes are high. 


If you have a keen competitive 
instinct and don’t mind occasionally 
losing your shirt, see your local computer 
store or call us for Strip Poker today. 

Atari (40K) and Apple II (48K) computers, $34.95 Diskette. Additional 
Data Disks (specify male or female) $24.95 eaf 

Look for these and other Artworx programs at your local computer 
store. For a free catalog, write or call 800-828-6573. Artworx Software 
Co., Inc., 150 North Main St., Fairport, NY 14450 (716) 425-2833 



So you can play. 


* Apple Data Disks available 4/1/83. Apple and Atari are registered trademarks. 




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II 










Apple Games, continued... 

computer to display all combinations of 
four cards out of the six he is dealt, 
which helps in determining which two 
cards to discard for the crib. The player 
may also delay play for a while or halt 
the game to give him time to evaluate 
point calculations or strategy. 

Solitaire 

We are offered four versions of 
solitaire: 

Klondike is the popular version of 
solitaire that we all played as kids. We 
deal out seven piles of cards; the first 
pile has only one card, and each 
succeeding pile has one more card than 
the previous one. The cards are played 
in columns on the piles, in decreasing 
denomination and alternating color, and 
removed to form four packs, one for 
each suit, ordered consecutively starting 
with the ace. The undealt cards are 
turned over one-by-one, and the player 



may use them as appropriate. He may go 
through the pack only once. 

Klondike Variation is the same as 
Klondike, except the undealt cards are 
turned over three at a time and the 
player may continue running through 
the pack until he has no more moves. 

In Picture Frame Solitaire, the cards 
are arranged in a four-by-four square. 
The objective is to put all 12 picture 
cards in predesignated locations around 
the periphery of the square. 

For Pyramid, a 28-card pyramid is 
formed, the goal is to remove as many 
cards as possible from the pyramid. 
Only two-card combinations totaling 13 
may be removed (kings are automati- 
cally removed since their assigned value 
is 13). 

At first, the games play quite slowly 
because it is necessary to learn the com- 
puter coding in order to move the cards 
around. After a few games, however, 
this comes almost automatically. 

I suspect that most players would 
rather play solitaire in the traditional 
way, than use this program. This is be- 
cause the cards are much smaller than 
conventional playing cards, and the suits 
are more difficult to identify because of 
unrealistic color contrast. 

Solitaire, indeed, reflects a computer 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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Dealer inquires invited 

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Apple Games, continued... 

programming accomplishment of the 
highest order, but there is serious doubt 
in my mind whether these games have 
significant practical value. 


Gin Rummy 

This package, I believe, fills a real 
need. Have you ever wanted to play gin 
rummy, but couldn’t find someone to 
play with? Or maybe, really wanting a 
g.in rummy fix, you figured you might as 
well play a game with your kid sister, 
and instead of enjoying a game, you end 
up as an instructor for hours on end. 

Well, Datamost has solved this prob- 
lem with their Computer Gin Rummy 
package. The Apple owner can now play 
gin any time he wants, day or night, 
against a quite capable opponent. 

The player selects from one of three 
gin games: the standard game that we 
all know so well, in which players can 
knock for 10 points or less; Knock, in 
which the players may knock at any 
time during the game and there are no 
“lay-offs” (i.e., playing one’s cards on 
the other player’s hand); and One-meld, 
in which the players cannot knock, but 
must keep playing until they “get gin.” 


GPeative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Computer Gin Rummy 
Type: Card Game 
Author: Art Carpet 
System: Apple II 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Three gin rummy games 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Datamost 

9748 Cozycroft Ave. 

Chatsworth, CA 95827 

The program allows the player to ar- 
range his hand in any way he wants, at 
any time he wants. This is done by 
assigning letters to each of the cards. At 
first it is a bit confusing to input the 
data, but after a few hands, it becomes 
almost routine. 

The player’s cards are displayed face 
up at the top of the screen; the comput- 
er’s hand is shown below, face down. 
The discard pile and unused deck are 
displayed at the right. The player is well- 
prompted through the entire process. 

When either the player or the com- 
puter knocks, both hands are displayed 
face up on the screen; the computer ar- 
ranges the player’s meld so that he will 
have the lowest possible point count. If 
the player chooses to play his hand dif- 
ferently (I wouldn’t advise it), he is al- 
lowed to do so. 

The program provides a helpful learn- 



ing assist in the gin no-meld option. Af- 
ter each hand, the player may request a 
“summary”; the two hands are dis- 
played, as are each of the cards in both 
the discard pile and the unused deck. In 
this manner, the player can conduct a 
“post mortem” and evaluate how he 
(and the computer) played the hand. 

At first, the player will probably de- 
stroy a few games. This, of course, can 
be quite frustrating, particularly in the 
middle of a close game. But that’s the 
price one must pay to have a permanent 
gin rummy opponent, any time, day or 
night, rain or shine. 


Apple 21 

After playing a number of poor 
adaptations of blackjack on home 
systems, it is a pleasure finally to run into 
one that’s authentic. Most of the other 
versions unrealistically restrict the play- 
ers’ options. Apple 21 does not. 

After the title screen is displayed, we 
are given the option of playing at a $1, 
$2 or $5 table. These have limits of $1 to 
$100, $2 to $200 and $5 to $500, respec- 
tively. I tried betting $1 at a $2 table and 
was reminded, “minimum bet is $2”; 
when I tried to bet $300, I was told, “ta- 
ble limit is $200.” When I tried to bet 
more than the amount remaining, I was 
told, “You’re out of your league!!” 

creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Apple 21 
Type: Casino Blackjack 
Author: Bill Depew 
System: 24K Apple, disk drive 
(36K minimum for Disk II) 
Format: Disk 
Language: Integer Basic 
Summary: A totally authentic version 
of the casino game of blackjack 
or “21.” 

Price: $24.95 
Manufacturer: 

Softape 

10432 Burbank Blvd. 

North Hollywood, CA 91601 


The game is played with one deck of 
cards (eight decks are currently used in 
Atlantic City, but single deck games can 
be found in Nevada). We hear the deck 
being shuffled and are reminded, 
“You’re tapped. Need a loan?” When we 
admit that we do, we are asked “How 
much? (1 to 1000)?” (I once responded, 
“No,” and was told, “we’re even 
# 1 . . . GOODBYE,” and was dealt out 
of the game.) This program means 
business. 

The players (from one to three are al- 
lowed) place their first bets and the 
game begins. Each player’s two cards are 
dealt face-up. The dealer is dealt two 
cards, one face up and one face down. 

Players have the option of hitting 
(drawing additional cards), standing, 
doubling down (doubling the amount of 
the bet and taking only one more card), 
or splitting pairs (making two hands out 
of a hand with two cards of equal rank). 



After splitting a pair, the player may 
split again, up to a maximum of four 
hands. If the dealer has an ace upcard, 
the players may make an “insurance” 
side bet, which pays 2-to-l if the dealer 
has a blackjack (ace and a ten or face 
card). I have never seen a home black- 
jack game with as complete a set of 
player options (and I have played just 
about every one that has ever been 
produced). 

The graphics are fine; the backs of the 
cards are in multi-colored detail, and the 
screen background is simulated green 
felt (what else?). The amount that each 
player has is displayed after each hand. 

If you run out of money (you cannot 
bet more than you have), you are offered 
an additional loan. If any player chooses 
to leave the game, he enters a bet of “0”; 
he is told how much he has won or lost 
and “goodbye.” The game continues for 
the remaining players. 

About the only blackjack playing I do 
these days is on a computer (I’m not al- 
lowed to play blackjack in Nevada; al- 
though I won a lawsuit and am now 
allowed by law to play in the Atlantic 
City casinos, the rules there are too 
tough). Apple 21 is the most realistic 
simulated blackjack game I have seen to 
date. □ 


96 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 









ASHTONTATE 

OBASE II $529.00 

BOTTOM LINE STRATEGIST 279.00 

C. ITOH 

PROWRITER PARALLEL 489.00 

F-10 55 1799.00 

F-10 PARALLEL /SERIAL CALL 

GRAPPLER INTERFACE 140.50 

PROWRITER II 789.00 

CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

ASYNCHRONOUS INTERFACE $129.00 

SYNCHRONOUS INTERFACE 149.00 

CALENDAR CLOCK 105.00 

RS232 INTERFACE 124.00 

PROGRAMMABLE TIMER FOR APPLE . . . 99.00 
COMSHARE TARGET MARKETING 

PLANNER CALC $79.00 

TARGET FINANCIAL MODELING 249.00 

CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

HOME ACCOUNTANT FOR APPLE $69.00 

HOME ACCOUNTANT FOR IBM 1 29.00 

DICTRONICS, INC. 
RANDOM HOUSE ELECT. THESAURUS $129.00 

PROOF READER 50.00 

EAGLE 

MONEY DECISIONS $119.00 

FORCE II 

MATH* $99.00 

FOX & GELLER 

dUTIL $68.00 

QUICKCODE FOR dBASE II 249.00 

QUICKSCREEN 129.00 


CALI TOLL-FREE 
1 - 800 - 523*9511 

IN PENNSYLVANIA 
1 * 215 * 868*8219 


T/ MAKER COMPANY 


17 MAKER III $249.00 

VIDEX 

ENHANCER II 119.00 

VIDEX KEYBOARD ENHANCER 99.00 

VIDEX VIDEOTERM FOR APPLE II 275.00 

VISICORP 

DESKTOP PLAN APPLE II $184.00 

DESKTOP PLAN IBM 228.00 

VISICALC 184.00 

VISICALC ADVANCED VERSION 339.00 

VISICALC BUSINESS FORECASTING 89.00 

VISIFILE APPLE II / IBM CALL 

VISILINK 184.00 

VISIPLOT FOR APPLE 159.00 

VISITREND/ VISIPLOT 228.00 


IBM IS A TRADEMARK OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINE, 
APPLE IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTERS, 
INC., CROSSTALK IS A TRADEMARK OF MICROSTUFF. INFOSTAR 
IS A TRADEMARK OF MICROPRO. PRICES, SPECIFICATIONS 
AND AVAILIBILITY SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 
NOT ALL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE IN ALL FORMATS. PLEASE 
CALL FOR ADDITIONAL PRODUCT INFORMATION. 

MICROHOUSE 

P.O. BOX 499/1444 Linden Street 
Department 403 
Bethlehem, PA 18016 
Dealers inquiries welcome! 


INTEGRAL DATA SYSTEMS 


IDS MICROPRISM 480 PRINTER $599.00 

IDS PRISM-1 32 PRINTER 11 99.00 

IDS PRISM-80 PRINTER .879.00 

INTERACTIVE STRUCTURES 

PKASSO $145.00 

INNOVATIVE SOFTWARE, INC. 

TIM III $369.00 

GRAPHMAGIC 69.00 

MATHEMAGIC 79.00 

INFORMATION UNLIMITED SYSTEMS 

EASYFILER $349.00 

EASYSPELLER 159.00 

EASYWRITER II 279.00 

MAXELL 

FD-1 or FH-1-32 <8 SINGLE SIDED) $41 .50 

FD-2 <8 DOUBLE SIDED) 48.95 

MD-1 or MH-1 (5V4" SINGLE SIDED) 31.25 

MD-2 or MH-2 C5W double sided) 47.10 

MICROPRO 

CALCSTAR $99.00 

DATASTAR 194.00 

MAILMERGE 139.00 

WORDSTAR 279.00 

WORDSTAR /MAILMERGE 369.00 

MICROSOFT 

128K RAM FOR IBM PC $599.00 

BASIC COMPILER FOR APPLE II 31 5.00 

128K RAMCARD 539.00 

192K RAMCARD 639.00 

256K RAMCARD 769.00 

64K RAMCARD 399.00 

MICROSOFT Z80 PREMIUM PACK 575.00 

MICROSOFT Z80 SOFTCARD 279.00 

MULTIPLAN 215.00 

TASC APPLESOFT COMPILER 149.00 

NORTH AMERICAN BUSINESS SYSTEMS 

THE ANSWER $249.00 

PEACHTREE 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE $375.00 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 375.00 

GENERAL LEDGER 375.00 

INVENTORY 375.00 

PAYROLL 187.50 

SALES INVOICING 375.00 

PERFECT SOFTWARE 

PERFECT CALC $139.00 

PERFECT FILER 279.00 

PERFECT SPELLER 139.00 

PERFECT WRITER 239.00 

QUADRAM 

128K MEMORY EXPANSION $380.00 

192K MEMORY EXPANSION 475.00 

64K MEMORY EXPANSION 280.00 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE 129.00 

MICROFAZERS ALL MODELS CALL 

OUADBOARD 64K 499.00 

OUADBOARD 128K 649.00 

OUADBOARD 192K 749.00 

OUADBOARD 256K 829.00 

CONTROLLER FOR ELITE I $99.00 

RANA ELITE 1 379.00 

RANA ELITE II 559.00 

RANA ELITE III 729.00 

SMITH-CORONA 
SMITH-CORONA TP-1 $599.00 

SUPERCALC BY SORCIM $209.00 

SPELLGUARD 189.00 




MKROHOUSE 


YOUR MICRO-COMPUTER PEOPLE 

CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



softwares 


Learning 
Can Be Fun 


Micro Mother Goose 

So your child watches Ernie and Os- 
car on Sesame Street but thinks that 
your games on the Apple look like great 
fun too. Micro Mother Goose may be just 
the thing for you and your child. 

Here is a disk with nine Mother 
Goose rhymes (with full color and 
sound) along with three games. But wait! 
There is more to it than that. When you 
open the package you will find six col- 
ored Mother Goose stickers, great for 
books, computers, and TV monitors. 



There is a colorful 11" x 17" “Micro 
Do’s and Don’ts” poster, and you will 
also find a 16-page manual that de- 
scribes the contents of the disk and dis- 
cusses “family computing.’’ 

We are told in the literature that the 
disk is “kid tested and child-friendly.’’ It 
is, indeed. It is only necessary to use two 
keys. The space bar selects items on the 
pictorial menu, and the return key 
starts a program running. 

Each of the nine nursery rhymes 
starts with a colorful graphic on the 


David H. Ah! 


screen. Next, the words to the rhyme ap- 
pear. After that, the tune of the rhyme 
plays through the Apple speaker. 

Many times in these pages, we have 
recommended that an external speaker 
be substituted for the internal Apple 
speaker. At the risk of being redundant, 
we again recommend that substitution. 
You will be amazed at the difference a 
$7.95 extension speaker from Radio 
Shack makes in the sound of your Ap- 
ple. Played through such a speaker, 
these nursery rhymes will have the 
whole family singing along in no time 
flat. 

Two of the games on the disk are 
based on “big people games.’’ “London 
Bridge-Out!’’ is a slowed down version 
of Break-Out. It starts with two rows of 
ten bricks each and a wonderful spin- 
ning ball (you can even see the spin). 
The movement is slow enough that even 
a three-year-old will have no trouble hit- 
ting the ball two or three times with the 
large paddle at the bottom of the screen. 
However, on each level of the game, 
there are more bricks and the ball moves 
slightly faster. At higher levels of play, 
the game is a challenge for even the most 
accomplished Break-Out player. 

The second game, “Splat!’’ is similar 
to Kaboom or Popcorn. You have a bas- 
ket at the bottom of the screen which 
must be moved back and forth to collect 
six eggs which are dropped from the top. 
When you have successfully caught a 


half-dozen eggs, they hatch, and little 
chicks emerge. The game ends after 100 
eggs have fallen. The number of eggs 
you have successfully caught and 
hatched appears as your final score on 
the top of the wall. 

The third game, “Lamb Scramb!’’ is 
the easiest to play. The object is to get all 
of Mary’s stray lambs safely through the 
hedge at the left side of the screen and 
back to Mary. The lambs move around 
on the right side of the screen. When one 
is parallel with a hedge opening, you 
press the button on paddle 0 and the 
lamb scoots over to Mary. If you mis- 
judged the lamb’s position, it simply 
bonks its head, bounces back, and 
continues its up and down motion. 

If all three of your lambs make it 
through the hedge, you are a winner, 
and Mary’s lamb song plays as her gar- 
den springs up all over the screen. 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Micro Mother Goose 
Type: Games and graphics 
Author: Sina Pettis 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Games and nursery 
rhymes for pre-schoolers 
Price: $39.95 
Manufacturer: 

Software Productions Inc. 
2357 Southway Dr. 
Columbus, OH 43221 
(614) 486-3563 


98 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





Artesians. 

Win with brain power. 
Not fire power. 


ive into a different sort of 
battle. Artesians. It's a battle 
of wits-not weapons. 

And, it's the new video game that 
could be the most intense challenge 
you've ever undertaken. Playing 
will teach you to think like a master- 
mind. Your goal is to fill the jugs with 
precious Artesian water But first, you 
must maneuver through four floors 
of increasingly complex maze-like 
paths. Dodge rolling barrels. Duck 
dangerous conveyor belts. And elude 
your pursuers-Hank, the watchman; 
Floyd, the dog, and an endless horde 
of Artesians. Then, you've got to 
cover all your tracks — and escape. 

Artesians. The more you play the 
more infinite the complications 
become. 

So fire-up your brain power for 
an evening of action. And match wits 
with Artesians. 

Artesians is a high resolution 
arcade style video game written for 
the Apple II, Apple II+, and the 
Atari 400/800 home computer. Avail- 
able from computer stores or direct 
from Rena-Soft, 1070 Shary Circle, 
Concord, CA 94518. (415) 676-5757 

Artesians. $34.95. Requires 48k. 


Rena 'soft 

Apple is a registered trademark ol Apple. Inc. 

Atari 400/800 are registered trademarks of Atari, Inc 
"Artesians'' is a trademark of Olympia Brewing Company. 



ARTESIANS. Different from the rest. 


CIRCLE 252 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

All in all, Micro Mother Goose is a 
delightful, wholesome disk of games and 
nursery rhymes. The graphics are ex- 
cellent, the packing professional, and the 
games fun. We also applaud Software 
Productions for making this a non-pro- 
tected disk so you can back it up without 
fear of losing the original. While this 
makes it easy for pirates to copy, we 
think that most parents will want to get 
the stickers, poster, and instruction book 
and thus will be willing to pay for the 
original product. Sina Pettis of Software 
Productions promises us more “classic 
family software” packages, and we are 
looking forward to them. 


PDI Preschool Library 

The PDI Preschool Library consists of 
a set of four tape cassettes (or disks and 
audio cassettes) and a 12-page booklet. 
Its purpose is “to help three-to six-year 
olds develop certain critical skills that 
will be needed when they start school.” 
These skills include shape, number, and 
letter recognition; the concept of same 
and different; directional concepts; 
listening; and hand-eye coordination. 

The four titles in the package are: Pre- 
school IQ Builder 1 and 2, Sammy and 


the Sea Serpent, and The Adventures of 
Oswald. 

Typical of the 16 programs in the IQ 
Builder series is “Same and Different.” 
Two figures appear on the screen. If they 
are the same, the joystick must be 
pushed forward; if they are different, it is 
pulled back. Reinforcement, in the form 
of a cute song, is given to correct re- 
sponses. Pushing the joystick button will 
display the score to that point. 

“Sammy” and “Oswald” are inter- 
active stories. Sammy is a sea serpent 
who gets separated from his parents in a 


creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: PDI Preschool Library 
Type: Skill Building 
Authors: John Victor, et al. 

System: 16K Atari 
Format: Cassette or Disk 
Language: Basic 
Summary: Stories and games to 
build basic skills 

Price: Cassette $59.95; Disk $89.95 
Manufacturer: 

Program Design, Inc. 

1 1 Adar Court 
Greenwich, CT 06830 



stormy sea. He is thrown onto the land 
and wants to return to the sea. By listen- 
ing to the narrated story and following 
the directions, the player can move 
Sammy with the joystick through a 
town, a garden, and various other 
places, until he eventually returns to the 
sea. 

The narration is excellent and em- 
ploys appropriate music to go along with 
the computer images. The animation is 
simple, yet compelling. Children get 
very wrapped up in trying to help 
Sammy and are particularly anxious 
when he shrinks from lack of food. 
Fortunately, several obliging bugs, 
which can be caught by Sammy under 
the guidance of the player, flutter onto 
the screen. 

The booklet suggests appropriate 



0 selectable modes of play, ini 
Easy, Competition, High Speed. 

10 user-adjustable parameters: 
save your own custom games. 

in instruction card, a hi-score d 
1 16-page manual explaining all 
rariations available. 

ill for only $29.95 (for the Apple, 


NOW 

AVAILABLE 
FOR THE 


Features 


(UMOGIC 


713 Edgebrook Drive 
Champaign, IL 61820 
(217) 359-8482 
Telex: 206995 


mmm 


CIRCLE 275 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


r ISSli 


$ utUffclC 

U. . + 

2 _ • 

1 1 1 1 1 1 / 

Night 

[ 1 * 

3 

mi? @ 


S9| 

$ * v O ® 

i 

1 S 

5 S 

- f 

4= 

iJMJ i ! 

HHii 








Apartments, condos, single homes, 
kpayer units, offices. Whatever type in- 
Dme property you have, the accounting 
mid record keeping chores are compli- 
wted and time consuming. To handle 
em effectively and efficiently you need a 
rofessional manager. And that’s exactly 
hat The Property Manager is. 

Its capabilities are all-inclusive, yet ex- 
unely easy to utilize. They cover com- 
fccte tenant information, including move 
Its, lease data, payment status. Plus com- 



plete unit data from rental history to pend- 
ing vacancies. 

The Property Manager also handles the 
finances like a full time CPA. Everything 
from cash receipts/disbursements to ac- 
counts receivable, up to its own General 
Ledger system. It even writes checks and 
statements, prepares mailing labels and 
almost any type of report you desire. 

Get your copy of this easy-to-use, pro- 
fessional level program now. And forget 
the aspirin! 


SAY GOODBYE TO 
PROPERTY MANAGEMENT 
HEADACHES! 









ullbright Ave. Chatsworth 
91311 . ( 213 ) 709-1202 


VISA/MASTERCARD accepted. Add 3% sbipping/handfinp charge 


(California residents add §V?% sales tax.) 


* Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc 


Hew! 

’he Property Manager 
'or Apple II* 

)nly 

5295.00 


RCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

reinforcement activities for you and your 
child that will expand on the concepts 
presented on the computer. In summary, 
we found the PDI Preschool Library a 
valuable and highly motivational tool for 
helping build important intellectual 
skills. 


Early Elementary Disk I 

Early Elementary Disk I is a series of 
four programs designed for pre-school 
through the second grade. The programs 
include “Count the Shapes,” “Color 
Match,” “Number Drill,” and “Shape 
Match ” In addition, the disk includes a 
teacher management file which allows 
the programs to be personalized and tai- 
lored to the age and ability of the 
students. 

When the disk is loaded, a menu 
which allows the user to select any one 
of the four drill programs or the teacher 
management file appears. Upon selecting 
a drill program, some simple instruc- 
tions are presented followed by a screen 
which asks the student to type in his 
name. Our experience with young chil- 
dren is that they are likely to type just 


about anything. Unfortunately, the error, 
trapping routines in the program are not 
designed to catch garbage responses and 
so a name such as &%$# will produce 
the message “Illegal quantity error in 
7560” and return the program to the Ba- 
sic monitor. 

Assuming the user does type his name 
correctly, the program uses it in various 
reinforcement messages throughout the 
lesson. Unfortunately, because these 
messages are in high-resolution graphics, 
the user’s name can be a maximum of 
only six letters. Any name of seven or 
more letters is abbreviated to the first 
five followed by a period. As a result, 
users wind up being called names like 
Steph, Antho, Cathe, Rebec, Micha and 
Jenni. 

Okay, so tell the kids to use nick- 
names and let’s get on with it. The 
presentation of the four drill programs is 
more or less similar. An image appears 
in the top half of the screen. This can be 
a number of blocks, a color, a number 
spelled out, or one of seven different 
shapes. Every three seconds, the image 
in the bottom part of the screen changes. 
Eventually it matches (or is the right an- 
swer for) that on the top of the screen. 


Apple Education Packages 


Title 

Age 

Subject 

Micro Mother Goose 

3-8 

Early skills 

PDI Preschool Library 

3-6 

Early skills 

Early Elementary I 

4-8 

Early skills 

Facemaker 

4-8 

Early skills 

Bumble Plot 

3-8 

Numbers skills, logic 

Mop Town 

4-Adult 

Logic 

Match Game 

7-Adult 

Format to present 

Tic Tac Show 

7-Adult 

drill and practice 

Big Math Attack 

7-14 

Arithmetic 

Multiploy 

7-14 

Arithmetic 

The Arithmetic Classroom 

7-14 

Arithmetic 

Edu-Ware Fractions 

10-15 

Fractions 

Read and Solve Math Problems 

9-15 

Math word problems 

Word Families 

7-11 

Word recognition 

Word Mate 

7-11 

Word recognition 

Pal Reading Curriculum 

8-13 

Reading 

Vocabulary Baseball 

9-Adult 

Vocabulary 

Magic Spells 

9-15 

Spelling 

Scramble 

9-15 

Spelling 

Word Scrambler & Super Speller 

9-15 

Spelling 

How to Read in the Content Areas 

10-15 

Reading 

Fundamental Skills for Chemistry 

15-18 

Chemistry 

Chem Lab Simulations 

15-20 

Chemistry 

Weather Fronts 

9-14 

General Science 

Tell Star 

15- Adult 

Astronomy 

Understand Yourself 

14-Adult 

Self-analysis 

Lovers or Strangers 

17- Adult 

Self-analysis 

Atari Education Packages 


Facemaker 

4-8 

Early skills 

Golf Classic & Compubar 

8-12 

Graphs, angles 

Snooper Troops 

11 -Adult 

Note taking, reasoning 


In other words, if there are four blocks 
in the top part of the screen, the bottom 
part of the screen will show a numeral. 
Every three seconds, a different one ap- 
pears. The student must press any key 
on the keyboard when the correct num- 
ber appears. Well, not quite any key. Ob- 
viously, reset is a no-no. But so is 
beating on the keyboard, as that will 
most likely result in the program blow- 
ing up with the message “Syntax Error.” 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Early Elementary Disk I 
Type: Drill and practice 
Author: Charles James 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Summary: Drill for K-2 
Price: $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

Compu-Tations 
P.O. Box 502 
Troy, MI 48099 

However, assuming our users are 
well-behaved and press the right answer, 
they are rewarded with a word such as 
“great,” “right,” “good,” or “super” fol- 
lowed by some beep, bop, boop sounds 
and a happy face with a blinking eye. A 
wrong answer brings on a frowning face 
and no sounds. At the end of ten prob- 
lems, a final score is given such as “10 
right, 3 wrong.” The program then asks 
if you wish to return to the menu. We 
found it somewhat disconcerting that 
some responses must be followed by a 
return, for example, the question to go 
back to the menu, while other responses 
did not require a return. 

The teacher management file allows 
the user to adjust the number of prob- 
lems (the disk comes set with ten to a 
session), turn the music on or off, turn 
the record keeping on or off (up to 35 
students), view, delete, erase, or print 
the class file and vary the speed of 
presentation. 

In summary, the concept of Early Ele- 
mentary Disk I is very good, but the 
execution, particularly the error trapping 
routines (if there are any), leave much to 
be desired. Thus, we can only recom- 
mend this disk when it is used under the 
close guidance of either a parent or 
teacher. 


Facemaker 

Facemaker is a program designed to 
introduce young children, ages 4 to 8, to 
the computer keyboard and rudimentary 
programming. The program is menu- 
driven and easy to use. 


102 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




TTs new Compact Computet; 

It takes over your work, not your desk 


The ordinary personal computer 
occupies too much of the ordinary desk. 

Now Texas Instruments brings you a 
cordless compact computer that solves the 
same sort of problems as the Apple™ or 
IBM™ personal computer. It has enough 
memory and power for complex problems 
in business and science, yet the whole thing 
is smaller than a magazine page. 

Sophisticated software is available right 
now for finance, statistics, production 
planning, graphics— and spreadsheet and 
word processing are just around the comer. 

For most personal computer tasks, its 
6K RAM and 34K ROM are ample. The 
system is easily, economically expanded. 

The TI Compact Computer 40 has 
peripherals that make it even more useful: 

’ Based on published manufacturer’s suggested retail price. 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. IBM is a 
registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 


a 4-color printer/plotter; an RS-232 interface 
for talking with other computers or running 
a larger printer; and TI Wafertape™ drive 
for program or data storage. TI Solid State 
Software™ cartridges offer you a choice of 
convenient, foolproof programs. 



Its built-in language is TI Enhanced 
BASIC, which allows you to write programs 
in everyday words. The integrated liquid 
crystal display shows 31 characters, which 
can be scrolled to show up to 80 per line. 

It operates on four AA alkaline batteries that 
give up to 200 hours of service. 

The TI Compact Computer 40 offers 
solutions anywhere you go. Yet it retails for 
less than 1/3* the price of Apple™ or IBM™ 
personal computers. The TI Compact 
Computer— compact in price and size, but 
not in power. See it soon at your Texas 
Instruments retailer. 


Creating useful products 
and services for you. 


, Texas ^ 

Instruments 

Copyright © 198k Texas lastruments 

CIRCLE 294 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Hank: Here’s the report you’ve been 
waiting for. Hope you put your system 
on automatic and didn’t stay up. 


To all reps: Price changes on following 
items effective immediately: 

No. 10-111 A; 10-114A; 10-AL. 


Take that. bud. (And retaliate fast. 

I know phone rates are low now. but 
game’s cutting into sack time.) 


PROGRAMS 


w Your computer’s telephone. 

VM ////////// ,iilllllllllii„. 



Whether they’re getting the jump on 
the latest stock reports or waging galac- 
tic wars in the middle of the night, more 
and more personal computer users are 
communicating . With each other. With 
offices. With networks, utilities and mail 
services all over the country. 



And Hayes is providing the commun- 
ications link A first-rate telecomputing 
system that combines an intelligent RS-2 32 
connect modem with a sophisticated, 
easy-to-use communications program. 

The Smartmodem 300. Think of it 
as your computer’s telephone. Just plug 
it into any phone jack, and the Smart- 
modem 300 sends messages to and from 


your personal computer, at 300 bits 
per second, over ordinary phone lines. 
Goodbye isolation. Hello world. 

Your modem is the one peripheral that 
makes your computer a computer system . 
So it’s only natural that you’d want the 
best modem for your money. (One that 
comes with a limited 2 -year warranty.) 
The Smartmodem 300 is a wise choice. 
Far superior to acoustic coupler modems, 
which connect to the telephone receiver. 
And it’s so easy to use. 

It dials, answers and disconnects 
calls automatically, operating with 
rotary dials. Touch-Tone* ana key-set 
systems. Plus it works at full or naif 
duplex, which simply means that 
connecting to a time-sharing system, 
while it is a big deal, is no big deal to do. 

Indicator lights let you see 
what your Smartmodem is 
doing, while an audio speaker 
lets you hear it. (Is the remote 
system down, or was the 
line just busy? This way. you’ll know.) 

Now all tnese extras aren't absolutely 
necessary. We could have gotten by 
without them. But at Hayes, we’re not 
satisfied with just “getting by.’’ That’s 


why we made the Smartmodem 300 so— 


iy\ 

D. ; 


well, smart. You can even program it. 

In fact, we’ve provided one for you. 

Announcing Smartcom II.™ The 
communications program designed by 
Hayes specifically for the Smartmodem. 
If ever there was friendly software, the 
Smartcom II is it! 

The first time out. you’ll be creating 
messages, sending them, printing them 
and storing them to disk. Simultaneously. 

Likewise, when you’re on the receiv- 
ing end. Only you really don’t need to 
be. With Smartcom II and your Smart- 
modem 300. your computer does it all, 
completely unattended! That’s especially 
helpful if you’re sending work from 
home to tne office, or vice versa. 

But it’s just part of the story. For instance, 
before you communicate with another 
system, you need to “set up’’ your 
computer to match the way the remote 
system transmits data. With Smartcom 
II. you do this only once, the first time 
Afte * " " * 


ter that, the information (called pa 

l th< 


»ara- 

Le 


meters) is stored in a directory on 
Smartcom II. Calling or answering a sys- 
tem listed in the directory requires just 
a few quick keystrokes. 

You can store lengthy log-on sequences 
~ tne same way. 

* Press one key. and 
the Smartcom II 
automatically exe- 
cutes a whole string of numbers to connect 
you to a utility or information service. 

And if you need it. there’s always 
“help.” Even while you’re on-line, the 
screen will display explanations about a 


iuu Ldii siure ieng 

(Jj Hayes* 




prompt, message or parameter that will 
get you on your way in no time. 

Smartcom II also provides a directory 
of the files stored on your disk. You can 
create, display, list. name, re-name or 
erase any file right from the Smartcom II 
screen. 


And now Smartcom II is available for 
the IBM PC** and Xerox 820-IIt. 

Like all our products. Smartcom II 
and the Smartmodem 300 are backed 
by excellent documentation and full 
support from us to your dealer. 

So see him today. Link up to the excit- 
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phone for your computer. 

Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 
5923 Peachtree Industrial Blvd..Norcross. 
Georgia 30092. 404/449-8791. 


Smartcom II is a, trademark of Hayes Microcomputer 
Products. Inc. 

‘Trademark of American Telephone and Telegraph 
' ‘ IBM is a registered trademark of International Business 
Machines. Corp. 

-[Xerox 820-11 is a trademark of Xerox Corporation 
1 1983 Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. 

Sold only in the U.S.A. 


Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

To build a face, you press 1. Then you 
select various facial features: mouth, 
nose, eye, ear, and hair. For each feature 
you have eight choices. You simply se- 
quence through the choices with the 
spacebar and select the desired one by 
pressing return. That element is then 
added to the face growing on the right 
half of the screen. 

At the Australian Computer Con- 
ference in Tasmania, Tom Stonier dem- 
onstrated a similar program with me as 
the model. The students took great de- 
light in making choices for the facial fea- 
tures exactly opposite my actual 
features. My image wound up having 
small, beady eyes; a bulbous nose; a 
large, droopy moustache; huge ears; and 
no hair. 

Once a face is constructed, a primitive 
program (more like a Logo procedure) 
can be written to make the face smile, 


wiggle an ear, frown, pause a moment, 
wink and, finally, stick out its tongue. 

In the past, I have suggested that a 
“programmable” toy such as Big Trak is 
a good pre-introduction to Logo. Now, 
here is another with the advantage that 
it runs on the same computer. In- 
cidentally, Spinnaker has recently in- 
troduced Delta Drawing, a drawing and 
programming tool easier to use than 
Logo but with many of the same educa- 
tional qualities. (We’ll have a feature re- 
view of this package in an upcoming 
issue.) 

Mode 3 on Facemaker is a memory 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Facemaker 
Type: Educational game 
System: 48K Apple, Atari, IBM 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Draw funny faces 
Price: $34.95 
Manufacturer: 

Spinnaker Software 
215 First St. 

Cambridge, MA 02142 
(617) 868-4700 


game. The face starts by doing one 
thing, say wiggling an ear. You must 
press E. It then does two things, say wig- 
gle an ear and smile; you must press ES. 
The sequence gets longer and longer as 
the game progresses. Correct answers 
are rewarded with a pleasant sound 
while an incorrect answer elicits a 
Brooklyn razz. 

Facemaker is an interesting and 
highly motivational introduction to the 
computer for young children. The ap- 
proach is clever and the graphics 
outstanding. 


Bumble Plot 

The Bumble Plot disk is one of a series 
of learning games for pre-school and ele- 
mentary age children from The Learning 
Company. Each one is attractively pack- 
aged in an accordion-fold jacket and 
comes with a full color, 12-page manual. 
The outside of the package states the 
learning objective and age range. For 
example, the Bumble Plot package reads, 
“Five challenging games that teach 
number lines, negative numbers and 
graph plotting. Ages: 8 to 13.” 

Bumble is a friendly green bug who 
acts as a guide to the child using the 
learning activities on the disk. In the 
first game, “Trap and Guess,” Bumble 
thinks of a secret number in the range of 
-3 to 3. On the screen is a display that 
looks something like a ruler with grada- 
tions varying from -3 to +3. You first 
try to trap Bumble’s number. 



Let’s say you type in -2 and 1. In this 
case, Bumble draws a purple trap 
around the numbers in that range and 
tells you whether the secret number is 
inside or outside of the trap. If it is in- 
side, you can either type two numbers to 
make the trap smaller or try to guess the 
secret number. If the secret number is 
outside the trap, you must type two 
numbers to make a new trap. 

“Bumble Bug” is a similar game, but 
it is played in two dimensions. In this 
case, the Bumble Bug is sitting on a grid 
which varies from -2 to +2 in both X 
and Y directions. You specify where you 
want a trap, and the Bumble Bug hops 



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Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

one space. Eventually, when he has no 
place to go but into your trap, you win. 

In “Hidden Treasure,” a larger grid, 
varying from -5 to +5 in both direc- 
tions, is used. In this case, you are trying 
to guess the location of buried treasure. 
After each guess, Bumble tells you 
whether to make your X number larger 
or smaller and the same for your Y num- 
ber. After you retrieve six treasurers, a 
cute little graphic is shown of Bumble 
rowing them back to shore. This is a 
particularly good feature of all of the 
games from The Learning Company; 
correct responses are rewarded and in- 
correct ones are not. Much of the educa- 
tional software on the market is deficient 
in this regard. It is frequently more fun 
to lose the game than to win it. 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Bumble Plot 
Type: Educational Game 
Author: Leslie Grimm 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Makes learning fun 
Price: $60 
Manufacturer: 

The Learning Company 
4370 Alpine Dr. 

Portola Valley, CA 94025 


The other two games on the disk en- 
large upon the concept of grids. “Bum- 
ble Art” is a sort of connect-the-dots 
game played on a grid varying from -10 
to + 10. “Roadblock” is a game in 
which you must catch a moving bank 
robber with five moveable roadblocks. 
Each move is timed, but if you have 
learned your lessons well on the previous 
four games, winning this one shouldn’t 
be too difficult. 

With some of the other games from 
The Learning Company, light cardboard 
strips or key covers are included to di- 
vide the Apple keyboard into, for exam- 
ple, right, left, up and down. 

Upon returning a warranty/registra- 
tion card to The Learning Company, 
you receive a set of activity cards for 
each disk purchased. Each set consists of 
four double sided 5" square cards with 
games and activities that reinforce the 
computer programs. This is a thoughtful 
touch; while The Learning Company 
gains a mailing list, you get a nice extra 
for your time and stamp. 

The Learning Company has done an 
excellent job with their entire line of 
games, and we give them an A+ on 
everything except their replacement disk 
policy. They charge $12 for a back-up 
disk which, in light of the fact that most 


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April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

of the recreational software companies 
charge $5, seems a bit out of line. How- 
ever, they probably know how educators 
tend to “borrow” things from one an- 
other so their price may well be justified. 


Mop Town 

The Apple Special Delivery series of 
educational programs is produced by the 
folks at Advanced Learning Technology, 
Inc. who are the same people who pro- 
duce the high quality programs for The 
Learning Company. ( Magic Spells is the 
other disk currently available through 
Apple. As the name implies, it deals 
with spelling skills.) 

Mop Town covers a wide age range, 
according to the packaging: “4 to 
adult.” Using a cast of 16 characters in 
1 1 different games, Mop Town 
emphasizes logic and attributes. The 
four attributes are tall or short, fat or 
thin, red or blue, and bibbit or gribbit 
(bibbits have big noses and big feet, 
whereas gribbits have tails). 

As is stated in the rules, “Moppits get 
along with each other very well because 
they all follow the rules that govern Mop 
Town. There are rules for just about 



I I III I 1 


I 1 IE i £ -l 



everything that happens in Mop 
Town — what house a Moppit can live in, 
who can join a club; even who can be 
next to another Moppit in a parade.” 

For example, in Game 3, “What’s the 
Same?” we find four Moppits living in 


GPeative coRtpafciRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Mop Town 

Type: Educational game 

System: 48K Apple 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Learning logic attributes 

Price: $50 

Manufacturer: 

Special Delivery Software 
Apple Computer, Inc. 

10260 Bandley Dr. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 


the same house. There is at least one 
thing that is the same about all the 
Moppits. After seeing the picture of 
them, you must choose which attribute 
they all have in common. 

In Game 9, “Club House,” we learn 
that “the Mop Town club house only 
lets Moppits join that fit the rule.” The 
object of this game is to guess the 
membership rule. The rule could be a 
single trait rule (e.g., only tall Moppits) 
or a double trait rule (e.g. only tall and 
fat Moppits). You select Moppits that 
you think fit the rule. If they do, the 
Moppit will appear in the club house; if 
not, an “X” will mark the Moppit you 



chose. When you think you know the 
rule, you may type R (for guess rule). 
You will be shown a list of possible 
rules. Pick one and see if you are right. 

The games are quite intriguing and 
lots of fun to play even if you are not 
trying to learn about logic attributes. 
But when you sneak into the computer 
room to play with the Mop Town disk 
that you got for your children, better 
turn off the sound or they will come run- 
ning, too. 

We very much like the policy of Ap- 
ple Special Delivery Software which fur- 
nishes a back-up copy of each disk along 
with the initial package. This certainly 
overcomes the problem of making back- 
up copies or determining a fair price for 
them. 

Our applause to Leslie Grimm for an- 
other delightful learning game and to 
Apple for their excellent distribution 
and that “free” back-up disk. 


Match Game 

In the Match Game , the computer 
presents a gameboard of four to twenty 
numbered boxes. Players uncover two 
boxes on each turn, trying to find boxes 
with matching contents. To play well, 
you must remember what is hidden in 
each box as it is uncovered. The game 
can be played with either exact matches 
(the same word appears in two boxes) or 
paired matches (such as synonyms, 
translations from one language to an- 
other, or math problems and answers). 


After power-up, you are asked 
whether you want to make your own 
game with exact matches, make your 
own game with paired matches, play a 
game you have saved on disk, or play 
one of the seven games furnished with 
the disk. These games include an exact 
match of computer words, and paired 
matches of synonyms, French-English 
words, addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, and division problems. 

Five board sizes ranging from four 
boxes (two matches) to the largest board 
with 20 boxes (10 matches) are available. 

Up to four players (or three players 
and the computer) may play simulta- 
neously. Of course, one player can play 
alone to see how long it takes to find all 
the matches. One player can also play 
against the computer. 

During play of the game, the program 
tells whose turn it is. On each turn, you 
press return to begin your turn, then 
type in the number of the first box fol- 
lowed by return and the number of the 
second box followed by return. If you 
find a match, those boxes are flashed on 
the board, and you get another turn. 

At the end of the game, the score of 
each player is shown, and the winner (if 
there is one) is named. You then go back 

creative compatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Match Game 

Type: Educational game 

System: 48K Apple, 8K or 16K PET 

Format: Disk or cassette 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Concentration revisited 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Teaching Tools 
P.O. Box 50065 
Palo Alto, CA 94303 


to a menu which allows you to play the 
same or a different game with the same 
or new players. 

Match Game is suitable for use at 
home or in the classroom. According to 
the instruction booklet, “teachers have 
found it useful for putting current read- 
ing words, spelling words, topic words, 
or math facts in a game format.” 

We found the game held the interest 
of players of many ages. With larger 
boards ( 1 2 or more boxes), most players 
wanted to be able to write down the 
math problems; it was just too difficult 
to remember two- and three-digit num- 
bers and match them to corresponding 
arithmetic problems. While this isn’t ex- 
actly the idea of Concentration, we still 
felt that the Match Game was valuable 
because it provided the motivation to do 
the problems quickly and accurately. 


108 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





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Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

Tic Tac Show 


Tic Tac Show is an entertaining educa- 
tional game which simulates a TV game 
show. The moderator sits at the left and 
talks to you out of a cartoon-style bal- 
loon. On the front of her desk is the 
score for the two players. To the right is 
a large tic tac toe game board with the 
numbers 1 to 9 on the playing positions. 

Carol, the moderator, asks you to 
choose a number from 1 to 9. After you 
choose, a question is displayed. If you 
answer the question correctly, that block 



is filled in on the tic tac toe board in 
your color. Next, it is the turn of the 
other player (or the computer if you are 
playing alone). So, effectively this is a 
game of tic tac toe with the X’s and O’s 
being placed based on correct answers to 
various questions — reminiscent of the 
old TV game show Tic Tac Dough. 

The disk containing the game pro- 
gram has 14 categories of questions such 
as computers, sports facts, French 
vocabulary, Mother Goose, skiing, and 
myths. Additional subject disks with 
nearly 600 questions on each retail for 
$19.95 apiece. 

However, if you cannot find a subject 
that you like, the game disk contains its 
own authoring system which allows you 
to type in your questions and answers 
and save them on the disk. In this way, 
you can create an entirely new topic or 
topics. You can also add, edit, or delete 
questions from the existing series. 

To add some spice to the game (after 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Tic Tac Show 
Type: Educational game 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: New CAI variation 
Price: $39.95 
Manufacturer: 

Computer Advanced Ideas 
1442A Walnut St., Suite 341 
Berkeley, CA 94709 


all, tic tac toe is a bit dull), the designers 
have included a “wildcard” function. 
When this comes up in the game, the 
current player gets an automatic pass 
(equivalent to a correct answer). In addi- 
tion, in a tie game when the ninth square 
is about to be played, the moderator 
occasionally offers to toss a coin to de- 
cide which player gets it. More than 
once, I have lost this coin toss to the 
computer, and the computer is never 
wrong. 

In summary, the concept, presenta- 
tion and animation of Tic Tac Show are 
outstanding. The editing mode allows it 
to be adapted to a wide range of abilities, 
age groups and topics. We give it our top 
grade. 


Big Math Attack 

Big Math Attack is a mathematics 
drill and practice program in the guise of 
a Missile Command type of game. 

At the beginning you choose which of 
the four basic mathematics operations 
(addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division) you want and at which of 
two levels you wish to play. 

A stylized city that is under attack ap- 
pears near the bottom of the screen. The 
words “Landed” and “Score” are 



. mu.. 


1 8 



printed under the city. A rocket ship 
speeds across the top of the screen drop- 
ping an equation such as 4 + 2 or 6 x 9. 
You use the keyboard to enter the an- 
swer. Unfortunately, since the answer is 
being reproduced on the screen in high- 
resolution graphics, it takes quite a while 
to reproduce each numeral. Con- 
sequently, you may type 12 very quickly 
as the answer to a problem, only to find 
that the computer has accepted only the 
first numeral, 1. Although most players 
were able to adjust, we found some were 
more bothered by this time delay than 
others. The delay is especially annoying 
because speed is critical to the game 
score. The quicker an equation is de- 
stroyed, the more points are awarded. 
At first, the equations drop very slowly 
on the city. As more equations are 
solved correctly, the speed of their 
descent increases. 


112 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


America’s # 1 Software Dealer 


Unfortunately, there is no way to cor- 
rect a typing mistake. Even if you have 
plenty of time before the equation lands 
on the city, once you make a mistake, 
you are stuck with it. 

The game ends when five equations 
have landed (five missed problems) or 
when a maximum score of 5000 is 
reached. 

The sound effects are interesting at 
first, but become old fast. For classroom 
use, it would be highly desirable to have 
a way to disable the sound effects, but 
none is included on the disk. 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Big Math Attack 
Type: Educational game 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk or cassette 
Summary: Math drill and practice 
Price: $25 
Manufacturer: 

THESIS. 

P.O. Box 147 

Garden City, MI 48135 
(3 13) 595-4722 

Despite its shortcomings, Big Math 
Attack probably provides a higher level 
of motivation than other, more mundane 
drill and practice exercises. Two years 
ago, the execution would have been 
considered outstanding; today we expect 
more. 


Multiploy 

According to the instruction booklet, 
“ Multiploy combines the excitement of 
an arcade game with the challenge of 
learning and practicing arithmetic 
skills.” Well, yes and no. 

To play the game, you use the key- 
board to enter answers to problems that 
appear in four descending Problem 
Ships. A correct answer in your Answer 
Window causes a ray to be fired from the 
Answer Base which destroys one Prob- 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Multiploy 
Type: Arithmetic game 
Author: Paul Coletta 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Speedy drill 
Price: $24.95 
Manufacturer: 

Reston Publishing Co. 

Reston, VA 22090 


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CIRCLE 270 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Gel Relief from the 
Apple Flashing Cursor. . . 


Enjoy the eye-saving clarity and operating 
smoothness of a non-flashing cursor... a feature 
found on larger systems and terminals. 

The Silencer™ can be used with all DOS 
software, or your own programs. Cursor can 
be changed from steady block to flashing, 
and back, with a control key function. 

Let the cursor flash if data entry is on an 
inverse video background. But for normal data 
entry, and for all commands and program state- 
ments, let the cursor act like it should. ..silent! 

APPLE 11/11+ DOS 3.3 Standard 40-column display 
Phone orders (Visa, Mastercard): 
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In Calif 800-852-7777 

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516 5th Ave., New York, NY 10036- (212)706-5907 

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and exp. date. Add $ 1.00 shipping ($ 2.00 foreign). 

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April 1983 ® Creative Computing 






Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

lem Ship. If you enter an incorrect an- 
swer, the Problem Ship(s) continue to 
drop, and the wrong answer disappears 
from the Answer Window. 

To speed up play of the game on lower 
levels, the return key may be pressed 
to clear the Answer Window of an in- 



correct answer or to fire a ray before the 
computer normally would. 


If a Problem Ship is not destroyed by 
the time it descends about half way 
down the screen, an indicator starts to 
blink, warning you that the Problem 
Ship will soon begin to shoot back. You 
may continue to enter answers until the 
Problem Ship either makes a direct hit 
on the Answer Base or becomes a 
Missed Problem. 

The game ends when all the Problem 
Ships have been eliminated or when a 
Problem Ship destroys your Answer 
Base. You are then given a rank based 
on the number of Problem Ships you 
eliminated. 

In playing Multiploy , you can choose 
an arithmetic operation ( + ,-,x,-^), level 
of difficulty (1 to 3), and regular or 
“lightning” speed. We found these op- 
tions provided a suitable starting point 
for most youngsters in the target age 
range of 4 to 14. You might want to give 
that precocious kid multiplication prob- 
lems at Level 3, lightning speed. Just for 
grins, I tried it and got a score of 8 (out 
of a possible 40) for a rank of Uniploy. 

While Multiploy superficially resem- 
bles an arcade game with its four flying 
saucers and laser ray, it is actually drill 
and practice with a fancy timing mecha- 
nism. It held the interest of some of the 
youngsters who played it here although 
to a lesser extent than Broderbund’s 
Dueling Digits (an equation building 
game in the arcade genre). Thus we sug- 
gest that Multiploy, like most educa- 
tional games, be used with adult 
supervision and encouragement. 


Fractions 
— Basic Concepts 

The Fractions — Basic Concepts disk is 
one of a series of eight learning packages 


in the Arithmetic Classroom series from 
Sterling Swift Publishing. Each one is 
packaged in a 7" x 9" three-ring binder 
which contains brief instructions for 
loading and using the disk, two sets of 
practice exercises, five copies of a stu- 
dent achievement record, and an answer 
key for the practice exercises. 

The Arithmetic Classroom series is 
virtually identical to Swift’s Elementary 
Mathematics Learning series except that 
it does not include the learning manage- 
ment system which contains mastery 
tests, diagnostic/prescriptive functions 
and an achievement record keeping sys- 
tem for up to 200 students. The 
Arithmetic Classroom is available on 
eight individual tutorial disks for $49.95 
each. A three-game disk for reinforce- 
ment costs $29.95. The EMCL system 
with the learning management disks 
costs considerably more. Thus, the 
Arithmetic Classroom disks, despite 
their name, seem most suitable for home 



jzi a i-i . 3 _b . T_a_L.a. . -Ti 


and there 
are 9 
letters 
a 1 together 


IPRESS RETURNl 



, * 

So. of the 

letters are S's 


use, although schools might want to get 
individual units. 

The Fractions — Basic Concepts pack- 
age is typical of the other eight. There 
are five lessons on the disk, each of 
which starts out with a tutorial. You are 
led through this tutorial by a cute 
androgynous (of indeterminate sex) car- 
toon character. The tutorial is a 
combination of text and graphics, al- 
though no color or sound is used. 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Fractions — Basic Concepts 
Type: Educational tutorial 
Authors: Fawzy Tibrahim, 

David N. McClintock and 
Patricia M. Mullinix 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Comprehensive learning 
system 
Price: $49.95 
Manufacturer: 

Sterling Swift Publishing Company 
1600 Fortview Rd. 

Austin, TX 78704 


Following the tutorial, six related prob- 
lems are presented for you to answer. 
After each answer, your friendly elec- 
tronic tutor (shall we call him/her 
Terry?) gives you reinforcement by 
dancing a jig, juggling his head, or 
shooting an arrow which is actually your 



name. If you miss a problem, Terry is 
not content merely to flash the correct 
answer; rather he reviews the procedure 
for obtaining it. 

After the six problems, Terry shows 
your score and asks if you would like to 
review the concept further or go on to 
the next lesson. If you have completed 
several skills, before going on to the next 
one, Terry gives you a short mastery test 
of all of the previous ones. Again, 
corrective feedback is provided if you 
stumble on any of the problems. 

The five student achievement record 
sheets (which may be copied) provided 
in the manual are a good place for keep- 
ing track of the progress of different 
members of the family or students in the 
classroom. 

In our previous review, we were 
enthusiastic about the Swift Elementary 



Mathematics Classroom Learning Sys- 
tem. We are equally enthusiastic about 
the Arithmetic Classroom. We like the 
objective-based tutorial approach, the 
drill and practice exercises which rarely 
repeat, the excellent feedback in the 
event of an error, and the positive 
reinforcement for correct responses. 

Our only negative observation is that 
Sterling Swift does not have a policy for 
obtaining back-up disks. They charge 
$9.95 for a replacement of the original 
disk. This seems a bit steep to us. 


114 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



rjssm 




COMPIJ-MUSIC 


The CMU-800 connects to your 
computer through any auxiliary slot 
. and then connecting to any 

amplifier or stereo system for perfor- 
mance. Because the Compu-Music 
system is software based, it allows 
for virtually infinite hardware 
expansion. It can never become 

♦ Hf obsolete. 

Playing and programming the 
Compu-Music is so easy that you 
don't have to be a musician, but 
if you are, you'll appreciate the 
well-thought-out programming, a 
system tha^t R(0tan<| has used for 

The Roland CMU-800 
Synthesizer retails for $495.00. The 
Compu-Music Software retails for $70.00 and is 
available for the Apple II and NEC 
computers. For more information, 
see your computer dealer or contact: 

RolandCorp US, 2401 Saybrook 


. . . And a waltz, a blues song, 
a rhapsody, and a whole lotta >^***5*^^^ 

rock n roll. In fact, your computer s* ~ ^ 

can now play any kind of music, ^ 
thanks to the new Roland 

Compu Music. ' jW 

Roland, the world's leading pro 
ducer of synthesizers and 
electronic musical instruments, 
has put its years of music 

programming experience into a ^ 

high performance computer/ 
music synthesizer system 
that can easily be used by 
anyone —from the computer 

Compu-Music 

software allows your computer to write, 
program, change and store musical 
compositions of up to eight voices, 
plus a seven voice electronic 
drummer. The Compu-Music 
hardware (CMU-800) is a music 


synthesizer that plays these Avenue, Los Angeles, 


musical parts. CA 90040 (213) 685-5141. 


1 Roland 


CIRCLE 259 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


We Design The Future 


- 


Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

Edu-Ware Fractions 

The Edu-Ware Fractions disk contains 
four major components: a learning man- 
ager system which allows an adult (par- 
ent or teacher) to tailor the presentation 
of the instructional materials, a pre-test 
which measures the learner’s knowledge 
and skills before entering any of the 
learning modules, six learning units each 
designed to teach a different skill used in 
fraction computations, and a post-test 
which assesses the learner’s new skills 
after completing the units. 

The six learning units cover defi- 
nitions and parts of the fraction, de- 
nominators, and fraction arithmetic 
(addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division). 

Each learning unit consists of ten 
pages (screens) of instructional material. 
Pages are all done in high-resolution 
graphics and use upper and lower case 
letters, diagrams, and animation where 
appropriate. Some of the pages are defi- 
nitions and demonstrations, while others 


require the user to fill in one or more 
blanks or complete a problem. These 
frames lead the user step-by-step 
through each part of the learning 
experience. 

For example, one of the more difficult 
conceptual skills for learners to master is 
that of equality. Hence, the unit on de- 
nominators introduces examples of frac- 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Edu-Ware Fractions 
Type: Tutorial 

Author: Sherwin Steffin, et al. 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Fraction tutorial 
Price: $49 
Manufacturer: 

Edu-Ware Services, Inc. 

P.O. Box 22222 
Agoura, CA 91301 



tional manipulation and gives the 
learner considerable practice. Skills in- 
troduced are: changing denominators, 
finding the common denominator by us- 
ing prime factors, reducing denomi- 
nators, and finding the lowest common 
denominator. Once the user has mas- 
tered these skills, he will have a much 
easier time with the units on addition, 
subtraction, multiplication and division 
of fractions. 

The user can move from any page in a 
learning module to either the next page or 


Scrambling Words 

Within the past year, many manufac- 
turers have brought word scramble pro- 
grams to the market. In this 
comparative review, we’ll take a look at 
three such programs. Before rushing out 
to buy one of these, you may want to 
consider just what educational value 
they have. Scrambled word exercises are 
not in wide use in school curricula. The 
computer makes it easy to mix up the 
letters of a word, present it, and accept 
guesses for the unscrambled word. But 
does that help the student spell the word 
or recognize it in context? Simply be- 
cause something can be done does not 
automatically mean it should be done. 
But if you think scrambled word ex- 
ercises are worthwhile, read on. 

All three programs have certain ele- 
ments in common. All have two main 
parts. The first part presents the scram- 
bled words, and then requires the user to 
type the unscrambled words. A second 
part of each package is an editor which 
allows a teacher or parent to enter lists 
of words, change words on existing lists, 
display lists of words and the like. 

Magic Spells by Leslie Grimm of Ad- 
vanced Learning Technology is distrib- 
uted by Apple Computer’s Special 
Delivery Software Division. Of the three 
programs, this is the closest to a game. 
The disk opens with a high resolution 
graphic welcoming you to Spells Valley. 
You journey from there to the Kingdom 
of Spells where you meet the Wizard of 
Spells, who has twelve lists of twenty 


words each to be unscrambled. You can 
select any one of the lists. 

The instructions tell us, “There are 
twenty chests of gold and jewels hidden 
throughout the castle. Each one may be 
opened if you know the right spell. 

“A word of warning . . . you are not 
alone in the Castle of Spells. The spelling 
demon will be close behind, waiting to 
take some of your treasure should you 
fail to give the correct spell.’’ 

At the beginning of the game, you are 
shown a screen with ten unscrambled 
words on it. If you wish, you can write 
these words down on a piece of paper. 
Pressing return displays the second 
half of the list. The word lists that come 
with the disk are also found in the 
appendix to the manual. 

The unscrambling process then be- 
gins. Twenty closed treasure chests are 
pictured at the top of the screen. A 
scrambled word is shown in the center of 



the screen. You type your guess for the 
word below it. If your guess is correct, 
the first treasure chest pops open and 

creative compatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Magic Spells 
Type: Educational game 
Author: Leslie M. Grimm 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Unscramble words 

Price: $45 

Manufacturer: 

Special Delivery Software 
10260 Bandley Dr. 

Cupertino, CA 95014 


you are awarded a number of points 
corresponding to the number of letters in 
the word. 

If you spell the word incorrectly, a 
clue appears below the scrambled word. 
The clue shows the letters you placed in 
the correct position and question marks 
in the other positions. This clue remains 
on the screen as you try to guess the 
word again. You can try for the word as 
often as you wish. When you get it, the 
treasure chest is replaced by the demon, 
indicating the word was spelled without 
help but in more than one try. You and 
the demon divide the points for that 
word. 

If you just can’t guess the word at all, 


116 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 






procS*| 

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,( v onic 


smen 


jififbusi- 
■fstern'- 
us || 

Brrly un 
p\PC - ’\s 

mputf 

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available 


Now 

ith NEC ha 


E'S 

THE PERSONAL 
COMPUTER AD 
OUR COMPETITION 
DOESN'T WANT 
YOU TO READ. 


It’s an ad for NEC’s APC™ 
Advanced Personal Computer. 

A solutions-oriented system that 
solves business problems in the 
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The APC supports both CP/M-86’“ 
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personal computer. That’s why our 


competition would 
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We asked 


iit you 


‘‘That APC of yours is JJaMnost 
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I saw. I don't know hoviHM 
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‘‘Now that I've used it 
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Advanced Personal Com put 
And that from bu 
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When you see the' 
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Our business software 1 
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CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

the preceding one by pressing the right 
or left arrow key respectively. 

For those who prefer to get directly 
into using the learning modules, the 
learning manager system is not required. 
However, the use of it allows a great 
deal of flexibility in tailoring the learn- 
ing experience to an individual user. For 
example, the instructional material can 
be presented in a sequence which you 
preselect, you can let the pre-test select 
the learning sequence, or let the learner 
choose his own learning sequence. You 
can change the number of incorrect re- 
sponses the learner is allowed for a prac- 
tice problem before the system will take 
him back to review material. You can 
add or delete units to be tested in the 
pre-test or post-test, change the number 
of problems, view pre-test or post-test 
scores, and so on 

The 14-page instruction manual de- 
scribes the use of the disk in detail, dis- 
cusses the learning manager system and 
options, and describes the instructional 
model (assumptions, objectives, sequenc- 


ing, classroom utilization) of the 
package. 

Edu-Ware Fractions is one of a series 
of programs from Edu-Ware Services, 
all of which we have found to be of ex- 
cellent quality. We also applaud Edu- 
Ware for their policy providing low cost 
($5.00) updates of their packages when 
new ones are released. 


Read And Solve 
Math Problems 

Read and Solve Math Problems is 
called in the manufacturer literature, “a 
progressive tutorial and drill program 
that teaches the important elements of 
word problems and conversion of writ- 
ten problems to number problems. The 
program allows interaction between the 
student and the computer, provides 
reinforcement of all concepts, and 
reteaching where necessary. The pro- 
gram is self-scoring and will not allow 


the student to progress to higher level 
concepts until the previous lesson has 
been mastered.” 

There are ten lessons, five on each 
disk. The first two lessons focus on find- 
ing the key words in addition and 
subtraction problems. The student is 
given a series of problem statements in 
which he must identify words such as 
“altogether, in all, total, fewer, and 
smaller.” 

The lessons then progress to writing 


KAx HAS 11 FISH. S Ail HAS 9 F 1 Sit AND 
JIM HAS B FISH HOW MANY FISH IS 
THIS IN ALL? 



you can type an * and the unscrambled 
word will replace the scrambled one. 
However, in this case you get an empty 
treasure chest and the demon takes all of 
the points for that word. 

At the end of the game, your final 
score is displayed until you go back to 
the main menu. 

The editor portion of the disk called 
Spells Writer has five options: 

1 . Enter a new list of words 

2. Delete an old list of words 

3. View a list of words 

4. See list of file names 

5. Copy list on printer 

There are also options to make back- 
up copies of the disk, replace back-up 
copies, and make word list disks. Each 
of these editing functions is fully de- 
scribed in the comprehensive 25-page 
manual. Words may consist of upper 
and lower case letters, apostrophes, hy- 
phens, and periods. The left arrow may 
be used to correct a spelling mistake 
both while entering words with Spells 
Writer and while playing the game. 

The only problem we experienced 
with the disk is that it is not tolerant of 
rapid typing when you are playing the 
game. This is because each letter is 
shown on the high resolution screen and 
it takes time for the computer to draw 
the letter and get ready to accept the 
next one. Error trapping is excellent, 
and pressing reset in the middle of the 
game is the only way to hang up the pro- 
gram that we found. The package comes 
with both a master and a back-up disk 
and is an all-around professional job. 


Scramble by Ahead Designs is similar 
in concept to Magic Spells but not in 
execution. 

Upon loading the disk, the user is di- 
rected to “Enter your name.” The screen 
then displays the 20 words in word file 
A. These are displayed one at a time; 
pressing return brings up the next 
word. This is a rather time consuming 



procedure compared to displaying the 
list in two groups of ten words each. 

After the list of unscrambled words 
has been displayed, the game starts. As 
in Magic Spells, the screen is divided 
into three parts. The top part has a grid 
of 40 rectangles (4 x 10), each one being 
worth five points. The center part of the 
screen displays the scrambled word. If 
you spell it correctly on the first try, two 
rectangles in the grid are filled in for a 
score of ten points. If you spell it in- 
correctly, there is no clue given. Instead, 
the scrambled word is rescrambled and 
shown again. In many cases, this second 
scrambling is helpful in that it shows dif- 


ferent letter combinations and may point 
the user to the correct word. 

You have two tries to spell the word 
correctly. If you spell it correctly on the 
second try, your score increases by five 
points. A misspelled word on the second 
try causes “incorrect” to appear at the 
bottom of the screen and the word is 
automatically presented correctl> 
spelled. A new scrambled word then 
appears. 

If your score reaches 180 or higher, 
“Super Speller” is displayed. Upon 
entering the last word, you almost ini 
mediately get the message, “Gann* 
Over,” and the screen is erased in 
preparation for a new user who is di 
rected to “enter your name.” 

We found that some users were dis 
appointed that their score disappeared 
so quickly and could then be viewed 
only by entering the Teacher Utilit \ 

creative compatiRfS 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Scramble 
Type: Educational game 
Author: Sandy Head 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Unscramble words 
Price: $15.95 
Manufacturer: 

Ahead Designs 
699 North Vulcan 
Encinitas, CA 92024 
(619) 436-4071 


118 


April 1983 ® Creative Computmo 






creative coiwpafctRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Read And Solve 
Math Problems 
Type: Tutorial 
Authors: Anne Edson and 
Allan Schwartz 

System: Apple, Pet, or TRS-80 
Format: Cassette or disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Learn to solve 
word problems 
Price: 5 cassettes $78, 

2 disks $85 
Manufacturer: 

Educational Activities Inc. 
P.O. Box 392 
Freeport, NY 11520 
(516) 223-4666 


equations and using them to solve addi- 
tion and subtraction problems. Since the 
package is geared to grades 4 to 6, the 


menu. Calling this menu is also the only 
way to change the starting word list. 

The Teacher Utility also allows de- 
fault parameters to be changed, a word 
file to be copied, edited, or displayed and 
the list of student scores to be displayed. 
The grade book records the scores of up 
to 30 students. The scores are not saved 
on the disk so they are lost, of course, if 
the computer is turned off or reset is 
pressed. 

The disk is not copy protected so it 
may be copied on a blank disk for regu- 
lar use while the master disk is kept in a 
safe place. 

The Avant-Garde disk, Word Scram- 
bler & Super Speller includes a spelling 
practice program in addition to the word 
scrambler program which some users 
may find desirable. 

The first time we loaded the disk we 
were a bit put off. The opening title on 
the disk takes an interminably long time 
to appear, and the prompts and instruc- 
tions for using the disk are somewhat 
cryptic. There is no instruction manual 
or sheet with the package, and after it 
was loaded we pressed reset at an in- 
opportune moment causing the disk to 
self-destruct. Perhaps Avant-Garde has 
deemed a copy protection scheme of this 
type necessary, but we think that most 
users will find it undesirable. 

We were more careful with the 
replacement and had no further trouble. 

Unlike the other scramble programs, 
this one does not show the word list in 
advance. Instead, if you select the 
scramble option, you are asked for the 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


equations are relatively simple and con- 
sist of problems such as 
31 + 18 = n 

The second disk goes on to multiplica- 
tion and division problems along with 
more addition and subtraction problems, 
although no problems combine more 
than one numeric operator. 

After a basic concept is explained, a 
typical screen presents a problem in the 
top two or three lines. For example, 
“there were 72 people at the rides. Each 
car at the rides could hold 8 people. 
How many cars were needed?” 

The student is then asked to type in 
the left side of the equation, in this case, 
“72/8.” He is next asked for the vari- 
able, which is always n, and is told to 
solve for n. Finally he is asked to type in 
his answer with its label, in this case “9 
cars.” After each correct answer, the 
word “great,” “correct,” or “right” ap- 
pears on the screen in a cute graphic 
form accompanied by some beeps and 
boops. After all the problems in one les- 
son have been completed, a final score is 


amount of time you wish to allow to de- 
cipher a word and which of the three 
word lists you wish to use. There are 
lists for students in Grades 0-3 (words 
with two to four letters), Grades 4-8 
(four to eight letters) and “experts” (five 
to fourteen letters). 

The scrambled letters of a word ap- 
pear on the screen along with a counter 
indicating the seconds remaining to 
guess the word. We found this made 
some users very nervous, and caused 
them to “clutch” as in a timed exam. 

When you type in a guess, the pro- 
gram indicates the number of letters that 
are in the correct positions, but not 
which ones they are. You get three 
guesses to get the word, and you receive 
one point if you get it without a hint and 
one-half point if you need a hint. 

One feature to which we object in this 

creative coiRputiugj 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Word Scrambler & 

Super Speller 
Type: Educational game 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Unscramble words 
Price: $19.95 
Manufacturer: 

Avant-Garde Creations 
P.O. Box 30160 
Eugene, OR 97403 
(503) 345-3043 


119 


given by means of another cute animated 
graphic presentation. 

Included with the package are ten 
reproducible activity masters to re- 
inforce the concepts presented and four 
masters for use as pre- and post-test. 

Read and Solve Math Problems is a 
good solid tutorial and drill package and 
should find favorable acceptance in the 
classroom. 


Golf Classic and 
Compubar 

Golf Classic provides practice in 
estimating angles and lengths. When the 
program is loaded, a bird’s eye view of 
one hole on a golf course appears on the 
screen. The ball is shown on the tee. 
Your object is to “hit” the ball into the 
hole on the green with the fewest pos- 
sible strokes. When it is your turn, the 
program asks, “What angle would you 
like to use?” You enter an angle between 



POf-; I T I Cl NS CuRRF.L T 


OUT O? T I ME 

o c e: d 

TVPE IN GUESS AND HIT RETURN 
TO FORFEIT THIS WORD HIT THE ESC. KEV 


DOCE 



program is that a correctly spelled word 
is considered wrong if it is not the one 
the program is seeking. For example, the 
scrambled letters SINP appeared. We 
entered SNIP and were told “That’s not 
it. Try again.” Okay, we put in PINS. 
Wrong again. Last try, NIPS. Wrong 
again. The word the program was look- 
ing for? SPIN. 

In the spelling practice mode of opera- 
tion, a word is quickly flashed on the 
screen, and you must type it in. As with 
the word scrambler, you get three tries 
to get it. Incidentally, flash card 
presentations are alternated with scram- 
bled words if you select the scramble 
option. 

Like the other programs, this one al- 
lows you to enter your own lists of prac- 
tice spelling words. 

All in all, we felt that Word Scrambler 
& Super Speller was the least user- 
friendly of the three packages. However, 
it offers the additional flash card spelling 
practice mode that the others do not and 
thus may better meet your needs. 




The Tax Break 
u’ve Been Looking For 


You Just Found It! 


E-Z Tax. The simplest tax preparation 
software ever developed was designed 
for your Apple II personal computer. 

Now you can prepare your own tax 
return without any knowledge of taxes 
or computer programming. From the 
moment you insert the E-Z Tax floppy 
disk, you’ll be in full control. Every ques- 
tion is self-prompting and nothing is 
overlooked. 

If you make a mistake, the program 
lets you know about it immediately. If 
you need tax help, just press a button 
and you’ll get the answer. Its simply 
the most amazing tax preparation soft- 


ware ever. 

mmmmmmmmmm COUPON ■■«■■■■■• 

Please send me the following # of kits requested. 

APPLE II IBM PC 

ATARI 400 & 800 CP/M 


. TOTAL REQUESTED 


x $69.95 each 

Total 

— . Plus Postage & Handling ($4/kit) 

Plus C O D. Charges (S3/kit) 

TOTAL ORDER 

(Enclose payment tor this amount.) 

ACT NOW! 

Send: □ Check G Money Order □ C O D. 
Charge my credit card: □ Visa □ Mastercard 


Card # 

Signature. 

Name 

Address^. 
City 


.Exp. Date. 


.State. 


.Zip. 


Mail this coupon to; TAX HELP, INC. 


Prints on Federal Forms 

When you’re finished, E-Z Tax will 
print out your tax return on official fed- 
eral forms. If you don’t have a printer, 
just fill in the forms from the data on the 
screen. 

If you need help, you can call E-Z 
Tax’s toll free customer service phone 
number. 



E-ZTax prepares the following IRS forms 
and schedules: 


1040A 

2106 

1 040 EZ 

2119 

1040 page 1 & 2 

2210 

Schedule A 

2440 

Schedule B 

2441 

Schedule C 

3468 

Schedule D 

3903 

Schedule E 

4137 

Schedule F 

4684 

Schedule G 

4972 

Schedule R/RP 

5695 

Schedule W 

6251 

1040 ES 

6252 

1 040 SE 



ACT NOW! 

You just found the tax preparation program 
you’ve been looking for. Now here’s how you 
can get your hands on it . . . 
e Fill in the coupon, or 
• Call toll-free to order over the phone. 
Just give the operator your credit card 
number or request a C.O.D. shipment. 

Only $6995 

TAX DEDUCTIBLE 


Your E-Z Tax Kit Includes. . . 

• E-Z Tax Software Program (2 Disks) 

• E-Z Tax Guide Book 

• Over 35 Official Federal Tax Forms 
for 1 982 Tax Returns 

• Tax Organizer Envelopes 

• Instruction Guide 

• Warranty Card 


Ezmx 


pisU^^V 



HELP 


I NCO«POSRT€D 


BOX 7676 

SAN JOSE, CA 951 50 
(408) 998-1040 

WATS LINE: (800) 331-1040 - USA 
(800) 344-1040- CA 






If 5 ff?*| 


The lax Break 
You’ve Been Looking For 


You Just Found It! 

E-Z Tax. The simplest tax preparation 
software ever developed was designed 
foryouriBMPC personal computer. 

Now you can prepare your own tax 
return without any knowledge of taxes 
or computer programming. From the 
moment you insert the E-Z Tax floppy 
disk, you’ll be in full control. Every ques- 
tion is self-prompting and nothing is 
overlooked. 

If you make a mistake, the program 
lets you know about it immediately. If 
you need tax help, just press a button 
and you’ll get the answer. Its simply 
the most amazing tax preparation soft - 
ware ever. 

mm-mmmmmm COUPON «« 


Please send me the following # of kits requested: 

IBM PC APPLE II 

ATARI 400 & 800 CP/M 


. TOTAL REQUESTED 


x $69.95 each 

Total 

- Plus Postage & Handling (S4/kit) 

Plus C O D. Charges ($3/kit) 

TOTAL ORDER 

(Enclose payment for this amount.) 

ACT NOW! 

Send □ Check □ Money Order □ C O D. 
Charge my credit card: □ Visa □ Mastercard 


Card # 

Signature. 

Name 

Address 

City 


.Exp. Date. 


.State. 


-Zip. 


Mail this coupon to TAX HELP, INC. 


Prints on Federal Forms 

When you’re finished, E-Z Tax will 
print out your tax return on official fed- 
eral forms. If you don’t have a printer, 
just fill in the forms from the data on the 
screen. 

If you need help, you can call E-Z 
Tax’s toll free customer service phone 
number. 



E-ZTax preparesthefollowing IRS forms 
and schedules: 


1040A 

2106 

1 040 EZ 

2119 

1040 page 1 & 2 

2210 

Schedule A 

2440 

Schedule B 

2441 

Schedule C 

3468 

Schedule D 

3903 

Schedule E 

4137 

Schedule F 

4684 

Schedule G 

4972 

Schedule R/RP 

5695 

Schedule W 

6251 

1040 ES 

6252 

1 040 SE 



ACT NOW! 

You just found the tax preparation program 
you've been looking for. Now here’s how you 
can get your hands on it . . . 

• Fill in the coupon, or 

• Call toll-free to order over the phone. 
Just give the operator your credit card 
number or request a C O D. shipment. 

Only $6995 

TAX DEDUCTIBLE 




Your E-Z Tax Kit Includes. . . 

• E-Z Tax Software Program (2 Disks) 

• E-Z Tax Guide Book 

• Over 35 Official Federal Tax Forms 
for 1 982 Tax Returns 

• Tax Organizer Envelopes 

• Instruction Guide 

• Warranty Card 





HELP 


INC 




RT<D 


BOX 7676 

SAN JOSE, CA 951 50 
(408) 998-1040 

WATS LINE: (800) 331-1040 - USA 
(800) 344-1 040 - CA 


CIRCLE 172 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

0 and 360 degrees and press the return 
key. You may enter negative angles if 
you wish. 

A diagram in the lower right corner of 
the screen shows a circle with four an- 
gular directions marked on it, 0, 90, 180, 
and 270 degrees. Pressing H puts a grid 
over your ball to assist you further. 

After you have entered the angle you 
wish, the computer asks. How many 
units long?” A line one unit long is 
shown in the lower corner of the screen 
The unit length is different each time 
you play a round. You may enter your 
unit length using decimals as well as 
whole numbers. 

Once you land on the green, the com- 
puter putts for you and tells you how 
many putts you took. Of course, the 
closer you land to the hole, the fewer 
putts the computer has to take for you. 

There is a one-stroke penalty for going 
out of bounds or into a water hazard. 
When you are shooting from a sand 
trap, your ball may go at a slightly dif- 
ferent angle or distance than you chose. 

The game may be played by one to 
four players. A reusable scorecard, 
which may be marked with a wax 
crayon or water-soluble marker, is in- 
cluded with the software package. 

Compubar, according to the package, 
“provides practice in reading graphs, 
constructing arithmetic expressions, and 
mental addition and subtraction.” 

At the start of the game, five blue bars 
between one and fifteen units long are 
displayed in the top two-thirds of the 
screen. At the bottom of the screen, a 
green bar is displayed, also between one 
and fifteen units in length. A horizontal 
(x) axis with unit markers and labels at 
0, 5, 10, and 15 is shown in the center of 
the screen between the blue bars and the 
green bar. 

Your objective is to combine three or 
more bars, from the blue graph to form a 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Golf Classic and Compubar 
Type: Educational game 
Author: William Kraus 
System: 16K Atari 400 or 800 

(cassette), 32K Atari 800 (disk) 
Format: Disk or cassette 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Learn to estimate 
angles and length 
Price: $29.95 (cassette), 

$32.95 (disk) 

Manufacturer: 

EduFun! Division 
MiHiken Publishing Co. 

1100 Research Blvd. 

St. Louis, MO 63132 


bar the same length as the green goal bar 
shown below. You may use each blue 
bar only once. 

You press + to add a bar, - to sub- 
tract a bar, and S to stop when you have 
completed your answer. If the red bar 
you have made is the same length as the 
green goal bar, you win. Perfect scores 
earn a display of fireworks when you 
stop. 

We found in playing Compubar that, 
in general, the answer must be com- 
pletely thought out before starting to 
add and subtract bars. For example, in 
one problem we had blue bars that were 
11, 9, 5, 3, and 2 units in length. Our 
goal was to construct a bar 15 units in 
length. Only one solution is possible (11 
+ 2-3 + 5=15). Trial and error was 
not likely to yield this solution, particu- 
larly since you are not permitted to 
make a bar less than 0 nor more than 15 
units long at any time. 

A reusable Compubar card on which 
you may use a crayon or marker to 
shade in bars and try to combine them is 
provided. We found however, that most 
users preferred to form an algebraic ex- 
pression and simply add and subtract 
numbers rather than manipulating bars. 
On the other hand, the algebraic ap- 
proach probably provides practice in 
skills that are at least as valuable as 
manipulating the bars. 

We would have preferred that the pro- 
gram not return to the initial title after 
completing an exercise but instead pro- 
vide the opportunity for another student 
or group of students to play the same 
game. We feel this approach is particu- 
larly desirable on the Atari computer 
given its rather long load times. Never- 
theless, the package is well done and 
representative of the high quality pro- 
grams in the Milliken EduFun! series. 


Word Families 

Word Families contains three different 
categories of material: beginning con- 
sonants, ending consonants, and medial 
vowels. 

Upon loading the disk, you are asked 
to enter your name. You are then given a 
choice of nine groups of words, three in 
each of the three categories mentioned 
above. The word list is loaded and shuf- 
fled and then presented, one word at a 
time, at the top of the screen. 

A word appears with one letter under- 
lined. Below it are four additional let- 
ters. From this group you select the 
letters that will make a complete word 
when substituted for the underlined let- 
ter. If your selection is correct, the letter 
disappears from the list and the new 
word appears on the stylized TV screen 
at the bottom of the screen. If your 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Word Families 
Type: Educational drill 
Author: Robert Hartley 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Learn families of words 
Price: $29.95 
Manufacturer: 

Hartley Courseware Inc. 

P.O. Box 431 
Dimondale, MI 48821 
(616) 942-8987 


selection is incorrect, the response is re- 
corded on the student file, but the screen 
does not change. After finding all of the 
words within a group, an X shows in a 
small box at the right of the screen. This 
signals the user to press return to 
bring on the next presentation. 

For example, in beginning con- 
sonants, the word like is presented with 
the 1 underlined. Four letters are shown: 
s, h, d, and b. In this instance, all the let- 
ters except s will form a word when sub- 
stituted for the 1. 

After every ten correct responses a 
clown’s face appears on the screen. 

Lessons vary from 22 to 39 words 
long. After a lesson has been completed 



b!^ 

d s 



the number correct out of the total num- 
ber of attempts will be shown. Pressing 
the escape key exits the program at any 
point and displays your results to that 
point. Results are automatically stored 
in the “student planning” file. 

The student planning file holds 
records for up to 100 students. 

A second part of the disk allows a 
teacher or parent to delete, add, and 
examine words in the different lists. The 
student planning file allows a teacher or 
parent to examine previous scores, clear 
the file, or print student records on a 
printer. 

Error trapping is excellent and short 
of pressing the reset key, we found 
nothing that would abort or destroy the 
program. 


122 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




HOME IS THE LAST PLACE 

YOU SHOULD LEARN ABOUTA 
HOME COMPUTER. 


WANT TO LEARN SOMETHING 

ABOUT HOME COMPUTERS? 

HERE , ITS FREE. 

AT HOME . IT COULD COST YOU. 

No one expects you to know 
everything about a home 
computer before you 
buy it. A fact 
which is not 
lost on 



|Hk:\ s yM 
m 

competition. 

They know 

that an impressively low price can 
divert your attention from some depress- 
ingly cheap features. So that you won't 
know what you may be missing with 
their home computer until after it's been 
in your home for a while. 

At which point, naturally, it'll cost 
you to change your mind. 

IT'S EASY TO TELL THE DIFFERENCE. 

Fortunately, you don't have to be 
a computer engineer to tell 
what makes the 
Commodore 
VIC 20™ su- 
— P er ' or *° the 

competition. 
All you have to 
JHfP do is take advan- 
tage of three of your 
five senses. 

Use your sense of 
W vision and read this comparison 
chart. You can see in black and 
white where two of our major 


competitors have skimped. Use your 
sense of touch in the store. 

You'll feel the VIC 20's su- \ 
periority immediately. It feels 
a lot more expensive than 
it is. 

If these two senses don't 
convince you that the VIC 20 
offers more for the money than 
any other home computer, simply rely 
on common sense. 

NOW THAT YOU KNOW HOW EASY 

A COMMODORE HOME 
COMPUTER IS TO OWN . FIND 

OUT HOW EASY IT IS TO EXPAN D. 

One thing about home com- 

puters that you're bound to discover at 
home is that, once you learn what they 
can do, you'll want them to do more and 
more. To do this, you may need acces- 
sories called peripherals. These let you 




EXPANSION COSTS 

VIC 20 rv or 
COMMODORE 64 “ 

TI99/4A® 

ATARI 400* 

BASIC 

Included 

Included 

$59.95 

Peripheral 

Expansion System 

Not 

Necessary 

$249.95 

Not 

Necessary 

Disk Drive 

$399.00 

399.95 

599.95 

Disk Controller Card 

Included 

249.95 

Included 

Modem 

109.95 

224.95 

199.95 

Modem Interface 

Included 

174.95 

219.95 

TOTAL 

Manufacturer's suaaested list Drices: Prices ner Tl 

$508.95 

1 .lune-npremher 1QR9 1 1 c; 

$1299.75 

C * nnci imor DrrvHi i/^tc Ci iri 

$1079.80 


Atari prices effective July 1, 1982 Suggested Retail Price List. 

get more out of a home computer by 
letting you put more into it. 

They include items like cassette 
recorders and disk drives to input data, 
modems for telecomputing and printers. 
And all VIC 20 peripherals are fully com- 
patible with the powerful Commodore 
64™ personal computer. 

PLAN AHEAD. 

When you start looking at your first 
home computer, you may think it's too 


can cost you twice as much with Tl or 
Atari as with the Commodore VIC 20 or 
Commodore 64. 

THINK OF IT AS BUYING A TOASTER. 

It's easy to fill up a computer ad 
with RAM's and ROM's, numbers and 
technical jargon. But when it comes right 




COMPUTER FEATURES 

VIC 20 

Tl 99/4A 

ATARI 400 

Typewriter Keys 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

Typewriter Feel 

Yes 

No 

No 

Color Control Keys 

Yes 

No 

No 

Graphics on Keys 

Yes 

No 

No 

Reverse Letters 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

Programmable Function Keys 

Yes 

No 

No 

Works with TV or Monitor 

Yes 

Yes 

No 

True Lower Case Letters 

Yes 

No 

Yes 

DISK FEATURES 

Capacity 

170K 

90K 

88K 


U.S.A. P.O. Box 500, Conshohocken, PA 19428; Canada — 3370 Pharmacy Ave., Agincourt, Ontario, Canada M1W2K4. 




early to start planning to 
add peripherals. If that's what 
you think, you're once again playing 
right into the hands of our competitors." 

Because once they've gotten you to 
buy their home computer, for what 
seems to be a reasonable price, they 
have you hooked on their system. 

The costs of which, if you'll examine 
the chart below, can really start getting 
unreasonable. For example, while these 
computers may seem to be close to the 
same price to start, an expanded system 


down to it, buying a home computer is 
just like buying anything else. It's impor- 
tant to know.just what you're getting 
for your hard-earned money. 

And we hope we've accomplished 
that here by telling you about the cost of 
expanding your Commodore VIC 20 
or Commodore 64 computer. 

ft commodore 

COMPUTER 

CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Learning Can Be Fun, continued.. 

Word Mate 

Word Mate is a game played against 
the computer in which you produce 
compound words from shorter words. 
The object of the game is to help you 
recognize closed compound* words. 

At the beginning of the game, you are 
dealt ten word cards. You try to match 
two of the word cards to make a com- 
pound word. For example, if your word 
cards are: 

rain nest coat good 
you would enter raincoat as a compound 
word. Nest and good would remain in 
your hand. The computer plays against 
you. You can type one compound word 
on each turn. If you cannot match two 
words, you press the return key. The 
computer then tells you how many cards 



it has in its hand. You type the number 
of the word card you want from the 
computer hand. You and the computer 
take turns until one of you finally wins. 
Beware, the computer does not make 
mistakes. Each compound word the 
computer produces is shown on the 
screen along with the two smaller words 
from which it was made. 

The disk comes with ten word lists of 
ten compound words each. If you wish, 
you can enter new words or entire word 
lists. You can view the new words you 
have loaded into a word file, but un- 
fortunately, you cannot view the 100 
words that are already on the disk. 

Word Mate is menu-driven and uses 
colorful, high-resolution graphics to dis- 

creative GoinpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Word Mate 

Type: Educational game 

System: 48K Apple 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Learn compound words 

Price: $25 

Manufacturer: 

T.H.E.S.I.S. 

P.O. Box 147 
Garden City, MI 48135 
(313) 595-4722 


play all of the instructions and words in 
upper and lower case. The program is 
well designed and has good error trap- 
ping routines. Recommended for grades 
3 to 6. 


Pal Reading Curiculum 

PAL (Personal Aid to Learning) is a 
unique diagnostic and tutorial system 
that goes well beyond the standard drill 
and practice approach of so many other 
programs. The Pal system covers read- 
ing education for grades two through 
six. 

The Pal system consists of two parts, 
a master disk package and curriculum 
packages. The master system contains a 
disk with a mini operating system for the 
Pal curriculum disks. It also includes an 
upper/lower case chip for your Apple in 
case you do not already have one in- 
stalled. This allows the lesson material 
to be presented in a “real world” format 
without having to use the high-resolu- 
tion screen. The booklet provides com- 
plete instructions for installing the chip. 

Upon loading the system, Pal asks if 
you know what objective you wish to 
start with. The 32 objectives covered by 
the Reading-Level 6 curriculum package 
are listed on Pages 9-11 in the manual. 
However, if you are not sure where you 
want to start, Pal will suggest a starting 
point. If you have not used the system 
before, Pal will start at the beginning, 
appropriately enough. If you have used 
the system and recorded your previous 
results, Pal will pick up where you left 
off. 

Initially, Pal instructs you to load a 
Discovery Disk. This is an evaluator. It 
has five questions on each of the 32 
objectives. You can elect to take the en- 
tire 160-question test or just selected 
objectives. At the end, Pal will give you 
your score and indicate the areas, if any, 
with which you had difficulty. There are 
three discovery disks; Pal gives you ex- 
plicit instructions as to when to use each 
one. 

The Learning Disks contain the les- 
sons and exercises to correct the diffi- 
culties found on the Discovery Disks. 
Instruction typically starts out with five 
or six screens of tutorial material. Each 
screen contains a modest amount of 
information, in upper and lower case, of 
course, with highlighting for the key 
points. You can study this for as long as 
you wish, and then press the space bar to 
proceed. Fast readers will be a bit frus- 
trated at the slowness with which the 
information appears on the screen; this 
is because of the extensive amount of 
disk accessing. However, for the most 
part, the speed is appropriate for the 
target grade levels. 


After the tutorial screens, several 
questions are presented. If you miss any 
of these questions, or if you missed a 
question on the discovery disk, Pal will 
show you exactly what you missed, ex- 
plain why your answer was incorrect, 


creative compafciRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Pal Reading Curriculum 
Type: Tutorial 
Authors: Dale Foreman, 

Stanley Crane, 
and Daniel Myers. 

System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Great graphics and action 
Price: Master $99.95 
Manufacturer: 

Universal Systems 
for Education, Inc. 

2120 Academy Circle, Suite E 
Colorado Springs, CO 80909 

and show you the correct answer. This 
approach is far superior to systems that 
simply tell you what you missed or just 
show the correct answer. 

Pal uses a mastered, tried and not 
tried method of scoring, rather than a 
raw score. The system can produce three 
reports: a student report gives the 
progress of an individual student, a class 
report lists all students and shows their 
progress toward a selected goal, and a 
grouping report groups students into 
three categories (mastered, needs more 
work, not tried) on a selected objective. 
These reports can be printed as well as 
viewed on the screen. A Pal master disk 
can keep the records for up to 30 
students. 

In summary, Pal is an outstanding 
remedial/tutorial system with a friendly, 
personalized approach that is non- 
threatening to the poor reader. It is vali- 
dated against the most widely used 
textbooks and should be of interest to 
parents for use at home as well as to 
teachers for classroom use. 


Vocabulary Baseball 

Vocabulary Baseball is a multiple 
choice quiz about vocabulary words in 
the guise of a baseball game. 

At the start of the game you are given 
a choice of three games: a short (one-in- 
ning) game consisting of three outs (or 
three incorrect answers), a two-inning 
game which allows six incorrect an- 
swers, or a three-inning game which al- 
lows nine outs. 

When the game starts, the upper two- 
thirds of the screen is occupied by a styl- 
ized baseball diamond. An abbreviated 


124 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





SPECIFICATIONS 

OVERALL 

Password Privacy System 
Written in UCSD Pascal 
Hard Disk Oriented 
Operates on Apple III, 
IBM PC 


Great Plains Accounting/Management Software 


ACCOUNTING 




Most business people know 
that there are two ways to 
improve business profits: sell 

( more or spend less. The 
Hardisk Accounting Series 
from Great Plains Software 
Joes both. And your profits 
will never be better! 

Great Plains Software im- 
proves business profits be- 
cause it accounts for them. 
Your profit centers are iso- 
lated and unnecessary losses 
ire avoided - whether you're 
I using General Ledger, Ac- 
■ counts Payable, Accounts 
I Receivable, Payroll or Inven- 
Itory with Point-of-Sale. 

[The Hardisk Accounting 
Series is fast, powerful and 
[operates on popular mic- 
|rocomputers. Don’t trust 
lyour company’s profits to any 
[software other than Great 
[Plains Software. When it’s 
rime to see profits, the 
Hardisk Accounting Series 
is accountable! 

| Call or write your local com- 
puter store dealer or Great 
Plains Software for more in- 
formation on how you can 
account for your profits! 


GENERAL LEDGER 

All entries on line entire fiscal 
year 

Flexibly formatted financial 
statements 
Comparative income 
statements and balance sheets 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 
Up to 32,768 customers* 

Profit by customer, customer 
type, salesman and state 
Open item or balance forward 
Automatically posts to G/L 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Up to 32,768 vendors* 
Accommodates manual or 
generated checks 
Automatically posts to G/L 

PAYROLL 

Up to 32,768 employees* 

Up to 25 deductions per 
employee 

Withholding computed 
Prints W2, 941 and checks 

INVENTORY 

FIFO, LIFO, standard cost, 
weighted moving average and 
serial number valuation 
5 price levels per part 
Concise report including profit by 
part and line 

Point of Sale for cash and credit 
sales 

Part numbers up to 15 characters 
Automatically posts to A/P 
and A/R 

*depending upon disk storage space 
**TM L/C Regents 


Hardisk Accounting Series 



Great plains 

SOFTWARE 


123 15 Street N., Fargo, ND 58102 
Telephone (701) 293-8483 

CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 












Albany Region 

Don Francolino (203) 232-4529 


Los Angeles Region 
Terry Kramer (213) 921-2659 


Kansas City Region 
Dan Hennessey (612) 546-4888 


New York Region 
Bob Sochor (212) 696-9800 


San Diego Region 
Bob Norman (714) 894-1371 



Atlanta Region Eastern Mkt. Manager Boston Region 

Preston Stone (404) 255-9438 Ron Moore (817) 390-3527 Dick Callahan (617) 848-0780 



Denver Region Western Mkt. Manager Detroit Region 

Rosemary Shiels (303) 424-4467 Scott Bowers (817) 390-3910 Celia Magro (313) 552-9290 


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Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 



Vocabulary Baseball Word Lists. 


Single 

Double 

Triple 

Meditate 

Minatory 

Susurrant 

Assimilate 

Replication 

Apse 

Apparent 

Turgid 

Rachitic 

Berate 

Incursion 

Pullulate 

Abscond 

Effulgent 

Denouement 

Discrete 

Anhydrous 

Cajolery 

Mandatory 

Expatiate 

Eclectic 


scoreboard which indicates the number 
of runs, hits, and outs appears on the 
right. 

As each player comes to bat, he can 
try for a single, double, or triple. He is 
awarded a hit if he correctly defines the 
word presented. An attempt for a single 
base hit results in an easier word, while a 
player trying for a triple must guess the 
meaning of a much more difficult word. 
Table 1 shows seven words that we 
found in each category. We felt that 
many of the words in the triple group 
were extremely difficult and not likely to 
be known by any but the most dedicated 
of lexicologists. For example, susurrant 
is not even in Webster’s New Collegiate 
dictionary. Furthermore, the definition 
for apse required by the program is re- 
cess, which is a secondary meaning 
again not listed in Webster’s. 

The definition for replication required 
by the program also calls for the second 
meaning of the word (echo). For the 
meaning of eclectic, which would you 
choose, selecting or comprehensive? I 
chose the latter but the program was 
looking for the former. Playing a triples 
only game, three innings, on average 1 
scored between 12 and 20 correct before 
getting nine outs — and words are my 
business! 

When the player completes the pro- 
gram, if his score is higher than that of 
the present record holder, his name and 
total are recorded on the disk as the 
score to beat. According to the instruc- 
tions, “this competitive aspect of the 
game encourages students to try it again 
and again. In this process they improve 
their vocabulary.’’ 

The instruction sheet with the disk de- 
scribes how to eliminate names and 



CONNOISSEUR MEANS 

1 CLIQUE 

2 DEBUTANTE 
3. EXPERT 

SUBSTITUTE 

A HIT! YOUR HITTER MOVES TO 
PRESS ANY KEY FOR THE NEXT 


scores and start over with a clean slate. 
It also describes how to list the existing 
words and change them or their 
definitions. 

To restart the disk after a play of the 
game, run must be typed, and the pro- 
gram starts over from the beginning. A 
better way would be to ask, at the end of 
the program, whether another student 
was waiting to play or if the current stu- 
dent wanted to play again. This would 
save having to reload the start-up 
graphic, re-enter the student name, and 
reload the word file. 

Although there are nearly 1000 words 
on the disk, the random number gen- 
erator appears to cause the program to 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Vocabulary Baseball 
Type: Educational game 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Game to improve 
your vocabulary 
Price: $29.50 
Manufacturer: 

J & S Software 
140 Reid Ave. 

Port Washington, NY 11050 


start at a similar point in the list each 
time it is run. While this gives students a 
head start on subsequent plays of the 
game, (assuming they learned the defi- 
nitions from the previous game) it does 
not expose them to as many new words 
as one might expect. Nevertheless, we 
judged Vocabulary Baseball an effective 
vocabulary builder, although it is un- 
likely that many students will come to 
know and use the words in the triple 
category. 


How To Read In The 
Content Areas 

How To Read In The Content Areas is 
one in a series of software packages from 
Educational Activities to help students 
read with understanding. 

O, 



The literature tells us that the pro- 
gram package is designed to help stu- 
dents master the following concepts: 
“spotlighting for vocabulary building 
and learning the meaning of new words 
and concepts; surveying to determine the 
information given in a particular read- 
ing; detecting main ideas and inferences; 
recalling important facts, ideas, and de- 
tails; and utilizing and applying skills to 
content areas.” This description re- 
minded us of jargon we have read in 
educational grant proposals. 

What the program boils down to is a 
presentation of five or six paragraphs of 
information followed by questions about 
them. On each disk, are four programs 
each of which presents five to eight 


2. Local weather bureaus* 
situated throughout the world* get 
needed information from a world 
organization. Farmers can 
forecast expected frost* sea 
capta i ns know when to change 
courses* and airplane pilots know 
where to fly around storms because 
of the information provided by the 
weather bureaus. 


(Press Any Key To Continue) 


screens of text on a particular subject. 
Large upper and lower case letters are 
displayed on the high-resolution screen, 
so this is not as much text as it might 
sound. Following the presentation of the 
text, the student is presented with seven 
questions (multiple choice, true/false, 
fill in the blank and find a word) which 
he must answer. If a question is an- 
swered incorrectly, the screen of 
information from which the answer can 
be derived is shown again, and the ques- 
tion repeated. 

Although the manufacturer’s lit- 
erature tells us “through the clever use 
of graphics, the microcomputer rewards 
successful student performances with vi- 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: How To Read In The 
Content Areas 
Type: Tutorial 

Author: E. Insel and A.N. Rabin 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Reading skills 
development 
Price: $49 
Manufacturer: 

Educational Activities Inc. 
P.O. Box 392 
Freeport, NY 11520 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


127 





Apple Computer Inc., 20525 Mariani Avenue, Cupertino, California 95014 


For the authorized Apple dealer nearest you, call 800*538-9696 (800-662-9238 


in California.) 


Fruitful Connections 


The new Apple Joystick II is 
the ultimate hand control device 
for the Apple II. 

Why is it such a joy to use? 

With two firing buttons, its 
the first ambidextrous joystick — 
just as comfortable for lefties 
as righties. 

Of course, it gives you 360° 
cursor control (not just 8- way like 
some game-oriented devices) and 
full X/Y coordinate control. 

And the Joystick II contains 
high-quality components and 
switches tested to over 1,000,000 
life cycles. 

Which makes it a thing of 
beauty. And a joystick forever. 


1 here are more people in more 
places making more accessories 
and peripherals for Apples than 
for any other personal computer 
in the world. 

Thanks to those people — 
in hundreds of independent 
companies — you can make the 
humblest 1978 Apple II turn tricks 
that are still on IBM’s Wish List 
for 1984. 

But now were coming out with 
our very own line of peripherals 
and accessories for Apple® Personal 
Computers. 

For two very good reasons. 

First, compatibility. We’ve 
created a totally kluge-free family 
of products designed to take full 
advantage of all the advantages 
built into every Apple. 

Second, service and support. 


Now the same kindly dealer who 
keeps your Apple PC in the pink 
can do the same competent job 
for your Apple hard-disk and you 
Apple daisywheel printer. 

So if you’re looking to expand 
the capabilities of your Apple II 
or III, remember: 

Now you can add Apples to 
Apples. 


Gutenberg would be proud. 

Old Faithful Silentype® has now been joined by New Faithfuls, the 
Apple Dot Matrix Printer and the Apple Letter Quality Printer. 

^ ^ < So now, whatever your budget and your 

' needs, you can hook your Apple to a printer 

\ that’s specifically designed to take advan- 

<^\ v tage of all the features built into your 

llllliliiii Apple. With no compromises. 

— I JPL The 7x9 Apple Dot Matrix 

In. ^ Printer is redefining “correspondence 

quality” with exceptional legibility. 

\ With 144x160 dots per square inch, it can 

* also create high resolution graphics. 

^ s The Apple Letter Quality Printer, 

; which gets the words out about 33% 

faster than other daisywheel printers 
in its price range, also offers graphics 
capabilities. See your authorized 
Apple dealer for more information and 
demonstrations. Because, unfortunately, all 
^ the news fit to print simply doesn’t fit. 


©1983 Apple Computer Inc. 









Launching pad for numeric data. 


Good tidings for crunchers of 
numerous numbers: 

Apple now offers a numeric 
keypad that’s electronically and 
aesthetically compatible 
with the Apple II 
Personal Computer. ' 

So you can enter 
numeric data 
faster than 
ever before. 

The Apple 
Numeric Key- 
pad II has 
a standard # 
calculator- 
style layout. 

Appropriate, 


because unlike some other key- 
pads, it can actually function as a 
calculator. 

The four function keys to the 
left of the numeric pad should be 
special interest 
to people who use 
VisiCalcf Because 
they let you zip 
around your 
work sheet more 
easily than ever, 
adding and 
deleting entries. 

With one 
hand tied be- 
hind your 


CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


the creek 
"without 
paddle? 


It in space? Or down in 

5 ? 


Or lc 

the dungfconsr 

Wh4|bver your games, you’ll 
' to know that someone' 
(y come out with game 
3uilt to hold up under 
Ig fire. Without giving you 


be hap 
has fin; 
paddl< 
bliste: 
blister: 

V 

game 
one reo 
Peopl 
excited a 
hard 
So we 
rugged 
to 3,000,i 
them for h< 
the firing 
side for 

Soyo 


e Hand Controller II 
dies were designed with 
discovery in mind: 
laying games get 
can squeeze very, very 


de the cases extra 
sed switches tested 
life cycles. We shaped 
ing hands and placed 
tton on the right rear 
imum comfort, 
never miss a shot. 


A storehouse of knowledge. 


If you work with so much data 
or so many programs that you find 
yourself shuffling diskettes con- 
stantly, you should take a look at 
Apple’s ProFile T , M the personal 
mass storage system for 
the Apple III Personal 
Computer. 

This Winchester-based 
5-megabyte hard disk 
can handle as much data 
as 35 floppies. Even more 
important for some, it 
can access that data 
about 10-times faster 
than a standard floppy 
drive. 

So now your Apple 
III can handle jobs once 
reserved for computers 
costing thousands 


and reliability, you need only store 
one word of wisdom: 

Apple. 


more. 


As for quality 









Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 


sual prizes,” the visual prize turns out to 
be a word such as “nice,” “great,” or 
“super” in large type on the screen. 
However, users did not seem to object to 
this nearly as much as they did to the de- 
lays in responsiveness of the software 
when typing in word answers. The rea- 
son for the delay is That the letters are 


displayed in the high-resolution mode, 
and it takes the computer a while to 
draw each one on the screen. However, 
even fifth and sixth graders (the target 
age range of the programs) were able to 
hunt and peck faster than the software 
was able to accept their answers. 

On the bright side, each disk in the 


How To Read In The Content Areas se- 
ries comes with five reproducible activ- 
ity sheets which contain key words from 
the text in interestingly shaped word 
search puzzles. The brief instruction 
sheet includes a description of how to 
use the program and answers for the 
word search puzzles. 



Profile of a Snooper Trooper 


This year was 1978. The month 
was January. The meeting was set for 
the following Tuesday at the home 
offices of one of the largest game 
makers in the world. Tom Snyder, 
now the president of Tom Snyder 
Productions (formerly Computer 
Learning Connection) in Cambridge 
had an appointment with a key exec- 
utive at Parker Bros. — the head of 
game acquisitions. 

Tom recalls, “I had looked for- 
ward to the meeting for months, con- 
stantly redesigning my game called 
Personk, a wood-wire-string contrap- 
tion that was a simplified model of a 
computer. I had put an enormous 
amount of my own time and money 
into the project.” 

When the fateful Tuesday finally 
arrived, Tom discovered that all 
along the meeting had been set for 
the previous Monday. “It only took me 
a few moments to realize that I had 
subconsciously decided to miss the 
meeting. I wasn’t ready to leave the 
known, comfortable world of teach- 
ing to enter the competitive, intense 
world of business.” 

That startling moment of insight, 
however, ended up being a turning 
point in Tom Snyder’s life. “I went 
back to the drawing board filled with 
a compulsive burst of creative energy. 
By the end of the week I had pur- 
chased a microcomputer and taught 
myself to program. Next, I trans- 
formed the three-dimensional game 
of Personk into a piece of micro- 
computer software for kids.” 

Snyder followed Personk with a se- 
ries of educational simulations for his 
students at Shady Hill School cover- 
ing such subjects as archeology, 
community, energy, geography, and 
geology. He and his venture capitalist 
partner, Jere Dykema, soon sold 
these programs, called “The Search 
Series,” to McGraw-Hill. By then 
the fledgling entrepreneur was ready 
for the business world “and that time 
I did not miss the meeting.” 

Today, Tom Snyder is 32 years old, 
recently remarried, and the owner of 
an endearing old mutt name 
Roqueforte. He continues to teach at 


the same private school in Cambridge 
“out of a sense of loyalty to the 
school and a love of kids.” 

He scored a notable success in late 
1982 when his Snooper Troops I and 
II became the first educational 
gameware for home and school 
computers to make the industry’s 
bestseller list. These games, as well as 
the upcoming The Most Amazing 
Thing . . . ,were published, marketed, 
and distributed by Spinnaker Soft- 
ware Corporation of Cambridge, 
MA. 

While Tom variously describes 
himself as a design addict, pro- 
grammer, songwriter, advocate for 
children and technology, teacher, au- 
thor, and entrepreneur, he also pos- 
sesses a well-deserved reputation as an 
avant-garde thinker in the home and 
educational software field. He is wary 
of the drill-and-practice approach to 
educational software. The material 
Tom designs reflects his belief that a 
classroom should be a “learning 
environment,” a place where group 
dynamics and proficiency in basic 
reading and writing skills are more 
important than using a computer. 


He states, “The computer is there 
as a servant or a tool. My goal as a 
teacher isn’t to have the kids become 
CRT nerds. I prefer to have students 
take an active role with the computer 
by making them responsible for keep- 
ing track of information and having 
them work together in small groups. 
To teach a set of skills, the software 
must encourage kids to manipulate 
numbers and facts and make 
decisions.” 

Recently, Tom and several col- 
leagues authored a book entitled 
Computers in the Classroom. His 
contribution was a series of vignettes 
“all of which have a dour sound to 
them because I am still very skeptical 
about the use of computers in 
classrooms.” 

Tom Snyder, however, has no 
skepticism about his own company 
and its products. “We want people to 
know that we are trying always to 
write the highest quality, most enter- 
taining software possible. We’re fas- 
cinated with the technology, always 
looking for excuses to design, and the 
thing that keeps us honest is our 
attachment to kids.” 


130 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



r 




Everybody^ making money 
seling microcomputers. 
Somebody's going to make money 
servicing them. 


Now NRI Trains You At Home To 
Make Money Servicing, Repairing, 
and Programming Personal 
and Small Business Computers 

Seems like every time you turn around, somebody 
comes along with a new computer for home or business 
use. And what’s made it all possible is the amazing micro- 
processor, the tiny little chip that’s a computer in itself. 

Using this new technology, the industry is offering 
compact, affordable computers that handle things like 
payrolls, billing, inventory, and other jobs for business of 
every size . . . perform household functions including 
budgeting, environmental systems control, indexing reci- 
pes. And thousands of hobbyists are already owners, exper- 
imenting and developing their own programs. 

Growing Demand 
for Computer Technicians 

This is only one of the growth factors influencing 
the increasing opportunities for qualified computer techni- 
cians. The U.S. Department of Labor projects over a 100% 
increase in job openings for the decade through 1985. 

Most of them new jobs created by the expanding world of 
the computer. 

Learn At Home 
to Service Any Computer 

NRI can train you for this exciting, rewarding field. 
Train you at home to service not only microcomputers, 
but word processors and data terminals, too. TVain you at 
your convenience, with clearly written “bite-size” lessons 
that you do evenings or weekends, without going to classes 
or quitting your present job. 

Your training is built around the latest model of the 
worlds most popular computer. It’s the amazing TRS-80™ 
Model III now with disk drive and the capabilities and fea- 
tures to perform a host of personal and business func- 
tions. No other small computer has so much software 
available for it, no other is used and relied on by so many 
people. And it’s yours to keep for personal and business use. 

You get plenty of practical experience. Under NRTs 
carefully planned training, you even install a disk drive 
verifying at each step its operation. Using the NRI Discovery 


(TRS-80 is a trademark 
of the Radio Shack 
division of Tandy Corp.) 


Lab® that 
also comes 
as part of your 
course, you build and 
study circuits ranging 
from the simplest to the 
most advanced. You ana- 
lyze and troubleshoot using 
the professional 4-function 
LCD digital multimeter you keep to use later in your work. 
Then you use the lab and meter to actually access the in- 
terior of your computer . . . build special circuits and write 
programs to control them. You “see” your computer at 
work and demonstrate its power. 

Same Training Available With 
Color Computer 

NRI offers you the opportunity to train with the 
TRS-80 Color Computer as an alternative to the Model 111. 
The same technique for getting inside is enhanced by 
using the new NRI-developed Computer Access Card. Only 
NRI offers you a choice to fit your specific training needs. 

Become the Complete 
Computer Person 

In addition to training in BASIC 
and advanced machine language, you 
gain hands-on experience in the operation 
and application of the latest computers 


for both business and personal jobs. You’re trained to be- 
come the fully rounded, new breed of technician who can 
interface with the operational, programming, and service 
facets of all of today’s computers. You’re ready to take your 
place in the new electronic age. 

Other Opportunities 

NRI has been giving ambitious people new elec- 
tronic skills since 1914. Today’s offerings also include 
TV/Audio/Video Systems servicing with training on our 
exclusive Heath/Zenith computer-programmable 25" diag- 
onal color TV . . . Industrial Electronics, Design Technol- 
ogy ... and other state-of-the-art courses. 

Free Catalog . . . Mail Card Today 

Send the postage-paid card for our 104-page catalog 
showing all courses with equipment and complete lesson 
plans. There’s no obligation other than to yourself. See 
how NRI can help you take advantage of the exciting 
job and earnings opportunities in the exploding field of 
microcomputers. If card has been removed, please write 
to us. 


rtfill 

We’ll give you tomorrow. 


NRI Schools 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 
Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Ave. 
Washington, DC 20016 


Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

While the approach of this package is 
certainly pedagogically sound, we ques- 
tion whether it is worth $49 to replace 
about 20 to 30 pages in a textbook. Un- 
doubtedly, the computer provides a level 
of motivation that the textbook does not. 
This suggests that these packages may 
be most useful for remedial work or for 
students who have difficulty keeping 
their attention focused on a book. 


Snooper Troops 

Snooper Troops is a series of adventure 
detective games which help children 
learn to take notes, draw maps, classify 
and organize information, and develop 
vocabulary and reasoning skills. Chil- 
dren, did we say? Yes, but only if they 
can shoulder the adults out of the way. 

In Case #1, “The Granite Point 
Ghost,” we read in the instructions, 
“Someone is trying to scare the Kim 
family right out of their new home. But 
who? And why? 

“As a Snooper Trooper, your job is to 
find out. But it will take some daring 
detective work. You’ll have to question 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Snooper Troops 
Type: Educational adventure game 
System: 48K Apple or Atari 800, 
disk drive 

Author: Tom Snyder 
Format: Disk 
Language: Basic 

Summary: Adventures go educational 

Price: $44.95 

Manufacturer: 

Spinnaker Software 
215 First St. 

Cambridge, MA 02142 


witnesses, uncover background informa- 
tion, and even search dark houses to find 
the facts. 

“The computer program provides you 
with all the equipment you’ll need: a 
SnoopMobile, a wrist radio, the 
SnoopNet computer, a camera for taking 
Snoop Shots and a notebook for keeping 
track of the information you uncover as 
you get closer to solving the mystery. 

“Granite Point Ghost offers children 
the challenge and excitement of solving 
a mystery and features full color graph- 
ics and sound.” 

We joined the case on Tuesday in 
week 1. We were given Snoop license 
number . 5 and connected with the 
SnoopNet computer. 

It told us that “Mister X will accept a 
call at 357-7359 on Wednesday after- 


noon.” We were then allowed to look up 
people facts, special messages, or old 
clue files. We were also allowed to make 
an accusation (it was a bit soon for that!) 
or leave the office. 

We elected to leave, hopped in the 
SnoopMobile and paid a visit to a nearby 
house. We stopped at 9 Larch Street, 
went to the door of the house, and asked 
the person who answered, “Where were 
you the evening of April 6?” The person 
replied, “Are you sure you have the 
right place?” (this was listed as clue 
896). Since we could not satisfactorily 
answer the question, the door was 
slammed in our face. 

We then went around to the right side 
of the house and entered through an 
open basement window to take some 
Snoop Shots. 

Thus started our adventure to find out 
who was trying to scare the Kim family 
out of their home and why. 

Although this is billed as an educa- 
tional adventure for children, we found 
it was quite challenging and not some- 
thing that could easily be solved in 10 or 
15 minutes — ten or fifteen hours might 
be more like it. We found it considerably 
easier to play with two people, since 
some of the clues appear on the screen 
for a very short period of time, and it is 
difficult to find the right page in the 
Snooper Troop Notebook to write down 
the clue while it is still visible. Single 
players may find it desirable to keep a 
tape recorder nearby to record telephone 
numbers, dates, and the like which can 
be copied into the notebook and an- 
alyzed later on. 

The program can be stored on the disk 
when you want to rest and resumed 
from that point the next time you at- 
tempt to solve the mystery. 

All in all, we feel the Snooper Troop 
games are exceptionally well done, 
highly motivational, and valuable in 
helping users learn to take notes and an- 
alyze relevant information. The packag- 
ing and instruction booklets are 
outstanding; we give Spinnaker an A + 
for these packages. 


Fundamental Skills for 
General Chemistry 

About ten years ago when I was 
Education Product Line Manager at 
Digital Equipment Corporation, we 
were seeking high quality educational 
materials in different subject areas. One 
of our customers, Paul Cauchon at the 
Canterbury School in Milford, CT, 
showed us course notes and proposed 
that we compile them into a book. Thus 
was born the book, “Tutorial Exercises 
For Chemistry,” one of the first of its 


kind. Paul’s latest book, “Chemistry 
With A Computer,” updated and in its 
third printing, contains 28 programs, 
fully documented with sample runs, 
complete listings and suggestions for 
classroom use. The cost is $14.95 from 
Programs For Learning, Inc. 

However, Paul didn’t stop there, but 
went on to gather a group of educators 



in the field of chemistry dedicated to the 
development of computer-based instruc- 
tional materials. Marketed by Programs 
For Learning, the packages fall into two 
general categories: drill and practice ex- 
ercises and simulations. 

The Fundamental Skills for General 
Chemistry package which we reviewed 
contains 12 drill and practice exercises 
along with a 32-page three-ring instruc- 
tor’s guide. The drills are presented in 
high-resolution graphics so that upper 
and lower case letters, symbols, sub- 
scripts and superscripts are all displayed 
“correctly.” When a problem is an- 
swered correctly, a brief reinforcement 
message such as “very good” appears, 
and the next problem is presented. 
Should a problem be missed, a dis- 
cussion of how to arrive at the correct 
answer is presented on the screen. This 
is far better than simply presenting the 
correct answer and going on. 

The exercises are not graded in a 
group. It is up to the teacher to decide 
what an appropriate “passing” level is. 
The instructor’s guide suggests mini- 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Fundamental Skills for 
General Chemistry 
Type: Drill and practice 
Authors: Paul Cauchon, et al. 
System: Apple, Pet or TRS-80 
Format: Cassette or disk 
Summary: Drill in chemistry 
Price: $150 
Manufacturer: 

Programs For Learning, Inc. 
P.O. Box 954 
New Milford, CT 06776 
(203) 355-3452 


134 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 





UNDEAD 


SUDDENLY you awaken in a coffin 
surrounded by a vast graveyard. v 
YOU MUST GET OUT BEFORE PAWN! 

HOW? There’s no easy way, the -wS jl 
walls are too high — the gates ardy U J 
locked. Vampires, Zombies, and 
Werewolves constantly attack as 
you frantically search musty 1 
crypts, catacombs, and dead ^ 

tombs for treasures and clues* \7r 


ONLY TWELVE HOURS TO 
ESCAPE OR REMAIN FOREVER ! 


CRYPT OF THE UNDEAD, designed by Marc Benioff, 
Offers... 

• Both Puzzle-Solving 8l Role-Playing Intrigue! 

• Superb Graphics, Sound 8 l Color Animation! 

• Hours of Challenging Terror! JR 

Requires... '/ if 

• ATARI 400/800 82. One Disk Drive 

• One Player 82. Joystick Controller 
Comes with... 

• Game Program 6t Complete Instructions 

• EPYX30IFOREVER WARRANTY 

Now Available At Your Favorite Dealer . . . $29.95 
For the name of your nearest EPYX dealer write : 
“CRYPT OF THE UNDEAD” 
EPYX/Automated Simulations, Inc. 

P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, CA 94040 


EPYX Temple of Apshai was the very first computer 
game ever to win the Hobby Industry award for 
excellence. EPYX pledges you that same excellence 
in every game you purchase from us . . . the VERY 
BEST in entertainment! 

EPYX 30/FOREVER WARRANTY 
♦Our 30-day Unconditional Guarantee: If your 
EPYX Game has any defect whatsoever within 


epyx 

M m THINKERS 


COMPUTER GAMES 
THINKERS PLAY 


30 days of purchase, return it to us or your 
dealer and we will replace it free. 

♦Our Forever Warranty: If anything happens 
to your disk at any time after 30 days, for 
any reason, just send it back with $5.00 for 
shipping, and we will send you a replacement. 


Clifts ‘fvi / * JS. > . • k 1 

. usHMmnim j." 

♦ ATARI 4001800 is a trademark of ATARI, INC , 

CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




he reason you bought a 
computer 





T he Agony... 

You 

expected 

your new computer 
to perform miracles 
— to bring order out 
of chaos. You looked 
for it to organize an 
manage your business 
information. You looked forward 
to the end of errors, the end of 
frustration . . . and the saving of 
time, effort and money. Afterall, 
that’s the reason you invested in 
a computer in the first place. 
Yet, there it sits. Nothing. 


...and the ecstasy. 

Well, your computer can per- 
form all the miracles you hoped 
for. It needs just one profes- 
sional addition. The 
General Manager. 

The General Man- 
ager is what the com- 
puter industry calls a 
data base management 
program (DBM). In 
everyday words — it 
allows you to organize, 
store, file, find, save, re- 
ceive, interrelate, control 
and print out all or selected parts 
of your information. The result: 
your information, or data, is 
managed totally, completely, 
automatically. 


Ordinary 

The ordinary DBM system 
expects your business to con- 
form to its program design. So 
you must change your records, 
your forms, your way of having 
information cross-referenced, 
saved and . . . well, you almost 
end up with a different business! 
Certainly a more frustrating one. 


Extraordinary 

The General Manager on the 
other hand is extraordinary in 
the DBM field, because it makes 
no such demands on you. In- 
stead, it lets you make demands 
on it! The General Manager was 
designed so that your business 


standing. You can’t afford 
that! — for a program 
without excellent 
documentation is 
frustrating and basi- 
cally useless. 


The General Manager 


Consider this: it supports 1 
to 4 floppy disk drives (even 
hard-disk systems). It includes 
utility programs which others 
charge hundreds extra for. 
Upper and lower case characters 
in the data base are provided 
without need for additional 
costly hardware. If someone 
goofs, the “error message” is 
displayed in understandable 
English. There is an on- 
screen “Help” function 
available any time. It 
creates Applesoft usable 
files for your program 
needs. And many espe- 
cially useful printing 
commands are built-in 
for 

greater flexi- 
bility. When 
you consider 
all these ad- 
vantages, and 
more, we think 
your business 
sense will a- 
gree, there’s 
no contest at 
any price. 

The fantasy... 

Almost 

everyone 
claims user 
friendly docu- 
mentation. The fact remains 
much of it is convoluted, com- 
plicated and defies under- 


hand reality! 

At Sierra On-Line we’ve 
spent the time and the effort 
to create superb documentation. 
It is so good that you can have 
The General Manager up and 
running after the first two 
chapters! And after you’re 
thoroughly at home with it, you 
can move on to the other 
chapters as you have need for 
the many additional functions 
and capabilities. 

The reason you bought... 

. . . a computer in the first 
place was, we know, twofold: 
for word processing (our Screen 
Writer program is the leader) . . . 
but mainly for information man- 
agement. The General Manager 
is your powerful 
answer . . . the 
truly outstand- 
ing value in 
DBM’s, bar 
none, at only 
$229.95. 

For further 
information and 
ordering, see your computer 
dealer or contact us: 

209 - 683-6858 
SON-LIME INC 

SIERRA ON-LINE SYSTEMS, INC. 
Business products division. 
Sierra On-Line Bldg. 

Coarsegold, CA 93614 

‘The General Manager, version 2.0 
requires 48K Apple 1 1 or 1 1-*-, 1 or more 
drives, DOS 3.3. Direct orders add 
$3.00 shipping/handling. 


routines can be kept as indivi- 
dualized as you want ... so your 
data is managed and de- 
livered in the ways which 
are most useful, effi- 
cient and effective 
for you. 

It works so easily 
and so well because 
of its “hierarchial” 
structure. This sen- 
sible “family tree” 
type of design starts 
with the main subject, then 
branches out to related informa- 
tion. You enter data on “Blank 
Forms” which you may construct 
to your exact needs. The data 
may be updated, deleted or 
modified to 
your heart’s 
content. To 
know The 
General Man- 
ager will be to 
love it! 


Power & 

Price 

Nothing 
near the price 
of the General 
Manager (by 
hundreds of 
dollars) gives 
you all the 
power, fea- 
tures and benefits it does! At 
$229.95, The General Manager is 
the absolute value in its field. 


CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

mum competency levels; for example, in 
the drill on balancing equations it sug- 
gests continuing until five equations in a 
row are balanced correctly. On the other 
hand, for the drill on chemical nomen- 
clature, which requires the student to 
name simple chemical compounds and 
write chemical formulas, the guide sug- 
gests continuing until 20 questions in a 
row are answered correctly. 

The 12 programs cover topics such as 
balancing equations; density, mass and 
volume problems; symbols, atomic num- 
bers and electron configurations of the 
first 20 elements; exponential notation; 
symbols and charges for common ions; 
computing formula weights; and names 
and symbols of elements. 

We also tried some simulation pro- 
grams from the Acid- Base Chemistry and 
Basic Electricity packages. The simula- 
tion programs demonstrate various prin- 
ciples or processes by letting the user see 



i» the complete equation 

check it aqwinst yours! 

!Ca(OH) 2 + 2 H C I O 4 » 


IC«(CIO M ) 2 ♦ 2H 2 0 

Do you want another* (y/n)? 



“what will happen if’ certain steps are 
taken or particular conditions 
established. 

Such programs are very useful in 
preparing for laboratory experiments 
and possibly even for replacing an 
experiment which cannot easily be per- 
formed in the lab. Having been away 
from a chemistry lab for more than 20 
years, I probably should not have tried 
to analyze an unknown acid sample in 
the most efficient manner, since I barely 
remembered the word titration much 
less how to do a titration analysis. 
Nevertheless I had good fun even 
though the computer charged me 20 
cents each time I had to refill the buret. 
I wound up taking about seven times as 
long to complete the experiment as the 
computer estimated it ought to have 
taken. 

All in all these programs are very well 
done and should be welcomed by chem- 
istry instructors at the high school and 
beginning college levels. 


Chem Lab Simulations 

Four Chem Lab Simulations have 
been developed by J. Gelder, a chemistry 
professor at Oklahoma State University. 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


Although developed for the college level, 
the material in simulations 1 (titrations) 
and 2 (ideal gas law) are probably suit- 
able for a high school level also. Simula- 
tions 3 and 4 covering calorimetry and 
thermodynamics are probably best left 
for college level students. All except 
simulation 2 are available for the Atari 
as well as the Apple. However, because 
the second simulation makes the most 
effective use of graphics, we chose to re- 
view it here. 

Chem Lab 2 is designed to illustrate 
the ideal gas law, the kinetic-molecular 
theory, and the principles of diffusion. 
In the first part, the ideal gas law, PV = 
nRT, is illustrated. The ideal gas is 
represented on the screen as colorful (or- 
ange) particles bouncing and colliding 
with each other in space. The color of 
the particles, background, and piston 
may be changed if you desire. As the 
pressure, volume, temperature, or num- 
ber of gas moles is varied by the user, the 
effect on the other three parameters and 
on the behavior of the gas is shown im- 
mediately. Temperature is varied with 
the potentiometer on paddle 1, the num- 
ber of moles is varied using the numeric 
keys 1-9, and volume and pressure are 
varied with the paddle buttons. The bot- 
tom of the screen displays in numeric 
terms, the pressure, volume, moles, and 
temperature. Of course, an increase in 
temperature is also shown on the main 
part of the screen as the particles move 
faster and collide more frequently. This 
also occurs as a result of decreasing the 
volume, which increases the pressure. 
This is shown on the screen display in 



the form of a large piston on the right 
which compresses the amount of free gas 
space. 

The comprehensive 32-page manual 
contains 14 exercises on the ideal gas 
laws including Boyle’s Law and 
Charles’s Law, three exercises on ki- 
netic-molecular theory, six exercises on 
the mixing of two ideal gases, and four 
exercises on the expansion of an ideal 


gas. 

The programs are well written and 
have good error trapping routines. In- 
correct input is ignored although you 
may be scolded for not entering data 


137 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 

Name: Chem Lab Simulations 
Type: Educational simulation 
Author: J. I. Gelder 
System: 48K Apple, paddles, 

32K Atari 800 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Great graphics and action 

Price: $100 

Manufacturer: 

High Technology Software 
P.O. Box 14665 
Oklahoma City, OK 73113 
(405) 840-9900 


that you should have noted. Since there 
are upper and lower limits to the accept- 
able range of pressure, volume, moles, 
and temperature, the results are likely to 
be realistic and similar to those that 
would be achieved with laboratory appa- 
ratus. The big difference is that you 
can’t blow up the lab with this disk. 


Weather Fronts 

Weather Fronts is one in a series of 
“lesson-tutorgraphs” from TYC (Teach 
Yourself By Computer) Software. The 
disk is accompanied by a six-page book- 
let which explains the contents of the 
disk, suggests classroom uses, and lists 
the 24 tutorial and 10 test questions 
(with answers) that are contained on the 
disk. 

Upon loading the disk you are pre- 
sented with three options: tutorial, test, 
or review. 

The tutorial section offers a pro- 
grammed learning presentation of the 
material covered by the lesson. As the 
program proceeds, you are quizzed on 
your understanding of the material pre- 
sented. In general, two questions are dis- 
played after each screen of text or 
graphic material. 

If you answer a question incorrectly, 
the program branches to an alternate 
display of the same material. You are 
then given another question covering the 




Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

same topic but phrased differently. If 
you again answer incorrectly, the text 
and question are repeated using the orig- 
inal wording. 

All questions are multiple choice. 
Upon giving a correct answer, you al- 
ways receive the same message of 
“Congratulations (your name). Press 
space bar to go on.” 

The graphic illustrations of weather 
fronts are excellent and make good use 

creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Weather Fronts 
Type: Educational tutorial 
Author: Patrick C. Moyer 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Learning about the 
weather 
Price: $24.95 
Manufacturer: 

TYC Software 
40 Stuyvesant Manor 
Geneseo, NY 14454 


of animation and pointers. Since they 
use color extensively, we recommend a 
color monitor or TV set for this package. 

The test is graded and you may use it 
as a pre-test, post-test, or both. After 
completing the test, you receive a 
percentage grade. In addition, you are 
informed of the screens of text and 
illustrations that would be most appro- 
priate for review based on your test re- 
sults. For example, based on my score of 
80%, I was told I might want to review 
screens 4, 5, 10, and 1 1 and figures 4 and 
5. 

Text and illustrations may be re- 
viewed using the third option on the 
disk. This allows you to access randomly 
any screen of text or illustration from 
the tutorial. 

I have been away from programmed 
instruction since doing my Ph.D. work 
at Pitt in 1968. However, it hasn’t 
changed much in 15 years. It is boring 
but reliable. After all, if the Army can 
train helicopter pilots using pro- 
grammed instruction with a requirement 
that 100% of the graduates attain 100% 
mastery of the material, you get some 
idea of its efficacy. 

In Weather Fronts, Moyer has taken 
the well-proven programmed instruction 
approach, put it on the Apple computer, 
and added some nice, colorful graphics. 
It takes about 20 to 30 minutes to com- 
plete the disk. There is no doubt that 
upon so doing you will know the struc- 
ture, characteristics, and weather asso- 
ciated with cold, warm, occluded, and 
stationary fronts. 


Tell Star 

Tell Star is an astronomy program 
which shows the location of stars and 
planets for any location on earth during 
the late 20th century. The program dis- 
plays a portion of the sky 90 degrees 
wide facing in any of eight directions, N, 
NW, W, SW, etc. or directly overhead. 
The display is very accurate, generally 
within 15 seconds of arc. To achieve this 
accuracy, the program takes into ac- 
count factors such as the precession of 
the earth in a somewhat lengthy five- 
minute calculation. 

Pressing C causes the constellations in 
your field of view to be drawn. The pro- 
gram can also locate any star or planet 
(at least those listed in the tables with 
the program) by means of a blinking 
cross hair. Pressing any key displays 
information about the object such as 
magnitude, right ascension, declination, 
rising time, and setting time. You can 
also move the cross hair manually with 
the game paddles or joystick and obtain 
information about any stellar object on 
the display. 

A calculation program is included on 
the Tell Star disk to convert equatorial 
coordinates to horizontal and vice versa, 
and to convert ecliptic to equatorial. It is 
also possible to calculate the location of 
objects in the solar system without going 
to the display portion of the program. 

The program is available in two ver- 
sions: standard and advanced. The ad- 
vanced version has two sets of star tables 
plus an additional table containing stars 
and stellar objects for the southern 
hemisphere. The Level I tables list about 
180 stars and 13 Messier objects; the 
Level II tables have fewer stars but 
nearly 90 Messier objects. 

An extensive 48-page tutorial manual 
is included in the package. An appendix 
has the star tables mentioned above. Tell 
Star is an excellent program for the seri- 
ous student of astronomy as well as for 
amateur and professional astronomers. 


creative competing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Tell Star 
Type: Educational tutorial 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Predict star and 
planet locations 
Price: $39.95 and $79.95 
Manufacturer: 

Information Unlimited Software 
281 Arlington Ave. 

Berkeley, CA 94707 
(415) 525-9452 


138 


Understand Yourself 

Remember the Creative Computing 
disk, Know Yourself, with five self-analy- 
sis programs? Well, Huntington has 
gone Creative one better, or should we 
say four better? This disk contains nine 
comprehensive tests to help you better 
understand yourself. They test assertive- 
ness, conscience, manipulation, marital 
adjustment, personal adjustment, pre- 
ferred activities, sexual attitudes, and 
your individual scale of values, and end 
with a personal equation test. 

Each test includes between 10 and 100 
multiple choice questions. Before and af- 
ter each group of questions is some gen- 
eral discussion which presents, in very 
general terms, some background 
information on, for example, assertive- 
ness or conscience. While the disk refers 
to the series of questions as tests, they 
might more properly be called profile, 
opinion, or attitude questions. 

You do not pass or fail tests of this 
sort. Rather they give you an idea of 
how your profile compares with some 
norm or statistical sample. If you are 


cpeative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Understand Yourself 
Type: Psychological self-analysis 
Author: Harry Gunn and 
Mike Taylor 
System: 48K Apple 
Format: Disk 
Language: Machine 
Summary: Lots of questions 
Price: $24.99 
Manufacturer: 

Huntington Computing 
P.O. Box 1297 
Corcoran, CA 93212 


honest while answering the questions, 
and there is no reason not to be, you 
may well gain some valuable insight into 
your attitudes, values, and psyche. 

And if that isn’t reason enough to buy 
the disk, you ought to have it for your 
next party. Just watch which people 
avoid taking the tests of marital adjust- 
ment and sexual attitudes. All in all, the 
disk can provide some valuable insight 
as well as good clean fun. 


Lovers or Strangers 

The instructions tell us, “if you are 
wondering if that new romance (or even 
that old romance) is going to turn into 
the love match of the century, Lovers Or 
Strangers can help you find out. 

“Written by two psychologists, Lovers 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 






CONTENTS 


r ALGEBRA l 

MODULE «2 I 
JFP 1.0 01 Apr 8Z 


<1> ADDITION OF 
REAL NUMBERS 


<2> MULTIPLICATION 
OF REAL NUMBERS 

<3> EQUfttlpNS 

<4> fSk^ITIES 

<9> r|1|T hIhU 

<0> STOP 




UHICH 


get a grip 


on 

your 

world 


with ALGEBRA, 
the language of logic 




What is your most powerful tool for handling the challenges you face in 
business, school, and at home? 

Your mind. Your ability to think analytically, to apply logic, gives you the 
decisive edge in a competitive world. 

That’s why you need algebra, the language of logic. 

Edu-Ware ALGEBRA teaches that language. Its six volumes comprise a first 
year course in algebra, from number line operations through quadratic 
equations. 

These interactive programs pace themselves to you, so you can learn or 
refresh thinking skills, enhance or supplement coursework. Edu-Ware 
ALGEBRA is a tool for getting a grip on your world. 


For more information call 
or write: 

Edu-Ware Services, Inc. 
P.O. Box 22222 
Agoura Hills, CA 91301 


213/706-0661 Edu-Ware Algebra Volumes 1 through 4 

are $39.95 each. Volumes 5 & 6 
are sold as a set for $49.95. 
Applesoft 48K, DOS 3.3 



THE SCIENCE OF LEARNING™ 

CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Available at computer stores nationwide. 



WHEN THE NAME SAYS HAYDEN, 


To o^S eSp ’ 


cvV-OC^ 0 

aqO^N 

^ «*&£>- 


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{O^ w\oO » o\|0\0 ^ ^ 06 ^’ 

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THE GAME SAYS "PLAY ME!" 




GAMES FOR WHEN YOU CRAVE ACTION 

KAMIKAZE -Danger at sea and in the air 

Catalog No. 13809, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

SHUTTLE INTERCEPT Accelerating excitement in a rescue in space 

Catalog No. 19009, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

LASER BOUNCE - Attack with your beams 

Catalog No. 19209, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

BELLHOP - Silliest, fastest-moving up-and-down game 

Catalog No. 19109, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

WARGLE - The wolf pack is on the loose 

Part No. 20909, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

BULLDOG PINBALL -Every bounce of arcade pinball 

Catalog No. 19312, Atari 400 or 800 Tape, $29.95 



GAMES FOR WHEN YOUR BRAIN NEEDS A WORKOUT 

SARGON II - The acknowledged chess classic 

Part No. 034XX: Apple II, Disk and Tape; TRS80 1 or III, Disk and Tape; PET, 
Disk and Tape; Atari, Disk and Tape 8" CP/M Disk 
Tape, $29.95, 5" Disk, $34.95; 8" Disk, $39.95 

REVERSAL -Easy to play, impossible to master 

Part No. 07009, Apple II Disk, $34.95 Part No. 07012, Atari Tape, $29.95 

GO - Ancient game wins new friends 

Part No. 21109, Apple II Disk, $34.95 Part No. 21112, Atari Tape, $29.95 

FINAL CONFLICT -Choose your battlefield, choose your battle 

Catalog No. 13609, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

CHAMPIONSHIP GOLF -A test of skill, even if your name’s Arnie 

Part No. 11809, Apple II Disk, $24.95 

KING CRIBBAGE - New life for a grand old game 

Part No. 11509, Apple II Disk, $24.95 

TETRAD - Four-dimensional tic-tac-toe— no kid stuff 

Part No. 09809, Apple II Disk, $24.95 



GAMES FOR WHEN YOU WISH YOU WERE SOMEBODY ELSE 




CRIMESTOPffR - Be a private eye in a dangerous city 

Catalog No. 19509, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

CRYS1AL CAVERNS - Search for hidden treasure 

Catalog No. 19409, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

MICROSCOPIC JOURNEY - Explore the human body— from inside 

Part No. 22609, Apple II Disk, $34.95 

S1AR TRADERS - Enter the world of intergalactic profiteering 

Part No. 10709, Apple II Disk, $24.95 

ALIBI -Solve Col. Farrington’s murder with your keen mind 

Part No. 10909, Apple II Disk, $24.95 

KLONDIKE 2000 - Discover gold— and danger— on Mars 

Part No. 10209, Apple II Disk, $24.95 



And look 
for new games 
at your 

Hayden Software 
dealer 


Available from your local dealer, or call: 

1 - 800 - 343-1218 

(in MA, call 617-937-0200) 


184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


HAYnRNpmii'.'JJ.-U 








SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 



5221 Central Avenue, Richmond, CA 94804 

CIRCLE, 287 ON READER SERYICE CARD 



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Learning Can Be Fun, continued... 

Or Strangers evaluates how compatible 
you two are in the following areas: 
communication, love and romance, val- 
ues, sex, work and money, spirituality, 
and play. 

“Lovers Or Strangers also tells you 
how well you know each other, by let- 
ting you guess what your partner an- 
swered on each of the questions.” 

Although Lovers Or Strangers had ar- 
rived much earlier for review, it was not 
until a blustery Saturday afternoon some 
weeks later that we finally got around to 
it. Betsy had been editing a mound of 
manuscripts and I had been reviewing 
educational software packages. While we 
are perhaps not the ideal subjects for 
analysis by this program, we felt that af- 
ter working together for four years we 
knew each other reasonably well and 
could probably give the program a fair 
evaluation. 

The instructions contained on the disk 
show you how to answer the questions. 

creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Lovers Or Strangers 
Type: Game? 

Authors: A1 Byers and Annette Long 

System: 48K Apple 

Format: Disk 

Language: Machine 

Summary: Evaluate compatibility 

Price: $29.95 

Manufacturer: 

Alpine Software 
2120 Academy Circle, Suite E 
Colorado Springs, CO 80909 
(303) 591-9874 


All the questions are multiple choice and 
the person sitting on the left uses keys 1- 
5 for his answers while the person on the 
right uses keys 6-0 for his answers. 

The test consists of 30 questions 
drawn from a 60-question data bank, so 
you get a different test each time. On 
each question, Lovers Or Strangers asks 
you first to select an answer for yourself 
and then to guess what your partner 
answered. 

The answers do not appear on the 
screen, but there is a temptation to look 
over and see which key your partner is 
pressing. The instructions suggest plac- 
ing a 3 x 5 piece of paper down the cen- 
ter of the keyboard, wedged in between 
the keys, but we found that holding one 
hand over the other was equally 
satisfactory. 

Each question has five answers from 
which to choose, and there are fifteen 
different scores possible for each ques- 
tion. For example, if you both choose 
the same answer, you get a 10-point 
match. If you choose similar answers 
you get fewer than 10 points, whereas if 
you select dramatically different an- 
swers, a negative value is assigned to 
compatibility on that particular 
question. 

At the end of the test, a graph shows 
how you and your partner did in each of 
the seven areas mentioned above. In 
addition, there is a short analysis of how 
well you know your partner and a 
recommendation about finding out how 
your partner feels about certain things. 
The results can be printed out if you 
wish. 

The program was good fun to play, 
and the results were interesting and even 
surprising (at least to one of us). I don’t 
know if using it 20 years ago would have 


saved me from a divorce, but for an 
investment of $29.95, it certainly 
wouldn’t have hurt. □ 

ANALYSIS FOR DPUE AND BETSY 

HERE ARE V0UR RESULTS BV PREH: 

PERFECT PERFECT 

OPPOSITES MATCH 

C0HHUN I CPT I ON *. 0-C-. 

LOME t. R0MPNCE * 76* 

VALUES ............ „ o8‘-. 

SEX * 59* 

mORn X HONEY * 53*’ 

SPIRITUPLITY * 65* 

PLPV . 63\ 


HERE'S HUM HELL YOU SEEM TO KNOW EPCH 
OTHER: 

DPUE, YOU CORRECTLY GUESSED BETSY'S 
PMSHER 43* OF THE TIME, HHICH INDICATES 
PH PUERPGE UNDERSTANDING OF BETSY. 

YOU SEEM TO KNOW BETSY PRETTY HELL IN 
THESE PREPS: COMMUNICATION, L0UF X 
R0MPNCE, SEX, PND SPIRITUPLITY. 

YOU COULD BENEFIT FROM FINDING OUT HDH 
BETSY FEELS PB0UT THESE PREPS: UPLUES, 
WORK & MONEY, PND PLPV. 

BETSY, YOU CORRECTLY GUESSED DPUE S 
ANSWER 34* OF THE TINE, WHICH TNnTCPTFG 
PN PUERPGE UNDERSTPNDIN6 OF DPUE. 

YOU SEEM to KNOW DPUE PRETTY WELL IN 
THESE PREPS: UPLUES, PND 
SEXSP I R I TiJPL I TV . 

VO 1 ; C00...0 BENEFIT FROM FINDING OUT wow 
DPUE FEELS PB0UT THESE PREPS: 
COMMUNICATION, LOME X R0MPNCF, WORK & 
MONEY, SPIRITUPLITY, PND PlPV. 

PNO HERE'S YOUR FINAL RESULTS: 

DPUE PND BETSY, YOUR 0UERPLL 
COMPATIBILITY RATING IS 62*. 

YOU TWO HPUE SOME SIMILARITIES THAT 
COULD FORM THE BASIS FOR p GOOD 
RELATIONSHIP, SPICED WITH p FEW 
DIFFERENCES. 



DISASTER I 

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FROM THE UNEXPECTED. 

Not to mention the unavoidable pollutants in the air. 
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Perhaps that’s why more people through 
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COVER CRAFTcor P 

PO Box 555, Amherst, NH 03031 • (603) 889-6811 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


CIRCLE 150 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



What does the name Milton Bradley 
bring to mind? For me, it was a com- 
pany that manufactured games such as 
Twister, Yahtzee, Checkers, Life, and 
Stratego. Thus, I was somewhat dumb- 
founded on hearing of its entry into the 
educational software market. Even when 
I received the boxes with that famous 
MB logo, I couldn’t shake my previous 
associations. My recurring thought was 
that personal computers had become 
such a mass market that every major 
corporation was getting into the soft- 
ware act. 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Language & Math Arts 
Programs 

Type: Educational 
System: Apple II 48K 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Seven packages that 
establish a games 
company in the field of 
educational software. 

Price: $45 
Manufacturer: 

Milton Bradley 
P.O. Box 2209 
Springfield, MA 01101 

After a little research I discovered 
that Milton Bradley’s educational di- 
vision has been publishing school 
materials for many years. Their main 
activity has been in the making of 
supplemental materials for the primary 
grades. These new software products, as 
we shall soon see, are not only a serious 
offering, but one that may serve as a 
standard for classroom software in the 
near future. 


W. Shuford Smith, 6500 Cottingham Ln. Charlotte, 
NC 28211. 


Milton Bradley 
Scores Again 



W. Shuford Smith 


The overall company plan appears to 
involve the release of moderately priced 
packages ($45) that can be used as unit 
lessons in the middle grades (5-8). Yet, 
the content and quality of presentation 
will allow these products to be used for 
remedial work with older students. An 
additional plus is that the programs have 
been designed for effective use in class- 
rooms with access to only one computer. 

Seven separate items are in the current 
release — four dealing with language arts 
areas (two each on vocabulary and 
punctuation) and three handling math 
units (decimals, division, and mixed 
numbers). All are intended for use on 
the Apple II Plus with DOS 3.3. There 
seems to be no intention at this time to 
translate these efforts to other 
computers. 

Use of The Programs 

One can implement these programs in 
two ways: as lessons for individuals such 
as in a home or in a special class, or, in a 
regular classroom with a normal load of 
25 or more students. The true strength 
of the design appears in the latter 
application. Indeed, classroom use ap- 
pears to be MB’s goal. 

For instance, as one starts through the 
programs, the first inquiry requests that 
the student input his class number (1 to 
5). If this is to be an individual lesson, a 
response of 666 will access the main 
menu to allow a lesson selection. How- 
ever, since the intended application is at 
a classroom level, let’s look carefully at 
that situation. 

The student would answer the class 
number question with the proper re- 
sponse. The class roll would then be pre- 
sented with an additional request that 
the student indicate the correct number 
next to his name. From that point for- 


ward the computer would direct the 
appropriate lesson to the screen as well 
as monitor the results obtained. 

What Milton Bradley has done is to 
place behind the instructional programs 
on the disk, an invisible database system 
capable of handling 125 students. This 
device manages the heart of a carefully 
designed, classroom-workable system. 

Classroom Procedure 

Let’s detail this process in a step-by- 
step manner as it would probably pro- 
ceed in most classrooms. First, the 
teacher would take out the included 
black-line masters and make copies of 
the pre-test (using either a photo copier 
or a spirit duplicator). From these re- 
sults, each member of the class would be 
assigned to one of three proficiency cate- 
gories for each skill. These categories 
are: 1) mastered the content, 2) needs 
some practice, and 3) needs instruction. 

Next, the teacher would boot the disk 
and when the inquiry for class number 
appeared, would respond with a 555 plus 
an invisible Password (located in the 
Teacher’s Manual). This sequence would 
run the management system and present 
its menu: 1) Add students, 2) Delete stu- 
dents, 3) View/Change Students, 4) 
Change Levels, 5) Run lesson. The pro- 
gram allows 25 names for each of the 
five classes. (See Figure 1.) 


Figure 1. 



144 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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Milton Bradley, continued... 


The teacher would enter the pre-test 
results for each of the students. The 
names may contain up to 10 characters 
and the results for each skill are entered 
as < M > astery, < P > ractice, or 
< I > nstruction. (See Figure 2.) The 
practice level is initially set with a cri- 
terion of three out of five correct, with 
mastery being five out of five. The 
teacher may change these levels as de- 
sired. From this point forward the pro- 
gram directs and monitors each child's 
efforts and can furnish the teacher with 
an excellent progress record. 

If the student needs instruction, the 
teacher provides it; if practice is re- 
quired, then the computer lessons are 
employed; mastery can be checked by 
both computer and teacher. How well 
does this device work? Very well indeed! 
All instructions were clear and every as- 
pect performed without a flaw. 

Back in the classroom, the teacher 
would begin the instruction on each skill 
to be covered in the unit. The manner in 
which this phase proceeds is completely 


Figure 2. 







v e i...i c m i 

■ 1 . i :i S • 1. 

■■■\ 1 

SCREEN 1 Or 2 

NAME 1 

12 3 4 5 

1 JOHN 





mary 


I 1 



3 HARRY 


I 



•1 GARY 


I 



JOAN 


I 



■;!!: PAUL 


I 



LARRY 


P 



0 LINDA f 

1 

I 



9 DAVE 

[ 

P 

> 

1 

1 0 BILL f 

1 

I 

J 

> 

:i. :i. DAN 

i r 

1 M 


i 

i. ginger 

1 i 

1 M 

] 


1 3 MIKE ] 

? i 

5 P 

1 

> 

1. 4 JIM 

i i 

[ I 


i 

CHANGE UHICH STUDENT NUMBER? 



(0 IT NONE, 999 TO RESTART SCROLL) 



at the teacher's discretion. For each 
skill, Milton Bradley has included 
reproducible worksheets including both 
tutorial sheets and practice sheets. In 
addition, the kit contains mastery tests, 
student record sheets, and classroom 
rosters. All of these aids are above and 
beyond the computer lessons. In other 
words, almost any teaching style can be 
accommodated. 


General Impression 

From even the brief description given 
to this point, one can appreciate the 
thoroughness of these packages. Yet, 
this attention to detail does not end with 
a workable management system. The 
very first observations of the screen 
boards reveal an appearance that must 
be classified as exceptional. 

All visual displays are done in hi-res 
graphics using various character fonts. 
The upper and lower case letters are 
highly legible. Various widths and colors 
are employed with discretion for empha- 
sis. Sound is used both for prompting 
and to heighten student interest. 


Finally, before moving to a program- 
by-program review, a few other general 
comments should be made. The 
programming quality is excellent; I no- 
ticed no bugs. The procedures that both 
students and teachers must follow are 
not only clear but straightforward. The 
documentation is well-written and, 
fortunately, not overly wordy. 

Language Arts Programs 

This initial release contains four pack- 
ages that could be used by most lan- 
guage teachers in the middle grades. 
Their content fills an area in the educa- 


My students told me to 
write that the game was 
unnecessary. 


tional software market that is not yet 
over populated. They were all written 
with similar formats, though significant 
differences are noted in the individual 
reviews. 

First, the group features creative 
touches, quality graphics, and high in- 
terest themes such as outer space and 
medieval times. Another less noteworthy 
commonality is the presence of a limited 
arcade game called Alien Rain. The stu- 
dent earns points on the review drills 
which are then converted into playing 
time. The game requires paddles even 
though not every school-owned Apple 
has paddles. 

Secondly, the game itself is not all that 
exciting. Believe it or not, my students 
told me to write that the game was un- 
necessary; the programs were fine with- 
out Alien Rain. 

In the classroom, for each student to 
receive maximum benefit, each program 
in this series will require some additional 
examples and explanation. The materials 
included in the packages will definitely 
assist in this task. Teachers, take a close 


Figure 4. 



look at each of these offerings; I think 
you will find some excellent tools inside 
these boxes. 

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Root Words 

The Vocabulary Skills: Prefixes, Suf- 
fixes, and Rootwords program offers the 
student a chance to learn some word 
analysis skills. Milton Bradley’s ap- 
proach is to interweave both common 
and uncommon word parts into the 
course of study. The lesson on prefixes 
includes five common (inter-, dis-, anti-, 
pre-, and sub-) ones as well as five un- 
common (ortho-, tele-, micro-, circum-, 
and para-) ones. Suffixes are divided into 
two lessons with one covering the 10 
common and one handling the 10 un- 
common. Next come 10 common roots, 
five each of Latin and Greek origin. (See 
Figure 3.) 

Rounding out this package is an in- 
troductory concept lesson, a review 
following prefixes and suffixes, a word 
building activity, and a final cumulative 
review. 


Figure 3. 



Is this type of practice worthwhile? A 
study of word structure is intended to 
provide the child with a curiosity about 
as well as an understanding of some 
commonalities in our language. How- 
ever, a danger exists since English is not 
as heavily dependent on inflections as 
some languages. Often, a student will 
lose sight of the sentence context after a 
course in word analysis. Milton Bradley 
has tried to prevent this from happening 
by keeping all exercises embedded in 
clever and effective sentences. Also, 
through the mix of common and un- 
common examples, a wide range of stu- 
dents can be accommodated and kept 
interested. 

The format of these lessons, and all 
others in the language arts area, uses a 
fantasy theme to heighten interest. This 
program uses a workout simulation 
complete with a coach, body or mind 
building exercises, and appropriate pic- 
tures, slogans, and the like. (See Figure 
4.) 

My students did appreciate the clever- 
ness. At the end of the final review drill, 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


147 



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780 KB Disk Storage 
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C-Basic Software 
Smith Corona TP 1 
Letter Quality Printer 

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8001 A 

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8031 

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8012 

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PRINTERS 

8023 

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77 10/7730 $2399.00 

3510/3530 $1599.00 

MONITORS 

JB-1260 $119 00 

JB-1201 $14900 


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TERMINALS 


912C 

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920C 

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950 

$950.00 

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$129900 

802 

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■*02 H 

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806 

$499900 

816 

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TIMEX 

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commodore 

8032 $1039.00 

4032 $749.00 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369.00 

Super Pet $1499.00 

2031 $469.00 

8250 Dbl.Sided Disk Drive $1699.00 

D9060 5 Meg. Hard Disk $2399.00 

D9060 7.5 Meg. Hard Disk $2699.00 

8050 $1299.00 

4040 $969.00 

8300 (Letter Quality) $1 549.00 

8023 $599.00 

4022 $399.00 

New Z-Ram, Adds CP/M & 64K $549.00 

The Manager $209.00 

Magis CALL 

Word Pro 5 Plus $319.00 

Word Pro 4 Plus $299.00 

Word Pro 3 Plus $199.00 

The Administrator $379.00 

Info Pro Plus $219.00 

Power $79.00 


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PC-1 500 

POCKET 

COMPUTER 

$163 


16K Memory Module $44.95 

Vu-Calc $17.95 

Check Book Manager $13.95 

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Stock Option $14 95 



CE 150 Printer. Plotter and 
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CE 152 Cassette Recorder $62.00 

CE 155 8K Ram 


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108 

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630 


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CIRCLE 148 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







Milton Bradley, continued... 


the students may cash in earned points 
to play Alien Rain. The child receives 
graduated points depending on whether 
the correct response was on the first try, 
second try, or third try. 

This program received consistently 
high marks from all students; I strongly 
recommend it. 

Context Clues 

The second set of vocabulary skills 
deals with an effective but often ignored 
facet of English study. Since our lan- 
guage is so heavily dependent on syntac- 
tical or contextual clues, one would 
think that a strong emphasis would be 
placed on helping children understand 
and use these techniques. Unfortunately, 
this is not the case. So, it is a relief to see 
these lessons to assist teachers with the 
process. 

The program begins with an introduc- 
tion to context, what it is and why it is 
important to both reading and vocabu- 
lary building. The next lesson takes the 
student through finding the definition of 
a word within a sentence using such key 
words as is, that is, or, and meaning. The 
student then learns the meaning of a 
word by understanding a contrasting 
phrase (some key words are however, al- 
though, but). At that point, a review les- 
son is offered to tie together these basic 
ideas. 

The next section involves two lessons: 
one on making educated guesses and an- 
other on inferring meaning from exam- 
ples in the sentence. The final lesson 
consists of a cumulative review covering 
all previous material. For each lesson, 
students receive basic rules, multiple- 


Figure 5. 



Mhen you find an 



choice examples, practice drills, and a 
five-sentence mastery test. 

As in the other programs in this area, 
a theme is used. For context, it is a wiz- 
ardry emphasis set in a medieval time. 
(See Figure 5.) Thus the sentences, 
instructions, and characters are all true 
to this setting: Wouldn’t you “gag” on a 
reptile omelet? 

For teachers who have not yet empha- 
sized the syntactical clues of sentences 
or understood how to teach contextual 


understanding, this package should pro- 
vide many valuable ideas. For those who 
already appreciate just how effectively 
one can increase not just a youngster’s 
vocabulary but also his reading com- 
prehension with this approach, Milton 
Bradley’s Context Clues will be a wel- 
come addition to the arsenal. All in all, 
it represents a fine educational value. 

Punctuation Skills: Commas 

The commas program, I believe, may 
have been among the first written since 
it contains several flaws. First, it re- 
quires the use of a paddle. The paddle 
positions and fires the Comma Cannon. 
The cannon is a cute device used to 
place the punctuation in the correct 
spot. Unfortunately, as previously men- 
tioned, not all Apples have paddles, and 
Milton Bradley provides no alternate 
method. 

Second, the tutorial language seems 
higher than the skills being covered. 
Certainly, a greater disparity exists here 
than in the other works in this series. 

Since the comma is such a heavily 
used mark of punctuation, Milton Brad- 
ley has devoted several lessons exclu- 
sively to its use. The first three skills 
covered are setting off introductory ele- 
ments, separating items in a series, and 
isolating interrupters. All of these uses 
are shown with examples of single 
words, phrases, and clauses. 

Following the first three lessons, a re- 
view is offered. Next comes a section on 
independent clauses. Then follows place- 
ment of commas in dates, addresses, let- 
ters, and titles. The last lesson is the 
end-of-unit cumulative review. 

As with the other programs, a special 
theme — outer space — is used with com- 
mas. This approach is generally appre- 
ciated by the students, though some of 
the strange planet and character names 
threw them for a minute or so. As is too 
often the case in exercises, the number 
of examples and counterexamples was 
too limited. Have some more ready, 
teacher! 

I did find that the Helpful Hints used 
with some of the Rules were very useful 
to the students in improving their ac- 
curacy. Finally, one additional sugges- 
tion to the programmers: On all these 
exercises, the student’s reward is deter- 
mined by the number correct out of five 
problems. However, in the last lesson, 
Dates, Letters, etc., one could correctly 
place five out of six commas in a letter, 
forget one, and not receive any credit. 
The kids gave a big “unfair” to that kind 
of scoring. 

If the Apple is equipped with paddles, 
this package should prove useful to any 
middle grade teacher, especially those 
whose students suffer from commaitis. 


Kndmarks, Semicolons, and Colons 

This second offering in the punctua- 
tion area uses the same space theme 
found in commas. However, there is 
more extensive use of hi-res pictures, 
and the tutorial is simpler yet more 
clever in language use. In addition, the 
game paddles are no longer required. 
Positioning the cannon to fire a punctua- 
tion mark is done with the right and left 
arrows. To place the punctuation, the 



student simply presses the appropriate 
key on the keyboard. 

The content consists of one lesson on 
the period, one on exclamation and 
question marks, two sessions on the 
semicolon, and a final lesson on the co- 
lon. (See Figure 6.) There is one cu- 
mulative review following mastery of the 
five lessons. 

The lessons provide adequate 
information for students to become quite 
successful. The pace through these small 
but essential parts of grammar is ex- 
cellent. In summary, my trial students 
gave this program high marks for graph- 
ics, creative wording of sentences, and 
overall enjoyment while learning and 
reviewing. 

Mathematics Programs 

The current group of math packages 
includes three — division, decimals, and 
mixed numbers. Unlike the language 
arts areas these programs are devoid of 
humor and thematic gimmicks. What 
they add is a tutorial on the process (al- 
gorithm) involved. While this feature is 
no substitute for effective classroom 
instruction, it does provide clear 
reinforcement that may give a better 
understanding to many students. Also 
included are a readiness lesson and some 
very effective speed drills which are not 
under control of the management sys- 
tem. Thus, these beginning exercises can 
be used independently of the rest of the 
unit. 

All three sets are appealing in their 
appearance using a school related back- 
drop (chalkboard, textbook, or note- 
book) together with hi-res fonts. Both 
the division and decimal packages seem 


150 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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Milton Bradley, continued... 

to employ a random number generator, 
while the mixed numbers program 
draws upon an existing bank of prob- 
lems. The overall level is quite 
high — that is, once a student has mas- 
tered these programs, one can more than 
safely assume that he adequately under- 
stands the process. 

Division Skills 

The Readiness Skill for the Division 
Skills program is entitled Fast Facts. In 
actuality, it is a well-conceived, speed 
drill covering simple division. The time 
allowed is adjustable up to 540 seconds, 


Figure 7. 



and the number of problems presented 
can vary from 1 to 90. Incorrect re- 
sponses are shown with the right answer 
instantly, and again at the scoring sum- 
mary. As the manual suggests, by keep- 
ing one factor (either time or number of 
problems) constant, a student can mea- 
sure progress over the year. This part of 
the package should find heavy use in and 
of itself. 

There are five skills covered in the 
computer-managed part of the program 
plus a final review. Lesson One deals 
with one-digit divisors, while Lesson 
Two handles two-digit divisors. (See Fig- 
ure 7.) For some students, two helpful 
little features are the V and B keys. 
Pressing V displays essential definitions, 
while B gives a backup command so that 
the student can change an incorrect es- 
timate. The last three lessons deal with 
problems that have remainders. Lesson 
Three takes care of whole number 
remainders, Lesson Four covers frac- 
tional remainders, and Lesson Five prac- 
tices decimal remainders. 

This program is marked by clear dis- 
plays, challenging problems, and a nice 
step-by-step walk-through approach. 

Decimal Skills 

The Readiness Skill for the Decimal 
Skills program covers four basic con- 
cepts. First, the student must be able to 
identify which column (from thousands 
to ten thousandths) contains a certain 
number. Secondly, when given a written 
decimal number, the student must be 


able to convert it to its numerical format 
(one and four tenths = 1.4). Next, the 
comparison of two decimal numbers ( < , 


Figure 8. 



>, and =) is featured. Finally, students 
must be able to order numbers from the 
smallest to the largest. 

As with the other readiness activities, 
these have a time choice, from 1 to 999 
seconds, and a number-of-problems 
choice, up to 25. The answer is displayed 
on a large pencil which appears to rotate 
after the response is corrected — clever 
programming.(See Figure 8.) 

Following this fairly complete readi- 
ness level, four skill lessons are offered: 
addition, subtraction, mutiplication, and 
division of decimals. Have students 
bring their scrap paper as these get in- 
volved. For example, in the addition and 
subtraction sections, all problems are 
displayed horizontally. Of course, the 
student must line them up vertically and 
use zero place holders as necessary. 
Numbers generally contain at least four 
digits. Since alignment is critical when 
working with decimals, an instructional 
program must also assist in this area if at 
all possible. Milton Bradley’s offering 
rates a “very good” in helping students 
with this aligning skill. 

The summary by the raters found 
Decimal Skills to contain a demanding, 
yet comprehensive coverage of an inter- 
mediate math concept. 


Mixed Number Skills 

In the Mixed Number Skills package 
three areas are considered readiness: 
converting mixed numbers to improper 
fractions, converting improper to mixed, 
and comparing mixed numbers. For the 
speed drill, one can choose up to 25 
problems and up to 999 seconds. As 
with the rest of this series, the readiness 
exercises are a real bonus, and make 
periodic reviews a snap. 

The four basic parts of this program 
involve addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, and division of mixed numbers. In 
the addition and subtraction areas, in- 
cluded are like and unlike denominators, 
combinations of whole and mixed, and 


regrouping. (See Figure 9.) In mul- 
tiplication and division, there are prob- 
lems with no common factors, problems 
with one set of common factors (in my 
day, this was called cross cancelling), 
and problems with two sets of common 
factors. The obvious point would seem 
to be that this unit, like the others in 
math, covers the upper range of the tar- 
geted skills. Lots of scratch paper and 
time are needed by the students. 

How does this program, and the rest 
of the Milton Bradley line, stack up 
against the competition? Many math 
programs have been written for the Ap- 


Figure 9. 



pie. At least a few of them contain tu- 
torial sections as well as extensive drill 
and practice units. The Milton Bradley 
tutorial does not contain as good a step- 
by-step formula as some that I have seen. 
But MB’s Mixed Numbers includes sev- 
eral possibilities not in other programs, 
such as a speed drill, cross cancelling, 
and very challenging problems. 

In addition, though many compet- 
itors’ screens are very good, Milton 
Bradley’s are excellent. Add the supple- 
mental black-line masters and the 
management system, and you have an 
impressive package. I think that in a 
classroom, I would have several prod- 
ucts. A program like Edu-Ware’s Frac- 
tions would serve as the beginning tutor 
and Milton Bradley’s Mixed Numbers as 
the backbone of the unit. Thus, for 
under $90, I could create quite an effec- 
tive course plan on fractions. 

Conclusion 

Milton Bradley has made an auspi- 
cious entrance into the educational soft- 
ware field. It is a pleasure to be able to 
work with products that have obviously 
been very thoroughly field tested before 
their introduction. It would be nice to 
see more demonstrations and tutorial 
experiences in these programs, but they 
accomplish their intent quite well. They 
are high quality teacher aids, designed to 
be used in a real world classroom. From 
now on, the Milton Bradley logo will 
have quite different connotations for 
me. □ 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


153 


Robots are exciting all right. They do 
a terrific job on the assembly line, and 
someday they may clean the house, walk 
the dog, and keep us company. But what 
can they do for us today? 

One thing they can do and are, in fact, 
doing is teaching programming concepts 
to children and adults. One such cy- 
bernetic teacher is Karel the Robot. 

Karel is an instructional aide for peo- 
ple who want to learn Pascal on the Ap- 
ple II. That is a welcome concept, 
indeed, for the multitudes whose first 
programming language is Basic, because 
learning Pascal not only calls for master- 
ing many new ideas, but also for 
unlearning a variety of practices which 
are essential in Basic but bad habits in 
Pascal. 

The author of this package, Richard 
E. Pattis, teaches programming at Stan- 
ford University. He invented Karel for 
his students and wrote a short (106 
page) book, Karel the Robot: A Gentle 
Introduction to the Art of Programming , 
published by John Wiley and Sons. In 
the preface, Pattis observes, “The first 
few weeks of a programming course are 
crucial to the students’ perception of the 
subject; it is during this period that they 
briefly glimpse the aesthetics of the 
discipline and are most receptive to new 
ideas. By starting with Karel the Robot, 
it will be easy for students to absorb a 
large number of useful, important, and 
sophisticated concepts quickly.” 

The book is used as a text at Stanford 
and at the University of California, 


John J. Hirschfelder, EDTEC, 6222 54th Avenue N.E., 
Seattle, WA 98115. 



Karel 
The Robot 


John J. Hirschfelder 


Berkeley, for the first one or two weeks 
of introductory programming classes. 

Complex Simplicity 

Karel is a very simple automaton. He 
lives on your monitor screen in his 
world, which is laid out with north- 
south avenues and east-west streets. 
Karel himself is always at an intersec- 
tion. When he moves, one “step” is a full 
city block long, and he can face north, 
south, east, or west. On your screen, he 
is represented by A, V, >, or <, 
depending on which way he is facing. 

Karel’s world is not empty. Some 
streets are blocked by walls, and on 
some corners there are markers called 
“beepers.” (Sorry, they don’t beep.) 
Karel carries a bag of beepers, and he 
can pick them up and put them down. 
He is controlled by a program which 
you write. The following is a complete 
list of the actions Karel can perform, 
turnleft 

move (forward one block) 
pickbeeper (from the ground to his 
bag) 

putbeeper (from his bag to the 
ground) 
turnoff 

Karel can also survey his world and 
make decisions based on his environ- 
ment. He can tell if there is a beeper on 
the corner where he is standing; whether 
there are any beepers in his bag; and 


whether his front, right, or left is 
blocked by a wall. 

That’s all! By combining these state- 
ments with control structures in a Karel 
program, you can make the robot wan- 
der about his universe performing some 
very complex actions. 

But what does this have to do with 
Pascal? Pattis has designed his robot lan- 
guage so that each of its syntactic fea- 
tures and control structures closely 
resembles a corresponding feature of 
Pascal, so that writing Karel programs is 
training for graduation to Pascal. 

A Basic program begins with some ar- 
ray definitions which are followed by a 
long, unbroken stream of numbered exe- 
cutable statements. Sprinkled through 
the program there may be some sub- 


creative computing 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Karel the Robot 

Types Educational (programming 
tutorial) 

System: Apple II 64K (RAM card), 
Pascal text editor 

Format: Disk 

Summary: With the book of the 
same name, a unique 
introduction to Pascal 

Price: $242 
Manufacturer: 

Cybertronics International, Inc. 
999 Mount Kemble Ave. 
Morristown, NJ 07960 
(201) 766-7681 


154 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 




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Karel The Robot, continued... 

routines, called by c.osljb statements. 
The code making up a subroutine may 
be all in one place, but it need not be. It 
ends with return but may begin with 
anything — in fact, it can be entered at 
any point at all. The subroutine has no 
variables of its own, nor any parameters 
as a function has. Aside from gosub, the 
only control statements of significance 
are goto, if . . . then, and for loops. 

Differences In Pascal 

A Pascal program looks entirely dif- 
ferent. It begins with definitions for 
named constants, and follows with 
declarations of all the program 
variables — not just the arrays. Then 
come the subroutines, called procedures , 
each of which has a precisely defined 
beginning, a single end, its own vari- 
ables, and possibly some parameters. At 
the very end comes the body of the pro- 
gram, which is usually quite short and 
consists mostly of procedure calls. There 
is a goto statement in Pascal, but it is 
rarely used. 

Thus writing a Pascal program re- 
quires a different kind of organizational 
thinking than writing one in Basic. It is 
the Pascal type of program organiza- 
tion — called top-down or structured 
programming — that the Karel language 
teaches. So let’s look at some of the con- 
cepts of the Pascal language, and see 
how features of the Karel language teach 
them. 

Pascal has extensive data structuring, 
including records as well as arrays. 
Karel has none (except for Karel’s 
world, which is not variable); its purpose 
is to teach program organization, not 
data organization. 

Pascal has compound statements, 
delimited by begin and end. For 
example 

BEG I N X : =X+ 1 ; Y : =Y+ 1 END . 

A Pascal compound statement is not the 
same as a Basic multi-statement line, 
which is just a space-saving convenience. 
Compound statements work nicely with 
if statements, which in Pascal can have 
else clauses. Karel has these too, and 
they can be used to define a complex ac- 
tion. Although Karel can only turn left, 


we can write a compound statement to 
make him turn right: 

BEGIN turnleft; turnleft; 
t u r n I e f t END . 

The more complex statement in Fig- 
ure 1 tells Karel to go one block for- 
ward, unless the way is blocked, in 
which case he is to move two blocks 
backward. 

Pascal has for loops like Basic, but it 
also has the while ... do statement 


A typical Karel 
program , like a well- 
written Pascal program , 
is 95% new instruction 
definitions and 5% body. 


which causes some action to be per- 
formed as long as some condition re- 
mains true. Karel has this feature in 
exactly the same form. The following 
statement instructs Karel to move for- 
ward until he comes to a wall: 

WHILE front-is-clear DO 
move . 

Finally, Pascal has the procedure. If 
all data are ignored, a procedure is just a 
compound statement given a name, so 
that is can be cited elsewhere in the pro- 
gram. Karel’s analog is the new instruc- 
tion definition. Figure 2 shows two 
examples. 

A Karel program can be built from 
these constructs. Figure 3 is Karel 
following a wall to his right, looking for 
a beeper. 

And there you see the fundamentals 
of the structured programming style: 
procedures, blocks, if-then-else, while- 
do. A typical Karel program, like a well- 
written Pascal program, is 95% new 
instruction definitions and 5% body. 

Summary 

The Karel software package consists 
of two disks, labeled KAREL: and 
KAREL2: Each disk boots the UCSD 
Pascal operating system. A user’s man- 


ual, which contains clear and complete 
instructions for configuring a one or two 
drive system, for using the Karel simu- 
lator program and for running the 
demonstrations, is included. 

The package does not contain a copy 
of the Pascal text editor. You must pro- 
vide this yourself. Nor does the manual 
tell you how to use the text editor, or 
anything about Karel’s language — for 
this you must read Pattis’s book. 

The simulator is comprehensive and 
easy to use. Besides putting Karel 
through his paces as defined by your 
program, it offers a choice of speeds, sin- 
gle-stepping, and other debugging aids. 
The simulator includes a “world- 
builder" for defining Karel’s environ- 
ment and initial conditions. With the 
world-builder, you can build and destroy 
walls, move Karel around, and strew 
beepers on street corners. You can’t pick 
up a beeper, so if you make a mistake 
and put one where you don’t want it, 
you have to start over. 

The Karel package is aimed at the 
high school or college classroom in 
which Apples and Pascal are available. 
For about the first two weeks of a Pascal 
class, Pattis’s book can be used as a text, 
with assignments from the numerous ex- 
ercises in the book to be run on the com- 
puter. Then the class can move quickly 
on to data structures and Pascal. Karel 
can be fun, and there is some danger of 
getting distracted from the real objective 
and spending too much time with Karel. 

I recommend a serious look at Karel 
to any Pascal instructor. If, however, 
you are an individual programmer, have 
just gotten Pascal for your Apple, and 
are trying to learn the language, I sug- 
gest that you get any of the Pascal tu- 
torials and jump right in. 

The two-disk Karel package with 
manual costs $85 and is available in a 
standard 40-column version and in a 
version for users of 80-column cards. 
Also available, for $150, are two disks 
containing solutions to all the problems 
in the Karel the Robot book. Versions of 
the simulator for the IBM Personal 
Computer and the Terak are 
forthcoming. □ 


Figure l. 


IF front-is-clear THEN 

move 


ELSE BEGIN turnleft; 

turn left: 

; move; move; 

turnlef t ; 

turnl eft 

END. 


Figure 2. 


DEF I NE-NEW- INSTRUCTION turnright AS 

BEGIN turn left 5 turnleft; turnleft END; 

DEF I NE-NEW- INSTRUCTION si destep I eft AS 
BEGIN turnleft; move; turnright END; 


Figure 3. 


BEG I NN I NO-OP-PROGRAM 

DEF INE-NEW- INSTRUCTION try-again AS 
IF r i ght-i s-clear THEN 

BEGIN turnright; move END 
ELSE IF front-is-clear THEN move 
ELSE IF left-i s-clear THEN 
BEGIN turnleft; move END 
ELSE 

BEGIN turnright; turnright; move END; 

BEG I NN I NG-OF-EXECUT I ON 

WHILE not-nex t-to-a-beeper DO try-again; turnoff 
END— OF— EXECUT ION 
END-OF-PROGRAM. 


156 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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My Five Year Old 
Knows Basic 



A friend of mine recently called to tell 
me that he suspected his seven-year-old 
daughter had a “learning problem.” Six 
months after purchasing a Commodore 
Vic-20 home computer he is worried be- 
cause she just can’t seem to grasp the 
Basic programming concepts of strings 
and arrays. I asked him what in the 
world would make him think that she 
could be capable of understanding a 
complex concept like that. He replied, 
“They’re learning about computers in 
school aren’t they?” 

Poor kids, I can see it all now. In ten 
years we will be labeling children who 
cannot successfully and efficiently pro- 
gram in at least two machine languages 
“computing disabled.” With the current 
emphasis on computer literacy, many 
educators are pushing the fact that chil- 
dren should know as much about 
computers as possible, at the earliest 
possible age. A recent educational report 
speculated that 25 years from now chil- 
dren would need the equivalent of a 
Master’s degree in computer science 
before they graduated high school. 

I almost pity the parents of these poor 
children who will surely sigh in frustra- 
tion, “Just when I learned the new 
math!” 

While I believe that children growing 
up in the computer age should certainly 


Peter Favaro, 34 Lincoln Blvd., Bethpage, NY 11714. 


Peter Favaro 


be computer literate, there is a danger in 
expecting too much too soon. The six- 
year-old machine language programmers 
that we read about in the papers are 
invariably gifted and are the exception 
rather than the rule. Attempting to 
teach concepts that are beyond what 
children are capable of understanding at 
various developmental levels is likely to 
cause enduring negative perceptions of 
the computer experience and keep some 
children permanently turned off to 
computers. 

This article discusses a developmental 
framework of children’s cognitive and 
behavioral competencies aimed at help- 
ing parents and teachers understand 
what children are capable of learning 
about and on computers, and at what 
ages or stages of development. Before 
presenting this framework, some 
preliminary concepts are helpful. One is 
the notion of readiness , and the other is 
understanding some of the fundamental 
differences between human language and 
computer language. 


Readiness 

The term readiness implies that a 
child will learn a concept, behavior, or 
skill, only when he is developmentally 
prepared and not before. For example: 
Two children may be the exact same 
chronological age, and have had similar 
experiences through life. For the sake of 
this example, let’s say they are both 
seven years old. One of these children 
may be extremely proficient at printing 
his name, spacing the letters equidistant 
from one another, keeping within the 
lines and making everything in the cor- 
rect proportions. The other child may 
have difficulty manipulating the pencil, 
may draw wavy, unsteady and 
misproportioned lines and make many 
errors. 

One hypothesis might be that the sec- 
ond child has a visual handicap. Per- 
haps. But an equally feasible possibility 
is that the child is not developmentally 
“ready” to perform that task. When this 
is the case, no amount of training will 
help that child write neatly, as any par- 
ent who has tried to teach a child in this 
situation will attest. In other words this 
child has not reached a developmental 
state of “readiness” for performing this 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


158 



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My 5-Year-Old Knows Basic, continued... 


writing behavior. One cannot assume 
that all children will be ready to perform 
certain tasks at the same time; with some 
behaviors individual variations of 
months or even years are quite common. 

The concept of readiness applies not 
only to outward behaviors, such as walk- 
ing, talking, and writing. It also applies 
to a child’s ability to solve problems, 
link together ideas, understand concepts 
and think in a logical, orderly fashion. 
These abilities develop gradually over 
the first 15 or so years of life, and this is 
the major reason why most first, second, 
and even third graders cannot learn 
advanced programming languages. This 
does not mean, however, that they can- 
not benefit from interacting with the 
computer on some other level. 


Children seem to pick 
up computer 
programming 
languages, as they pick 
up most foreign human 
languages, much faster 
than adults. 


People have commented on the fact 
that children seem to pick up computer 
programming languages, as they pick up 
most foreign human languages, much 
faster than adults. While this may be 
true, it is not necessarily true for the 
same reasons, and should not be used as 
an excuse to push advanced language 
programming on young children. 

Children, as a rule, learn most things 
faster than adults because more of their 
experiences are centered around learn- 
ing. All languages are symbolic ways of 
communicating, governed by syntax and 
grammar rules. In comparing computer 
language to human language we see that 
the rules which govern computer lan- 
guage are far more strict and precise. 

A young child not yet two years old 
can say to her mother, “Mommy, give 
Jenny muk,” and still be understood, 
even though there is an error in the com- 
mand. Programming in a computer lan- 
guage such as Basic always requires 
correct spelling and syntax to obtain the 
desired outcome of the command. 

Errors that are detected by the 
computer and redirected to the user give 
little hint as to what must be done to 
correct the error, and tell you only what 
and where the error is. Human feedback 
regarding errors in communication can 
be more precise in clarifying the objec- 
tives of the communication. 

A third difference between computer 


language and human language is in the 
way the two are processed and received 
on the sensory channels. Human lan- 
guage is a combination of visual, audi- 
tory, and tactile behaviors. The same 
sentence said with different gestures can 
mean entirely different things. 

Computer language is primarily a 
written language. It is communicated in 
written form and basically understood in 
written and visual form, except for those 
occasions when a beeping noise or other 
sound tells us that something is happen- 
ing with the computer. 

Developmental Prerequisites 

Understanding that the precision, 
structure, and limitations of program- 
ming languages make it different and 
more difficult for very young children to 
learn computer programming, let me 
point out a few other developmental pre- 
requisites that are necessary for this 
task. Computer programming requires a 
knowledge of the basic arithmetic opera- 
tions. This means more than just an 
understanding of the times tables. It re- 
quires an understanding of number con- 
cepts and relationships, such as “greater 
than,” “less than,” and “equal to.” 

Creating an algorithm to help solve a 
problem often requires a rather ad- 
vanced knowledge of algebra and trigo- 
nometric functions that aren’t taught 
until the later primary grades. Computer 
programming requires that the child pro- 
grammer have the ability to put aside 
the egocentric stance that is such a com- 
mon characteristic of young children. 

Programming requires the ability to 
“think like a computer,” following the 
logic that the computer would follow to 
solve a problem. Similarly, program- 
ming requires an understanding of 
sophisticated problem solving strategies 
to master the use of conditional and 
branching statements, skills which are 
not attained until fourth grade at the 
earliest. Along with this, other requisite 
skills include sequencing ability, mem- 
ory and mnemonic, skills, and organiza- 
tional and planning abilities. 

The theory of intellectual develop- 
ment formulated by Swiss psychologist 
Jean Piaget serves as a useful model to 
help understand the limits and 
capabilities of children across the 
developmental continuum. Piaget’s the- 
ory assumes that children pass through a 
series of stages in cognitive skills from 
infancy through adolescence. Pressures 
from the environment (especially the 
learning environment), cause the child 
to adapt to it and organize his thinking 
in new ways. 

The Sensorimotor Stage 

In the earliest stage of development in 
Piaget’s framework, the sensorimotor 

160 


stage, which lasts from birth until 
approximately two years, the child 
moves from instinctual reflex actions to 
symbolic activities as he begins to under- 
stand that he is separate from the 
environment. During this stage, there is 
a limited ability to anticipate the con- 
sequences of actions. 

What can a child learn from comput- 
ers at this young stage of development? 
On the surface, perhaps not much, but 
when you consider the advanced color 
graphics and sound capabilities of 
today’s microcomputers, they seem like 
the ideal tools for creating a most elabo- 
rate “busy-box” for the very young 
child. Since fascination with colors, 
changes in shape, sound and patterns are 
essential elements in the experimental 
world of children at this stage of 
development, sensory stimulation by 
computer may serve the same functions 
that brightly colored toys and objects 
hanging over the cribs of infants today 
serve. Programmed shapes and swirls 
that move across the screen, change size 
and shape, appear and disappear may 
help train visual reflexes, as well as be- 
come a source of interest and pleasure 
for the infant or very young child. Al- 
though research has yet to bear this out, 
it is certainly a question that merits fur- 
ther investigation. 

The Preoperational Stage 

The second stage in Piaget’s develop- 
mental framework is called the 
preoperational stage and spans the two 
to seven year age range. During this pe- 
riod, the child begins to gain control 
over his environment, largely because of 
his ability to use language to express 
ideas. There are, however, still many 
limitations which prevent the child from 
performing mental operations as well as 
he can perform physical ones. These 
restrictions are very evident during the 
early parts of this phase and gradually 
disappear as the child enters the primary 
grades. 

The limitations of preoperational 
thinking include the belief that inani- 
mate objects can have human qualities, 
the inability to recognize that matter is 
conserved regardless of changes in form, 
the inability to understand groupings 
and hierarchical configurations, a nar- 
row concentration on one aspect of a 
situation to the exclusion of all others, 
an inability to understand that some- 
thing can have more than one meaning. 

One child I know who is in the 
preoperational stage became very excited 
when his mother sarcastically an- 
nounced that his sister was late for din- 
ner by saying that she would soon 
“grace us with her presence.” The child, 
thinking that this statement meant that 
she would come downstairs and give 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




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My 5-Year-Old Knows Basic, continued... 


everyone at the table “presents,” became 
extremely happy, but later cried in 
frustration and disappointment when the 
word was not kept. No amount of 
explanation could convince him that 
there was more than one meaning to the 
word “presents.” 

Although the abilities of children at 
this age are limited to the physical, chil- 
dren at this level can begin to learn 
much from computers, even though 
programming skills are still out of the 
question. Children of six or seven can 
easily learn to boot a disk, work a joy- 
stick controller, and use a keyboard. 

At this stage of cognitive develop- 
ment, the computer can become a useful 
training tool to teach number and letter 
recognition, color discrimination, sight 
vocabulary, and some number skills. 
Since this period covers a wide span of 
ages, it would not be realistic to think 
that a two-year-old could accomplish 
the same tasks as a seven-year-old. 

I have found, however, that some 
twos, many threes, and almost all fours 
can manipulate both joysticks and pad- 
dles surprisingly well. These children 
can have lots of fun drawing swirls and 
scribbles with the joystick using a rel- 
atively simple Basic program. Although 
this may be more fun than educational, 
it does stimulate various eye movements, 


gets children to use their eyes and hands 
together, and provides an opportunity 
for attaining mastery over an 
environment. 

Children at the upper range of this 
developmental period (5 to 7) can start 


Children of six or 
seven can easily learn 
to boot a disk, work a 
joystick controller, and 
use a keyboard. 


to learn spelling exercises like Hangman, 
and game-oriented drill-practice ex- 
ercises in CAI. Exercises such as these 
have often been called fancy flash cards, 
but this should not be looked at neg- 
atively. Both flash cards and the com- 
puter provide training for a task that is 
boring but necessary — memorization. 
Some things are best learned by memo- 
rization and flash cards as well as com- 
puter assisted drills. Both provide the 
practice necessary to learn something by 
rote. 


The Concrete Operations Stage 

The third stage in Piaget’s develop- 
mental framework is called the concrete 
operations stage and lasts from the sev- 
enth year until approximately the elev- 
enth year. During this period many of 
the limitations of the preoperational 
stage disappear, as the child gains con- 
cepts of size, spatial relationships, and 
conservation of matter. In this stage the 
child can manipulate more than one 
aspect of a problem at a time and can do 
math problems and some word problems 
in his head. The major limitation of this 
developmental phase is the inability to 
think and perform in the abstract. The 
abilities of the concrete operational child 
are limited by the events, objects and 
physical representations at hand. 

In the later years of this period, chil- 
dren can start to become familiar with 
some of the Basic language commands, 
like the print, input, and goto state- 
ments. At this level children can learn 
how to solve simple arithmetic problems 
using the computer primarily as a 
calculating tool. CAI tutorials and prac- 
tice drills are very easily understood and 
enjoyed and can be implemented with- 
out much help from the classroom 
teacher or parent since the children now 
possess adequate reading skills. Using 
the computer to construct a model or 



Just when you thought it was safe to go back into software. . . 


THE PROGRAM WITH PERSONALITY 


Bit by bit, you’ve been turning your life over to microcom- 
puters. Your checkbook, budgeting, and financial planning has 
been automated. Your mail is electronic. Your idea of a night’s 
entertainment is sitting in the glow of a CRT. Now you can take 
the final step. You can turn your personal life over to a program. 

DELIZA II was designed to provide the kind of companionship 
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USER: What shall we have for dinner? 

DELIZA II: What makes you feel you want dinner? 

USER: Well, I’m hungry. 

DELIZA II: What makes you feel you are hungry? 

USER: I haven’t eaten since this morning. 

DELIZA II: What makes you feel you have not eaten since this 
morning? 

USER: You can’t be hungry, can you? You’re a machine. 
DELIZA II: Let’s talk about you. 

State of the art programming techniques pack DELIZA II with 


flexibility. For example, DELIZA II knows more than twenty 
responses to the phrase "How about it?” 

If you’ve been disappointed in conversational programs 
before, try DELIZA II just once. In terms of output, DELIZA II 
puts out. 

We’ve put the “art” into artificial intelligence. 


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April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


162 




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My 5-Year-Old Knows Basic, continued... 


simulation from scratch, and program- 
ming with advanced concepts such as 
conditional and branching statements 
are still beyond the capabilities of most 
children at this stage because they lack 
the sophisticated abstract reasoning abil- 
ity required. 

The Stage of Formal Operations 

The final stage of development in 
Piaget’s conceptual framework is the 
stage of formal operations and includes 
ages 11 through about 14. Piaget be- 
lieves that by the time a child achieves 
the level of formal operational thought, 
he has all the cognitive “equipment” 
necessary to construct theories, design 
elaborate tools, and do higher level prob- 
lem solving tasks. 

The only thing that separates the cog- 
nitive abilities of a child who has 
achieved this level of thinking from a 
scientist or engineer, Piaget believes, is 
the content of what is being thought 
about, not the ability to manipulate that 
content. The formal operational child 
can make judgments based on abstrac- 
tion and speculation and needs no con- 
crete frame of reference. Problem 
solving can be accomplished by deduc- 
tive hypothesis testing in an orderly 
scientific fashion, using mental strategies 
that do not necessarily come from 


experience. 

During this period children begin to 
understand and use sarcasm, double- 
entendre, and metaphor. They can be 
taught to exploit the computer to its 
fullest capacity, and are ready for their 
first real experiences in higher language 
programming. Simulations can be devel- 
oped (the nuclear power plant simula- 
tion Scram from Atari was developed by 
a 14-year-old), and learning about 
computers can be facilitated through the 
understanding of computer architecture. 


Frustration is a natural 
part of almost every 
human experience 
almost every day. 


At this level children can create their 
own computer assisted instruction tools 
and exercises as well as benefit from 
drills and tutorials. This is not to say 
that every 14-year-old can or will be a 
master programmer, it simply means 
that, developmentally, children who 
have achieved the milestones of formal 
operational thinking will be ready for 


the experience of learning about more 
advanced computer concepts and 
applications. 

Behavioral Sophistication 

An understanding of the cognitive 
abilities of children is important in 
determining what computer experiences 
are most appropriate for them. How- 
ever, behavioral competence is equally 
important, and can affect whether a 
child is ready to begin using a computer. 
Behavioral factors which will influence a 
child’s ability to learn about and benefit 
from the computer include attention 
span, frustration tolerance, ability to de- 
lay gratification, perseverance, self-mon- 
itoring ability and self-motivation, and 
autonomy. 

Attention span is, of course extremely 
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Physical factors such as eye strain can 
cause fatigue and sometimes even head- 
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CRT for long periods of time. The atten- 
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who do one task over and over again is 
between five and ten minutes. 

As childen get older, their attention 
spans gradually increase so that by the 
time a child reaches the age of 10 or 11 
he can sit at a task for 40 minutes or so. 



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CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



My 5-Year-Old Knows Basic, continued... 


Add 3-D to your 

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CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Frustration is a natural part of almost 
every human experience almost every 
day. We are human and prone to err. A 
sign of behavioral maturity is the ability 
to persevere through frustration and try 
again. Too much frustration can exhaust 
our patience and build lasting negative 
attitudes and even a conditioned aver- 
sion to the source of the frustration. This 
is one reason why it is not a good idea to 
push children beyond their develop- 
mental capabilities. 

Although computers can induce 
frustration, they can also help us to 
become more patient and understanding 
of our flaws. The concept of debugging 
should be taught to children even before 
they begin programming. Psychologi- 
cally, it is extremely healthy to be able to 
own up to one’s mistakes. In computer 
programming, mistakes are both normal 
and natural, just as they are in life, but 
we can change them faster and have 
more tolerance of them, thereby perceiv- 
ing them as acceptable. Mistakes in com- 
puter programming also elicit help and 
cooperation from other children foster- 
ing peer help and support. 

Children who are apt to respond to 
frustration with impulsive or destructive 
outbursts are not yet ready to use 
computers. A certain degree of auton- 
omy and self-motivation is a desirable 


behavioral pre-requisite for computer 
experience. Children who are overly 
dependent on the teacher’s attention are 
likely to become distracted very easily 
from computer tasks. Similarly, children 
must be able to reinforce themselves for 
their successes. Even though computers 
offer one kind of reinforcement in the 
form of feedback, praise for effort can 
help a child stick to a task that is becom- 
ing frustrating or difficult. 

Summary 

In summary, I have tried to present a 
basic outline of the ways children de- 
velop both intellectually and behav- 
iorally. It is important to let a child 
work at his own speed and remember 
that not every child will take to comput- 
ing, no matter how desirable a skill it is 
to learn. Understanding the child’s cog- 
nitive abilities and experiential world 
can help us construct the most meaning- 
ful teaching experiences possible. 

Most adults (including me) have to 
live with the feeling of being over- 
whelmed with responsibility daily, let’s 
not make kids older than they are. Spare 
them the feeling of being overwhelmed 
until they’re older — in today’s fast-mov- 
ing world that leaves them their freedom 
all the way up to the ripe old age of 
about 13. □ 


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CIRCLE 255 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


TERMS: Send check or money order. No 
cash please, if check Is not certified 
shipment will be delayed. For Visa or 
Master Charge, include Card Number, 
Expi.ation Date, Interbank Number, In- 
terbank Initials (if any), and Name of 
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ORDERING INFORMATION: To cover 
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WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 


TERMINALS 


Zenith ZT-1 

$595.00 

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$679.00 

Televideo 910+ 

$599.00 

Televideo 925 

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Sanyo CRX- 1100 

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Sanyo MBC 1000 64K 

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Novation Cat 

$139 00 

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Novation Smart Cat 1 200 baud 

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DISKETTES 


Verex 5 V 4 " 

$23 95 

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APPLE SOFTWARE 


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CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Teach Your Kids 
Programming 


Learning a programming language 
yourself is one thing. Helping your child 
learn programming is another. Although 
we are about seven years into the com- 
puter revolution, there is as yet little 
information to guide and assist parents 
in teaching programming to their chil- 
dren. This article discusses which con- 
cepts and facts are appropriate to be 
learned, points out some differences in 
the ways adults and children learn, and 
outlines methods that work in home 
teaching of programming. At the end is 
a list of programs and manuals that are 
helpful to children learning 
programming. 

This article was born out of my recent 
experiences in helping organize and 
teach the “Computers and You” sum- 
mer camp at Michigan State University 
(using Pets), writing Basic manuals for 
children in the age range 10 to 14 years, 
and more recently, working with Logo. 

There has been a spate of courses re- 
cently to teach “computer literacy.” I 
advocate going beyond literacy to actual 
competence in programming. The rea- 
sons are several, and the best exposition 
of them is given by Seymour Papert in 
his book Mindstorms : Children , 
Computers and Powerful Ideas. Much of 
what follows in this article is influenced 
by Papert’s ideas and those of his mentor 
Piaget. I urge any adult interested in 
computing and children read 
Mindstorms. 


Edward H. Carlson, Physics Department, Michigan 
State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. 


Edward H. Carlson 


Procedures are the thing. Papert 
points out that up to now our culture 
has been relatively lean in opportunities 
for children to learn and practice with 
procedures. Perhaps the greatest change 


Even very bright 
children under the age 
of 12 may be slow in 
mastering the more 
abstract parts of 
programming. 


that computers will bring our society is 
the reversal of this state of affairs. 

Procedures in programming are 
named, broken down into steps, modi- 
fied, arranged in hierarchical calling 
sequences, found to be in error (often!), 
and debugged. They perform a wide 
variety of functions: games, graphics dis- 
plays, robot control, sound, speech and 
music. By contrast, the procedures 
learned in traditional schooling are typi- 
fied by long division in arithmetic. They 


are often learned by rote, and cannot 
easily be manipulated or experimented 
with by the student. 

The impact made by computing is 
enhanced by a process called “syntonic 
learning” by Papert. It involves the 
transfer or modeling of ideas from some 
familiar domain of activity to a more 
abstract domain. The mechanical turtle 
was invented to give young children a 
concrete object to manipulate with their 
programs. Graphics turtles on the screen 
serve the same purpose. 

Another impact that computers can 
have on children does not involve 
programming at all. It is the freedom 
from drudgery that word processors give 
children learning to write compositions. 
Since much of the labor of text revision 
is removed, children can be more critical 
of the content and mode of presentation 
of their thoughts. 

Choosing a programming language 
for your child to learn involves several 
factors: the age of the child, which com- 
puter is available, cost of software, and 
social questions such as what local 
schools, the child’s friends and so forth 
are doing. 

Logo has been designed to be an easy 
entry language for children. Its turtle 
graphics, simple syntax, and emphasis 
on procedure calling are all valuable fea- 
tures. However, its lisp-like “tree” struc- 
ture is quite different from the Basic, 
Fortran, and assembly language 
grouping. 

Because it is still by far the most 
widely used language for micro- 


168 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


AARDVARK - THE ADVENTURE PLACE 

TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 24 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99 


WE CARRY MORE THAN ADVENTURES!! 

MAXI-PROS WORD PROCESSING 

The easiest to use word processor that I 
know of. Has all the features of a major word 
processor (right and left margin justification, 
page numbering, global and line editing, single, 
double, triple spacing, text centering, etc.) at 
a very cheap price because we wrote it in 
BASIC. Includes 40 page manual and learning 
guide. Easily modified to handle almost any 
printer combination. Available on disk or tape 
for VIC20, COMM ODOR E64, and TRS-80 
COLOR computer. Requires 13k RAM on 
Vic, 16k EXTENDED on TRS-80 COLOR. ^ 
$19.95 on tape $24.95 on disk. yjfc 

GENERAL LEDGER - Complete bookkeep- 
ing for a small business. Disk required. For 
Vic20 (13k), Commodore64, TRS-80 COLOR 
(16k EXTENDED). $69.95 (Send $1.00 for 
manual before ordering.) 



LABYRINTH - 16K EXTENDED COLOR 
BASIC — With amazing 3D graphics, you fight 
your way through a maze facing real time 
monsters. The graphics are real enough to 
cause claustrophobia. 

Similar game for Timex/Sinclair 16k - hunting 
treasure instead of monsters $14.95. 



ADVENTURE WRITING/DEATHSHIP by 
Rodger Olsen — This is a data sheet showing 
how we do it. It is about 14 pages of detailed 
instructions how to write your own adven- 
tures. It contains the entire text of Deathship. 
Data sheet - $3.95. NOTE: Owners of TI99, 
TRS-80, TRS-80 Color, and Vic 20 computers 
can also get Deathship on tape for an addi- 
tional $5.00. 

Dealers— We have the best deal going for you. 
Good discounts, exchange programs, and fac- 
tory support. Send for Dealer Information. 
Authors — Aardvark pays the highest commis- 
sions in the industry and gives programs the 
widest possible advertising coverage. Send a 
Self Addressed Stamped Envelope for our 
Authors Information Package. 


ADVENTURES — Adventures are a unique 
form of computer game. They let you spend 
30 to 70 hours exploring and conquering a 
world you have never seen before. There is 
little or no luck in Adventuring. The rewards 
are for creative thinking, courage, and wise 
gambling — not fast reflexes. 

In Adventuring, the computer speaks and 
listens to plain English. No prior knowledge 
of computers, special controls, or games is re- 
quired so everyone enjoys them — even people 
who do not like computers. 

Except for Quest, itself unique among Ad- 
venture games. Adventures are non-graphic. 
Adventures are more like a novel than a comic 
book or arcade game. It is like reading a par- 
ticular exciting book where you are the main 
character. 

All of the Adventures in this ad are in Basic. 
They are full featured, fully plotted adventures 
that will take a minimum of thirty hours (in 
several sittings) to play. 

Adventuring requires 16k on Sinclair, TRS- 
80, and TRS-80 Color. They require 8k on OSI 
and 1 3k on VIC-20. Sinclair requires extended 
BASIC. Now available for TI99. 

TREK ADVENTURE by Bob Retelle - This 
one takes place aboard a familiar starship and 
is a must for trekkies. The problem is a famil- 
iar one — The ship is in a "decaying orbit" 
(the Captain never could learn to park!) and 
the engines are out (You would think that in 
all those years, they would have learned to 
build some that didn't die once a week). Your 
options are to start the engine, save the ship, 
get off the ship, or die. Good Luck. 

Authors note to players — I wrote this one 
with a concordance in hand. It is very accurate 
— and a lot of fun. It was nice to wander 
around the ship instead of watching it on T.V. 

DERELICT by Rodger Olsen and Bob Ander- 
son For Wealth and- Glory, you have to ran- 
sack a thousand year old space ship. You'll 
have to learn to speak their language and 
operate the machinery they left behind. The 
hardest problem of all is tojive through it. 

Authors note to players — This adventure 
is the new winner in the "Toughest Adventure 
at Aardvark Sweepstakes". Our most difficult 
problem in writing the adventure was to keep 
it logical and realistic. There are no irrational 
traps and sudden senseless deaths in Derelict. 
This ship was designed to be perfectly safe for 
its' builders. It just happens to be deadly to 
alien invaders like you. 

Dungeons of Death — Just for the 16k TRS- 
80 COLOR, this is the first D&D type game 
good enough to qualify at Aardvark. This is 
serious D&D that allows 1 to 6 players to go 
on a Dragon Hunting, Monster Killing, Dun- 
geon Exploring Quest. Played on an on-screen 
map, you get a choice of race and character 
(Human, Dwarf, Soldier, Wizard, etc.), a 
chance to grow from game to game, and a 15 
page manual. At the normal price for an Ad- 
venture ($14.95 tape, $19.95 disk), this is a 
giveaway. 


PYRAMID by Rodger Olsen — This is one of 
our toughest Adventures. Average time 
through the Pyramid is 50 to 70 hours. The 
old boys who built this Pyramid did not mean 
for it to be ransacked by people like you. 

Authors note to players — This is a very 
entertaining and very tough adventure. I left 
clues everywhere but came up with some in- 
genous problems. This one has captivated 
people so much that I get calls daily from as 
far away as New Zealand and France from 
bleary eyed people who are stuck in the 
Pyramid and desperate for more clues. 

MARS by Rodger Olsen — Your ship crashed- 
on the Red Planet and you have to get home. 
You will have to explore a Martian city, repair 
your ship and deal with possibly hostile aliens 
to get home again. 

Authors note to players — This is highly 
recommended as a first adventure. It is in no 
way simple — playing time normally runs from 
30 to 50 hours — but it is constructed in a 
more "open" manner to let you try out ad- 
venturing and get used to the game before 
you hit the really tough problems. 



QUEST by Bob Retelle and Rodger Olsen — 
THIS IS DIFFERENT FROM ALL THE 
OTHER GAMES OF ADVENTURE!!!! It is 
played on a computer generated map of 
Alesia. You lead a small band of adventurers 
on a mission to conquer the Citadel of Moor- 
lock. You have to build an army and then arm 
and feed them by combat, bargaining, explora- 
tion of ruins and temples, and outright ban- 
ditry. The game takes 2 to 5 hours to play 
and is different each time. The TRS-80 Color 
version has nice visual effects and sound. Not 
available on OSI. This is the most popular 
game we have ever published. 

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Teach Them Programming, continued... 



computers, I will concentrate on the 
teaching of Basic to children. However, 
much of what I say has broader implica- 
tions for children and learning. 

The Children 

One should adjust teaching methods 
and goals to the development age of the 
child. Here are some guidelines: 

Toddler through second grade. You 
cannot depend on reading or arithmetic 
skills. The children may start with “one 
finger” turtle graphics (Logo or the Nib- 
ble program) and advance to procedures 
and true programming as seems 
appropriate. 


Grades 3 through 6. These students 
have adequate reading and arithmetic 
skills, but verbal teaching and hands-on 
trials are the most important modes for 
learning. The abstract reasoning ability 
of children in this age group is relatively 
undeveloped. The book by Larsen 
(described later) is at the right level. 

Grades 7 through 9. At about age 12, 
children have finished a growth spurt in 
abstract reasoning. From here on, learn- 
ing adult level programming is feasible. 
However, the methods that children 
bring to learning are different from those 
of adults, and adult level manuals are 
rarely suitable for them. 


Grades 10 through 12. Adult texts and 
teaching methods may be used. Students 
still have a relatively small kit of models 
of the world with which to generate 
programming ideas. 

These guidelines are approximate, and 
individual children vary considerably. 
However, even very bright children 
under the age of 12 may be slow in 
mastering the more abstract parts of 
programming, and it is unwise to push 
them beyond their current interests and 
abilities. 

Differences Between 
Children and Adults 

The little people have their own way 
of getting along in the world. Following 
are some differences that one notices 
between children and adults. Of course, 
everyone, adult and child alike, really 
falls somewhere between the extremes 
described here. 

The child: holistic, practical, easily 
swamped by details. 

The adult: understands by mastering 
the details, mastering relationships 
between details, and arriving at a theo- 
retical model of the situation. 

The child: relatively inexperienced, 
few models of the world. 

The adult: has many models and looks 
for similarities to past experiences. 

The child: slow at typing and prone to 
giving up when boring portions of the 
task need doing. 

The adult: Better typing skills, and 
tolerant of boring tasks. 

Naturally, being adults ourselves, we 
feel that our duty lies in helping the 
child to become like us. However, you 
and your child will be more successful if 
you allow him to approach program- 
ming in his own style. 

What Exactly Is Programming? 

There are some interesting misconcep- 
tions about programming. Most people 
think it is similar to mathematics. In 
fact, it often turns out that way only 
because the adults most interested in 
programming typically are skilled in 
math. But the child is not usually skilled 
in math. He may be skilled in arithmetic, 
but there are children’s activities that 
come much closer to programming than 
does arithmetic. 

One of these is playing with building 
blocks. Just as a bag full of blocks has 
many copies of a relatively small number 
of standard sizes and shapes, a Basic 
program uses a small set of standardized 
commands. Yet in each case, an intricate 
and original structure can be built. 
Creativity rarely shows up at the 
individual unit level (a new use of the 
triangle block). It shows more often in 
combinations using a few units (certain 
ways of building walls or tower bases) 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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Teach Them Programming, continued... 



Figure 3. Young students find the IF. . .THEN construction a difficult concept 
to grasp, there are two metaphors. The verbal one guided the designers of the Basic 
language in their choice of words. (® Datamost) 


and most often at the large scale (a 
unique and imaginative castle built from 
the blocks). 

Writing is a familiar school activity 
that forms a model for programming. 
Writing a one page theme on “What I 
Like About Springtime” involves 
organizing your thoughts on several 
scales, from the topic as a whole down to 
paragraph and sentence levels. Finally, 
spelling, grammar and punctuation must 
be correct. The analogy to writing a 
Basic program is very close. 

And what about arithmetic? To the 
extent that it is drill on arithmetic facts 
and memorization of procedures such as 
the addition of fractions, it is not very 
similar to programming. Of course, pro- 
grams usually use some arithmetic: for 
example to place dots on the screen in 
building a picture. And story problems 
in arithmetic (which children usually 
find very hard) require skills in problem 
solving that are also required in writing 
programs. 

Teach These Concepts 

Children have the most trouble learn- 
ing concepts. (They pick up the syntax 
and commands at a reasonable rate.) A 
good manual presents the teacher with a 
list of concepts that should be mastered, 
arranged in the order in which the 
material is presented. Here is such a list, 
followed by comments, and tuned up for 
Microsoft Basic. 

1 . What you see on the screen is not 
what is in memory. 

2. Memory. Think of it as a shelf of 
boxes. Each box has a label on the 
front and the value of the variable 
inside. 

3. The boxes are of three kinds, lines 
(of the program), string variables, 
numerical variables. 

4. A program is a list of commands 
performed in order. 

5. The immediate mode and the run 
mode. 

6. Variable naming, single letter 
names first. 

7. Flow of control. 

GOTO . . . 
timing loop 

FOR . . . NEXT 

if . . . THEN all on one line 

if . . . then branching to another 

line 

8. Screen graphics. Cartesian 
coordinates. 

9. Subroutines and “mind size bites.” 

10. Task organization: initialization; 
instructions and prompts; main 
loop: calls subroutines; finish and 
graceful exit of program. 

11. Format of a Basic program. 

12. Debugging is a natural part of 
programming, and should be done 
in an organized way. 


Comments On The Concepts 

The box metaphor applied to memory 
is very powerful and should be referred 
to at every opportunity. For younger 
children, a set of similar cartons (e.g. the 
bottoms of cardboard quart milk car- 
tons) can be used to illustrate the pro- 
cess with a few short sample programs. 
Each carton has a label on the front, and 
the contents are program lines (during 
the program writing phase) or variable 
values (during the running of the pro- 
gram). Write the name of the variable 


The box metaphor 
applied to memory is 
very powerful and 
should be referred to 
at every opportunity. 


(or the line number) on the label, then 
put a scrap of paper with the value of the 
variable (or the Basic line) in the box. 

Children enjoy seeing the “real boxes” 
in the computer. Show them the mem- 
ory chips in the computer, stressing that 
each contains thousands of boxes. Bet- 
ter, get an EPROM with its transparent 
window revealing the chip and a power- 
ful magnifying glass, and show them the 
rows of boxes. Of course, even under 
magnification, imagination is required to 
resolve the gates (boxes) in their rows. 


The immediate mode has several other 
names: edit mode, calculator mode, etc. 
This is where it is better to avoid over 
explanation. The child’s natural holistic 
and practical approach will succeed in 
keeping the immediate mode and the run 
mode separate. You need only keep an 
eye on things and straighten out aoy 
confusion. 

Variable names are best kept to a sin- 
gle letter. Doing so means less typing, 
and in short programs there is little need 
for longer names. The Microsoft naming 
conventions that only the first two let- 
ters count and that embedded reserved 
words must be avoided create quite a po- 
tent source of error and confusion when 
using longer names. 

For the most part, the order in which 
Basic commands are taught is not too 
critical. A good manual will introduce 
commands in such an order that 
interesting (but short) programs can be 
written right away. However the “flow 
of control” commands are very abstract 
and must be introduced slowly and with 
care. The order shown above works well. 

goto ... is an easy introduction to 
the notion that the orderly flow of con- 
trol down the program listing can be 
interrupted. The timing loop is next pre- 
sented as a unit, without explaining its 
structure: 

30 FOR T = 1 to 1000 : NEXT 

Tell the little squirmers that the com- 
puter is “it” in a game of tag, and is 
counting to 1000 before going on with 
the program. This timing loop is good 
for slowing programs down enough to 
see what is happening. 


172 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



Figure 4. The fork in the road metaphor for the IF. . THEN construction. This 
visual metaphor sees the program listing as a map and is especially important in 
complicated programs. You should draw lines for flow of control on listings, e.g. 
from GOTO statements to where they "goto, ” to help the student visualize the road 
map. (® Datamost) 


Next, tell them that the computer can 
do other things while counting, and in- 
troduce the full for . . . NEXT 
loop — slowly. 

The conditional, if . . . then, is a very 
hard concept. Use two metaphors, one 
visual, the other verbal, to explain it. 
Examples are given in Figures 3 and 4. 
First teach if . . . then in which only a 
single command (not a goto)) follows 
the then. Let this digest for a few les- 
sons, then show the use of if . . . then 
to make larger loops (by using 
goto . . . after the then). 

Teaching Advanced Concepts 

We have come to a natural break in 
the topics covered. The lessons up to this 
point have concerned individual com- 
mands and simple combinations of 
them. The programs have been short (up 
to about 10 lines), yet they can do 
interesting things both in graphics and 
in verbal play. 

Now the student will attempt larger 
projects and learn more commands and 
the fine points about how to handle 
strings and screen graphics. But it is 
important to continue teaching the 
larger aspects of the art of programming. 
These include task organization and 
debugging techniques. 

The hierarchical organization of a 
program is made easier by programming 
from a template. When starting a new 
program, a standard format is loaded, 
then filled in. Such a format is given in 
Listing 1. 


Techniques Of Teaching 

The following are some rules and 
procedures that are valuable for teaching 
children regardless of age. 

Preparing Yourself 

Buy a good manual written for chil- 
dren the age of your child. If it is written 
for your brand of computer, great. If it 
isn’t, go through it and change the text 
to match your computer. 


Don’t start by teaching 
arithmetic on the 

computer. 


An alternative, if you are proficient in 
Basic yourself, is to spend a few minutes 
examining the list of commands, state- 
ments, and functions in your version of 
Basic, dividing them into two classes: 
early and late. Put the early ones in 
some order that seems reasonable for 
teaching. The order is really not critical 
after the first few commands, but should 
follow some rational scheme of teaching 
strings, graphics, and arithmetic com- 
mands. The first few commands in the 
list should be print, run, list, new, 
REM, INPUT, and GOTO. Group them in 
sets of three to five. Each set will be one 
lesson. 

Don’t start by teaching arithmetic on 


the computer. It is deadly dull, even for 
children who find arithmetic easy. Wait 
until some program requires a little 
calculation, then start putting it in. 

There is a natural tendency to just 
“teach the commands.’’ They are so vis- 
ible. But you must take pains also to 
teach the concepts, the control struc- 
tures, and the data types. So identify the 
concepts to be taught, and then teach 
them actively, not just letting them 
trickle down by osmosis. 

Look at the list of concepts I gave 
above. Fold them into the lessons at a 
slow rate. For children under 12, taper 
off on the speed with which concepts af- 
ter goto are presented, and “water 
down’’ the concepts to boot. 

You don’t have to be dogmatic about 
the concepts. Just introduce them infor- 
mally, matter-of-factly, and at a mea- 
sured rate. 

Interacting With Your Child 

How formal should the lessons be? 
For you, the teacher, the list of topics is 
complete and well ordered. The extent 
to which the child does formal lessons 
with assignments to learn and exercises 
to do is another matter. Suit the format 
to the situation in your home. 

Your child will need a great deal of 
over-the-shoulder help for the first hour 
or so. After that, keep in contact, 
presenting new ideas and checking the 
progress of your student against your list 
of topics. This can be done very infor- 
mally, but don’t assume that the child 
has covered the ground completely. 
Check him out! 

The learning process should be child 
driven. Whether you prefer to “let the 
child play around and discover things’’ 
or want to provide more visible guid- 
ance, there will be no success unless the 
child enjoys creating and learning. That 
means that the subjects of the programs 
and the techniques used must be one 
that the child has chosen, either by him- 
self or from a list of suggestions pro- 
vided by you. 

All of your success will depend on 
keeping programming fun. Several tech- 
niques that help in this involve some 
homework on your part. 

First, you can show him programs 
that you have started and invite the 
child to complete, alter, or extend them. 
This alleviates much of the drudgery and 
focuses attention on new material. 

Second, use graphics early and often. 
Younger children may want to spend a 
lot of time just drawing when first 
shown how. This is fine. It develops con- 
fidence and keyboard skills, and allows 
you to introduce line editing to the 
extent supported by your computer. 
Wean the student from pure graphics by 
helping him develop moving graphics. 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


173 



Teach Them Programming, continued... 


Listing 1. Standard Format For Basic Programs. 

GOTO 2000: REM PROGRAM NAME 


1 
2 : 

3 REM 

4 REM 

97 : 

98 REM 

99 : 


100 
101 
110 

195 

196 

197 

198 

199 

200 
201 
202 

203 

204 : 
295 

299 : 

300 

301 : 
395 
1000 
1008 

1009 

1010 
1011 
1015 
1020 
1025 
1031 
1100 
1110 
1990 
1995 
2000 
2001 
2010 
2015 
2020 
2990 

2994 

2995 

2999 

3000 

3001 
3010, 

9000 

9001 

9002 
9010 
9015 
9020 
9022 
9025 
9030 
9035 
9040 
9999 


REM 

REM 

END 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 


LINES 2 THROUGH 99 ARE FOR "SENSITIVE" SUBROUTINES 
THAT ARE USED OFTEN OR DEEPLY NESTED AND MUST RUN FAST. 


MAIN LOOP 

THE MAIN LOOP CALLS SUBROUTINES AS NEEDED. 


FIRST SUBROUTINE NAME 

PUT ORDINARY SUBROUTINES HERE, STARTING EACH WITH 
NEW EVEN-HUNDREDS LINE NUMBERS. 


RETURN 

REM SECOND SUBROUTINE NAME 
RETURN 

**************************************************** 
* * 

* PROGRAM NAME * 

* * 

* AUTHOR, ADDRESS, PHONE * 

* * 
**************************************************** 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROGRAM AND VARIABLES 


REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 


REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 

REM 


INITIALIZATION 

PUT LINES HERE THAT INITIALIZE AND DIMENSION VARIABLES, 
AND GIVE THE INSTRUCTIONS AND THE STARTING MENUS. 

JUMP TO THE MAIN LOOP 


GOTO 100: REM 

REM SUBROUTINES 

REM PUT "ONE TIME USE" ^SUBROUTINES HERE 

REM PUT UTILITY SUBROUTINES HERE. AS YOU WRITE THESE, SAVE 
REM THEM SEPARATELY, AND USE UNIQUE LINE NUMBERS, SO YOU 
REM CAN ALWAYS ADD THEM TO ANY PROGRAM WITHOUT LINE NUMBER 

REM CONFLICT. USE TEXT FILES: SEE "CAPTURE" IN DOS MANUAL. 

REM SAVE ONE LETTER, FOR EXAMPLE Z, TO USE AS 
REM THE FIRST LETTER OF ALL VARIABLES IN THESE ROUTINES. 

REM THIS IS A "FIX" FOR THE LACK OF LOCAL VARIABLES 

REM IN BASIC. 


This format should be put on disk or tape and read in before starting a new pro- 
gram. Children can be introduced to this format after considerable experience with 
Basic , and when they start writing long programs. 

Using a standard format helps you remember which elements will be needed in a 
program (initialization, descriptions, standard utility subroutines, main loop, and 
subroutines). It saves time in putting in such prompts as the author’s name, ad- 
dress, and phone number in its pretty box. It also helps in adding standard sub- 
routines to your programs by reserving the line numbers where they will go. 

Finally, this particular format puts the most used subroutines at the beginning, 
which is important in writing fast programs, and puts the initialization part last 
where there is lots of room. There is a tendency for initialization routines to expand 
as user-friendly items are added after the program first runs satisfactorily. 


This surely will lead to full fledged 
programming. 

Likewise, strings can be great fun, 
allowing word play, silliness and mock 
insults, and introducing a social aspect 
to computing. Print them at odd spots 
on the screen, with delays, inverted or 
flashing letters, or sliding along under 
the direction of a loop. Include whatever 
other bells and whistles your computer 
supports, such as sound. 

Periodically, sit at the computer with 
your child and run through your check- 
list of commands and concepts to see 
where the holes in his mastery lie. Then 
gently guide the child to start filling 
them in, whether they be just details of 
syntax or command usage, or whether 


Strings can be great 
fun, allowing word play, 
silliness and mock 
insults, and introducing 
a social aspect to 
computing. 


they be overall organizational concepts. 

A conscientious implementation of 
this program will require a great deal of 
time and effort. Just remember that the 
purpose of a good Basic manual is to do 
much of the work for you. It is not that 
the author knows Basic better than you 
do, but that he has done the preliminary 
organization of material and chosen 
examples and assignments that the child 
may appreciate. This still leaves you 
with the responsibility to help and sup- 
port the student, and to check that the 
material is being mastered without large 
gaps. 

So let’s go on and examine some of the 
workbooks and programs that are avail- 
able for helping children learn 
programming. 

Books for Kids 

The following list includes some 
books for teaching Basic to children. 
All are in 8 x 11 format. 

Computers for Kids by Sally Green- 
wood Larsen is published by Creative 
Computing Press. There are versions for 
the TRS-80, Apple, Atari, Vic-20 and 
Timex 1000/Sinclair ZX81. It uses large 
type and a language style appropriate for 
about the third or fourth grade. It treats 
25 of the most essential Basic commands 
and has a nice section on the use of 
graphics. Ms. Larsen includes some 
sample programs, help in the mechanics 
of keyboard editing and disk drive use, 
and useful tips about teaching computer 
programming in the classroom. The sec- 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


174 



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Teach Them Programming, continued... 


tion on making flow charts is delightful. 
Seventy-three pages. 

Kids And The Apple by Edward H. 
Carlson. Modesty prevents me present- 
ing a subjective description of the book. 
Intended for use at home by children 
aged 10 through 14, it can also be used 
in classroom teaching. It has over 200 
pages and 100 cartoons and treats about 
50 Basic commands. There are 33 les- 
sons. Each is preceded by one page of 
Instructor Notes which outlines the con- 
cepts being taught, lists some pitfalls in 
the subject, and gives some short quiz 
questions to be used when the lesson has 
been studied by the student. Each lesson 
describes the material in language at 
about the fifth or sixth grade level and 
has several assignments at the end. For 
each assignment there is a solution in the 
back of the book. Some of the solutions 
were done by children who tried out the 
book in manuscript form. Published by 
Datamost in 1982, it is spiral bound to 
lie flat at the work station. 

Teaching Basic Bit By Bit is edited by 
Batya Friedman and Twila Slesnick and 
published by the Lawrence Hall of Sci- 
ence, University of California. This is a 
sparse but imaginative eight-day 
curriculum for ages 1 1 through adult. It 
supposes classroom use. 

Introduction To Applesoft Basic — 
Student Text is published by the Minne- 
sota Educational Computing Con- 
sortium. I have not yet seen this book. 

Basic Discoveries by Linda Malone 
and Jerry Johnson is published by Cre- 
ative Publications. It has 71 pages and 
treats 10 Basic commands. Its explana- 
tions are on the adult level, but its many 
exercises and solutions are intended for 
children in the fourth grade and above. 
One version for all computer makes. 

A series of books called Creative 
Programming for Young Minds by 


Henry A. Taitt, published by Creative 
Programming, Inc. has versions for sev- 
eral different computers and several lev- 
els of ability. 

/ Speak Basic To My Apple by Aubrey 
B. Jones is published by Hayden Book 
Company. A classroom set, containing a 
teacher’s manual, 20 copies of the text 
book, and masters for 14 quizzes is avail- 
able. The text was developed in a middle 
school program for encouraging stu- 
dents to prepare for an engineering ca- 
reer. It has about 240 pages and a 
distinctive page format. Each page is 
devoted to one topic, even if it means 
that the page may be mostly empty. 
Large, bold, easy-fo-read type allows 
concentration on the material. 

Programs That Help 

These programs do not teach Basic 
but help children learn programming in 
various other ways. 

Helter Skelter by Dynacomp Inc. The 
Apple version is available and other ver- 
sions are in preparation. This is a lively 
program in color and sound that kids 
from toddler to second grade will enjoy. 
It not only arouses their interest in the 
computer and entertains them, but helps 
them learn pre-school material with Ses- 
ame Street type antics. 

Antfarm by Jacques LaFrance, pub- 
lished by WIMS Computer Consulting. 
This system helps children write little 
programs to control an ant farm in a 
special tiny language. The ants move, 
plant, and eat. The ants may starve if 
they do not find food, but finding food is 
easy to arrange if you think ahead. The 
plants need some time to grow from 
seeds through several stages to harvest 
size. The graphics, which are punctua- 
tion marks rather than lo or hi resolu- 
tion figures are in black and white, and 
rather slow. 


A turtle graphics system has a “tur- 
tle” (a cursor shaped like a triangle) that 
moves and turns upon command and 
can draw a line as it travels. It is a means 
of creating line pictures under control of 
simple commands. It is most valuable 
when a program can be written to con- 
trol the turtle. The Logo language avail- 
able for the Apple and the Texas In- 
struments computers has a turtle system 
built in. Apple Pascal also has a set of 
turtle commands, and programs can be 
written in Basic for making turtles. One 
such for the Apple was written by David 
Krathwohl and published in Nibble Vol. 
3, No. 1. It is available from Nibble on 
disk. Another, by A1 Evans, appeared in 
the July, 1982 issue of Creative Comput- 
ing. There are turtle graphics available 
now with the Atari Pilot cartridge. 

The advantage of a turtle is that the 
child can easily control a visible object 
and thereby learn the essential features 
of programming: that procedures are a 
sequence of steps, that debugging is a 
necessary and natural part of creativity, 
and that branching and loops are power- 
ful tools. 

Robotwar is a program published by 
Muse Software, Inc. for the Apple. It, 
too, requires one to write programs 
which control a robot in a battle in a 
special tiny language. However, the sys- 
tem is rather complex, involving an 
operating system, a compiler for the lan- 
guage, a test bench for trying your pro- 
grams and finally, a battle with a set of 
robots selected from an arsenal. How- 
ever, the idea can be very captivating for 
kids in the 12 and above age range and 
may be just the motivation they need to 
learn programming. 

The cartoons in this article were 
drawn by Paul Trap and are from the 
book Kids And The Apple. They are 
copyright Datamost. □ 


Bit Pit 


Chas Andres 




176 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





ADD ON DISK DRIVE for IBM PC- Tandon 

Single sided or double sided, double density disk drives for 
IBM PC, these are exactly the .s me disk drives used by IBM 
at half the price 

MSM-551001 TM100-1 single sided $219.95 

MSM-551002 T Ml 00-2 double sided $294.95 


SERIAL I/O for IBM PC - Profit Systems 

Two asynchronous serial RS-232C I/O ports, real time clock- 
calender, includes software 

101-81 00 A Card with 1 port $159.95 

101-8101 A Card with 2 ports $199.95 


SERIAL/PARALLEL for IBM PC - Profit Sys 

Two asynchronous serial RS-232C I/O ports, one parallel 
printer I/O port, real time clock-calender, includes software 

IOI-8110A 1 serial & 1 parallel $199.95 

101-81 11 A 2 serial & 1 parallel $229.95 


EXTENDER CARD for IBM PC - Profit System 

All bus signals extended, signal names silk screened on top 

of board, gold-plated card edge, low noise 

TSX-300A IBM PC extender $45.00 


PROTOTYPING CARD for PC - Profit Systems 

Highly versatile wire-wrap or solder prototyping board for 
your IBM PC, large bread board area, power and ground 
planes to reduce noise, all holes are plated through, card is 
solder masked on both sides, all signals names are silk 
screened on both sides 

TSX-310A $59.95 


Video Monitors, 


HI RES 12" GREEN SCREEN - Zenith 

15 MHz bandwith 700 lines/ inch, P31 green phosphor, 
switchable 40 or 80 columns, small, light-weight & portable. 
VDM-201201 List price $189.95 $115.95 

HI RES GREEN MONITORS - NEC 

20 MHz bandwidth, P31 phosphor ultra-high resolution 
video monitor, high quality, extremely reliable. 

VDM-651200 Deluxe 12" $199.95 

VDM-651260 Economy 12" $149.95 

VDM-65092 Deluxe 9" $179.95 


12" COLOR MONITORS - Taxan 

18 MHz high resolution RGB color monitors fully compatible 
with Apple II and IBM PC, unlimited colors available. 

VDC-821210 RGBvision I, 380 lines $389.95 

VCD-821230 RGBvision III, 630 lines $689.95 

VDA-821200 RGB card for Apple II $99.95 


COLOR MONITORS - Amdek 

Reasonably priced color video monitors. 

VDC-80130 13" Color I $379.95 

VDC-801320 13" Color II $894.95 

IOV-2300A DVM board for Apple $199.95 


AMBER or GREEN MONITORS - USI 

High resolution 18 MHz compact video monitors. 


VDM-751210 12" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VDM-751220 12" Green phosphor $139.95 

VDM-750910 9" Amber phosphor $149.95 

VDM-750920 9” Green phosphor $139.95 



SUPERQUAD - Adv. Micro Digital 

Single board, standard size S-100 computer system, 4 MHz 
Z-80A, single or double density disk controller for5'U" or 8" 
drives. 64K RAM, extended addressing, up to 4K of EPROM, 
2 serial & 2 parallel I/O ports, real time interrupt clock, CP/M 
compatible. 

CPC-30800A A & T $724.95 

IOX-4232A Serial I/O adapter $29.95 



Disk Sub-Systems - Jade 

Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally balanced air 
flow system, rugged dual drive power supply, power Cable 
kit, power switch, line cord, fuse holder, cooling fan, never- 
mar rubber feet, all necessary hardware to mount 2-8" disk 
drives, power supply, and fan, does not include signal cable. 

Dual 8" Sub-Assembly Cabinet 

END-000420 Bare cabinet $49.95 

$199.95 

$249.95 

8" Sub-Systems - Single Sided, Double Density 

END-000423 Kit w/2 FD100-8DS $650.00 

END-000424 A & T w/2 FD100-8DS $695.00 

END-000433 Kit w/2 SA-801Rs $999.95 


END-000421 Cabinet kit 

END-000431 A & T 


END-000434 A & T w/2 SA-801 Rs . 


. $1195.00 


8" Sub-Systems - Double Sided, Double Density 

END-000426 Kit w/2 DT-8s ' $1224.95 

$1424.95 

$1274.95 

END-000437 A & T w/2 SA-851 Rs $1474.95 


END-000427 A & T w/2 DT-8s _ 
END-000436 Kit w/2 SA-851 Rs. 



Dual Slimline Sub-Systems - Jade 

Handsome vertical cabinet with scratch resistant baked 
enamel finish, proportionally balanced air flow system, quiet 
cooling fan, rugged dual drive power supply, power cables, 
power switch, line cord, fuse holder, cooling fan, all 
necessary hardware to mount 2-8" slimline disk drives, does 
not include signal cable. 


Dual 8" Slimline Cabinet 

END-000820 Bare cabinet 

END-000822 A & T w/o drives 


Dual 8" Slimline Sub-Systems 

END-000823 Kit w/2 TM848-1 

END-000824 A & T w/2 TM848-1 

END-000833 Kit w/2 TM848-2 

END-000834 A & T w/2 TM848-2 


_ $59.95 
_ $179.95 

_ $919.95 
_ $949.95 
. $1149.95 
. $1179.95 



Tandon TM100-1 single-sided double-density 48 TPI 
MSM-551001 $219 95 ea 2 for $199.95 ea 

Shugart SA400L single-sided double-density 40 track 

MSM-1 04000 $234 95 ea 2 for $224.95 ea 

Shugart SA455 half-size double-sided 48 TPI 
MSM-1 04550 $349 95 ea 2 for $329.95 ea 

Shugart SA465 half -size doule-sided 96 TPI 

MSM-1 04650 $399 95 ea 2 for $379.95 ea 

Tandon TM100-2 double-sided double-density 48 TPI 

MSM-551002 $294 95 ea 2 for $269.95 ea 

Shugart SA450 double-sided double-density 35 track 

MSM-1 04500 $349 95 ea 2 for $329.95 ea 

Tandon TM100-3 single-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-551003 $294 95 ea 2 for $269.95 ea 

Tandon TM 100-4 double-sided double-density 96 TPI 
MSM-551004 $394.95 ea 2 for $374.95 ea 

MPI B-51 single-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-155100 $234 95 ea 2 for $224.95 ea 

MPI B-52 double-sided double-density 40 track 
MSM-1 55200 $344.95 ea 2 for $334.95 ea 

5V 4 " Cabinets with Power Supply 

END-000216 Single cab w/ power supply $69.95 

END-000226 Dual cab w/power supply $94.95 



PB-1 - SSM Microcomputer 

2708, 2716 EPROM board with on-board programmer. 

MEM-9951 OK Kit with manual $154.95 

MEM-9951 0A A & T with manual $219.95 

PROM-100 - SD Systems 

2708, 2716, 2732 EPROM programmer with software. 

MEM-99520K Kit with software $189.95 

MEM-99520 A A & T with software $249.95 



STARMICRONICS GEMENI 

High speed dot matrix printers with all the features of the 
higher-priced best-selling machines for a lot less money!!! 
100 CPS, 9x9 dot matrix with true lower case descenders, 
high-resolution bit image and block graphics, superscript & 
subscript, underlining, backspacing, double strike and 
emphasized print modes, proportional space font, friction 
feed, tractor feed , and roll paper, 5, 6, 8V 2 , 10, 12, & 17 pitch, 
programable line spacing, FREE 2.3K buffer, Epson pin and 
plug compatible, user replaceable print head, extended 6 
month factory warranty. 

PRM-66010 10" wide carriage $399.95 

PRM-66015 15" wide carriage $529.95 

PRA-66200 Serial interface card $69.95 


HIGH-SPEED, HIGH QUALITY - Okidata 

Microline 82A 80/132 column, 120 CPS, 9 x 9 dot matrix, 
friction feed, pin feed, adjustable tractor feed (optional), 
handles 4 part forms up to 9.5" wide, rear & bottom feed, 
paper tear bar, 100 % duty cycle/200,000,000 character print 
head, bi-directional/logic seeking, both serial & parallel 
Interlaces Included, front panel switch & program control of 
10 different form lengths, uses inexpensive spool type 
ribbons, double width & condensed characters, true lower 
case descenders & graphics 

PRM-43082 with FREE tractor CALL 


Micro line 83 A 132/232 column, 120 CPS, forms up to 15" 
wide, removable tractor, plus all the features of the 82A. 
PRM-43083 with FREE tractor CALL 

Mlcrollne 84 132/232 column, Hi-speed 200 CPS, full dot 

graphics built in, plus all the features of the 83 A. 

PRM-43084 Centronics parallel CALL 

PRM-43085 Serial with 2K buffer CALL 


IOP-2100A Apple card and cable $69.95 

PRA-27087 TRS-80 cable $24.95 

PRA-43081 2K hi speed serial card $149.95 

PRA-43082 Hi-res graphics ROMs 82A $49.95 

PRA-43083 Hi-graphics ROMs 83A $49.95 

PRA-43088 Tractor option for 82A $49.95 



ULTRA-VIOLET EPROM ERASERS 

Inexpensive erasers for industry or home. 

XME-3100A Spectronics w/o timer $69.50 

XME-3101A Spectronics with timer $94.50 

XME-3200A Economy model $49.95 



LETTER QUALITY PRINTER - COMREX 

Uses standard daisy wheels and ribbon cartridges, 16 CPS 
bi-directional printing, semi-automatic paper loader (single 
sheet or fan fold), 10/12/15 pitch, up to 16" paper, built-in 
noise suppression cover. 

PRD-11001 Centronics parallel $899.95 

PRD-11002 RS-232C serial model $969.95 

PRA-11000 Tractor Option $119.95 


STARWRITER F-10 - C. Itoh 

New 40 CPS daisy wheel printer with full 15" carriage, uses 
standard Diablo print wheels and ribbons, both parallel and 
serial interfaces included. 

PRD-22010 Starwriter F-10 $1495.95 



ISO-BUS - Jade 


Silent, simple, and on sale - a better motherboard 

6 Slot (5'/ 4 “ x «%' ) 


MBS-061B 

Bare board 

$22.95 

MBS-061K 

Kit 

$39.95 

MBS-061 A 

A & T 

$69.95 

12 Slot (9y A " x 8*/ t ") 


MBS-121 B 

Bare board 

$34.95 

MBS-121K 
MBS-121 A 

Kit 

$69.95 

A A T 

$109.95 

18 Slot (14 y 2 " x 8%'*; 


MBS-181B 
MBS-181 K 

Rare hnarrt 

$54.95 

Kit 

$99.95 

MBS-181 A 

A AT 

$149.95 



Computer Products 


Place Orders Toll Free 

Inside California Continental U.S. 

800 - 262-1710 800 - 421-5500 



Computer Products 





APPLE II 
ACCESSORIES 


APPLE DISK DRIVE - Apple Compatible 

Totally Apple compatible, 143,360 bytes per drive on DOS 
3.3, full one year factory warranty, half-track capability 
reads all Apple software, plugs right into Apple controller as 
second drive, DOS 3.3, 3.2.1, Pascal. A CP/M compatible. 

MSM-1 23200 Add-on Apple Drive $269.95 

MSM-1 23100 Controller $99.95 


16K RAM CARD - for Apple II 

Expand your Apple II to 64K, use as language card, full 1 year 
warranty. Why spend $175.00 ? 

MEX-16700A Save over $115.00 $59.95 


Z-CARD for Apple II - A.L.S. 

Two computers in one, Z-80 A 6502, more than doubles the 
power and potential of your Apple, includes Z-80 CPU card 
CP/M 2.2 and complete manual set, Pascal compatible, 
utilities are menu-driven, one year warranty. 

CPX-62800A A & T with CP/M 2.2 $159.95 

SMARTERM II - A.L.S. 

80 column x 24 line video card for Apple II, addressable 25th 
status line, normal/inverse or high/ low video, 128 ASCII 
characters, upper and lower case, 7 x 9 dot matrix with true 
descenders, standard Data Media terminal control codes, 
CP/M Pascal A Fortran compatible, 50/60 Hz, 40/80 column 
selection from keyboard. 

IOV-2500A ALS Smarterm II $169.95 

SERIAL I/O CARD - A.L.S. 

Full feature serial card for modems A printers, baud rates 
from 110 to 19,200, CTC/RTS A X-on/X-off protocols, auto 
line feed, RS-232C cable interface included. 

IOMOOOA A A T "Dispatcher Card" $129.95 

CP/M 3.0 CARD for APPLE - A.L.S. 

The most powerful card availability for your Applet 

6 MHz, Z-80B, additional 64K of RAM, CP/M plus 3.0, 100 % 
CP/M 2.2 compatibility, C basic, CP/M Graphics, 3005 faster 
than any other CP/M for Apple. One year warranty. 
CPX-62810A A.L.S. CP/M Card $349.95 


2 MEGABYTES for Apple II 

Complete package includes: Two 8" double-density disk 
drives, Vista double-density 8" disk controller, cabinet, 
power supply, A cables, DOS 3.2Z3.3. CP/M 2.2, A Pascal 
compatible. 


1 Mega Byte Package Kit $1495.00 

1 MegaByte Package A A T $1695.00 

2 MegaByte Package Kit $1795.00 

2 MegaByte Package A A T $1995.95 


c -100 

VIDEO BOARDS 


I 


MICROANGELO - Scion 

Ultra-high-resolution 512 x 480, 256 color or black A white > 
100 video board 

IOV-1500A A A T $799 * 


MODEM CARD FOR APPLE - SSM 

Better than Hayesll Better than Novation!! Direct connect 
ModemCard plugs directly into Apple - no external 
components, auto-dial, auto-answer, Bell 103 compatible, 
full and half duplex, touch-tone or pulse dialing generated 
on board, Micromodem II software compatible, displays 
modem information on screen, audio monitoring of phone 
line, no serial port required, two year factory warranty, FREE 
Source Subsrlptlon with purchase of Transend software. 


IOM-2430A ModemCard $289.95 

SFA-55770010M Transend 1 w/ Source $79.95 

SFA-55770010M Transend 2 w/Source $129.95 

SFA-55770030M Transend 3 w/Source $239.95 



memory boards 


64K STATIC RAM - Jade 

Uses new 2K x 8 static RAMs, fully supports IEEE 696 24 bit 
extended addressing, 200ns RAMs, lower 32 K or entire 
board phantomable, 2716 EPROMs may be subbed for 
RAMs, any 2K segment of upper 8K may be disabled, low 
power typically less than 500ma. 


MEM-991 52B Bare board $49.95 

MEM-99152K Kit less RAM $99.95 

MEM-321 52K 32 K kit $199.95 

MEM-561 52K 56 K kit $289.95 

MEM-641 52K 64 K kit $299.95 

Assembled & Tested add $50.00 


256 RAMDISK - SD Systems 

ExpandoRAM III expandable from 64K to 256K using 64KX1 
RAM chips, compatible with CP/M, MP/M, Oasis. 
A most other Z-80 based systems, functions as ultra-high 
speed disk drive when used with optional RAMDISK 


software. 

MEM-65064A 64K A A T $474.95 

MEM-65128A 128K A AT $574.95 

MEM-65192A 192K A AT $674.95 

MEM-65256A 256K A AT $774.95 

SFC-55009000F RAMDISK sftwr CP/M 2.2 $44.95 

SFC-55009000F RAMDISK with EXRAM III $24.95 


64K RAM BOARD - C.C.S. 

IEEE S-100, supports front panels, bgjk select, fail-safe 
refresh 4MHz, extended addressing, ifstprice $575.00 - less 
than half price!!! 

MEM-64565A $199.95 



s-ioo 

I/O boards 


THE BUS PROBE - Jade 

Inexpensive S-100 Diagnostic Analyzer 

So your computer is down. And you don't have a- 
oscilloscope. And you don't have a front panel... You're no 
alone - most computers have their occasional bad days. 0* 
without diagnostic equipment such as an oscilloscOB 
(expensive!) or a front panel (expensive!), it can be van 
difficult to pinpoint the problem. Even if you have 
extender board with a superfast logic probe, you can't ss* 
more than one signal at a time. You're stuck, right? 1 
Not anymore; Jade is proud to offer our cost-effecttn 
solution to the problems mentioned above: THE BU i 


PROBE. 


Whether you're a hobbyist with a cantankerous kluge or * 
field technician with an anxious computer owner breathing 
down your neck, you'll find THE BUS PROBE speeds yOt 
repair time remarkably. Just plug in THE BUS PROBE $ n 
you'll be able to see all the IEEE S-100 signals in action. TW 
BUS PROBE allows you to see inputs, outputs, memory 
reads and writes, instruction fetches, DMA channel 
vectored interrupts, 8 or 16 bit wide data transfers, plus tf» 
three bus supplv voltages. 

TSX-200B Bare board $59 »’ 

TSX-200K Kit 129.9* 

TSX-200A A A T $159.91 


1/0-4 - SSM Microcomputer 

2 serial I/O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports. 

IOI-1 01 0B Bare board w/ manual $35.9* 

IOI-1010K Kit with Manual $179.9* 

IOI-1010A A A T $249.9* 


1/0-5 - SSM Microcomputer 

Two serial A 3 parallel I/O ports, 110-19.2K Baud 

IOI-1015A A A T $289.91 

INTERFACER 4 - CompuPro 

3 serial, 1 parallel, 1 Centronics parallel. 

IOI-1840A A AT $314.91 

IOI-1 840C CSC $414.91 


PLACEORDERSTOLLFREE 

_ For Technical Inquires 

Continental U.S. Inside California or Customer Service call- 

800 - 421-5500 800 - 262-1710 213 - 973-7707 

We accept cash, checks, credit cards, or Purchase Orders from qualified firms and institutions. 

Minimum prepaid order $15.00 California residents add 6y 2 % tax. Export customers outside the US or Canada please 
add 10% to all prices. Price* and avalliblllty subject to change without notice. Shipping and handling charges 
via UPS Ground 504/lb. UPS Air $1. 00/lb. minimum charge $3.00 


1-1 00 

OPUBOARDS 


SBC-200 - SD Systems 

MHz Z-80A CPU with serial & parallel I/O, IK RAM, 8K 
CM space, monitor PROM included. 

C-30200A A & T $329.95 


2810 Z-80 CPU - C.C.S. 

or 4 MHz Z-80 CPU with serial I/O port & on board monitor 
WOA4, front panel compatible. 

CPU-30400A a & 7 with PROM $289.95 


CPU-Z - CompuPro 

/ 4 MHz Z80A CPU, 24 bit addressing. 

CPU-30500A 2/4 MHz A & T 

CPU 30500C 3/6 MHz CSC 



tmens FDD 100-8 single-sided double-density 
MSF-201120 $274.95 ea 2 for $249.95 ea 


I hugart SA810 half-size single-sided double-density 
•SF 108100 $424 95 ea 2 for $394.95 ea 


\h ugart SA860 half-size double-sided double-density 
8SF-1 08600 $574 95 ea 2 for $549.95 ea 


$hugart SA801R single-sided double-density 

4SF 10801 R $394.95 ea 2 for $389.95 ea 


I hugart SA851R double-sided double-density 
MSF-10851R $554.95 ea 2 for $529.95 ea 



modems 


THE BIG Z - Jade 

or 4 MHz switchable Z-80 CPU board with serial I/O, 
xomodates 2708, 2716, or 2732 EPROM, baud rates from 
\ to 9600. 

CPU-30201 B Bare board w/ manual $35.00 

CPU-30201 K Kit with Manual $149.95 

CPU-30201 A A & T with Manual $199.95 


SMART BUY in MODEMS - Signalman 

1200 and/or 300 baud, direct connect, automatic answer or 
orginate selection, auto- answer /auto-dial on deluxe models, 
IBM model plugs directly into an IBM option slot and does 
not require a serial port (a $300.00 savings!), 9v battery 
allows total portability, full one year warranty. 

IOM-5600A 300 baud direct connect $89.95 

IOM-5610A 300 baud Deluxe $149.95 


IOM-5620A 1200/300 baud Deluxe . 
IOM-5630A 300 baud for IBM PC _ 
IOM-5640A 300 baud for Tl 99/4 _ 
IOM-5650A 300 baud for Osborne . 

IOM-5660A 300 baud Atari 850 

IOM-5670A 300 baud PET /CBM 


. $369.95 
. $269.95 
. $119.95 
. $119.95 
. $99.95 


_ $169.95 


. $279.95 
. $374.95 


1200 BAUD SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

1200 and 300 baud, all the features of the standard 
Smartmodem plus 1200 baud, 212 compatible, full or half 
duplex. 

IOM-5500A Smartmodem 1200 $599.95 


8085/8088 - CompuPro 

toth 8 & 16 bit CPUs, standard 8 bit S-100 bus, up to 8 MHz, 
accesses 16 Megabytes of memory. 

CPU-20510A 6 MHz A & T $398.95 

CPU-2051 0C 6/8 MHz CSC $497.95 


SMARTMODEM - Hayes 

Sophisticated direct-connect auto-answer/ auto-dial 
modem, touch-tone or pulse dialing, RS-232C interface, 
programmable 

IOM-5400A Smartmodem $224.95 


IOK-1500A Hayes Chronograph _ 


IOM-2010A Micromodem II w/Term prgm 
IOM-2012A Terminal program for MMII _ 
IOM-1100A Micromodem 100 


$218.95 

$329.95 


$89.95 

$368.95 


IOM-5251 A 1200 baud 212/103 Smart Cat 
IOM-5261 A 300 baud 103 J-Cat 


fandon TM848-1 single sided double-den thin-line 
MSF-558481 $379.95 ea 2 for $369.95 ea 


J-CAT™ MODEM - Novation 

1/5 the size of ordinary modems, Bell 103, manual or 
auto-answer, automatic answer/originate, direct conect, 
built-in self-test, two LED's and audio "beeps" provide 
complete status information. 

I0M-5281A Novation $149.95 


andon TM848-2 double-sided double-den thin-line 
•SF-558482 $494.95 ea 2 for $484.95 ea 


0 ume DT-8 double-sided double-density 
4SF-750080 $524 .95 ea 2 for $498.95 ea 


d/sacontrollers 


DISK 1 - CompuPro 

8" or 5'/ 4 " DMA disk controller, single or double density, 
single or double sided, 10 MHz. 

IOD-1810A A & T $449.95 

IOD-1810C CSC $554.95 


VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

Double density disk controller for any combination of 5 1 /," 
and 8" single or double sided, analog phase-locked loop 
data separator, vectored interrupts, CP/M 2.2 & Oasis 
compatible, control/diagnostic software PROM included. 

IOD-1160A A & T with PROM $359.95 

SFC-55009047F CP/M 3.0 with VF II $99.95 


2242 DISK CONTROLLER - C.C.S. 

5y 4 " or 8" double density disk controller with on-board boot 
loader ROM, free CP/M 2.2 <& manual set. 

IOD-1300A A & T with CP/M 2.2 $399.95 


DOUBLE D - Jade 

High reliablity double density disk controller with on-board 
Z-80 A, auxiliary printer port, IEEE S-100, can function in 
multi-user interrupt driven bus. 

IOD-1200B Bare board & hdwr man $59.95 

IOD-1200K Kit w/hdwr & sftwr man $299.95 


IOD-1200A A & T w/hdwr & sftwr man 


$325.95 


SFC-590020011 CP/M 2.2 with Double D _ 


$99.95 


^CP/M PLUS 3A 


1200 BAUD SMART CAT - Novaton 

103/212 Smart Cat & 103 Smart Cat, 1200 & 300 baud, built-in 
dialer, auto re-dial if busy, auto answer/disconnect, direct 
connect, LED readout displays mode, analog/digital loop- 
back self tests, usable with multi-line phones. 

IOM-5241 A 300 baud 103 Smart Cat $229.95 


$549.95 


. $129.95 


CP/M 3.0 is Digital Research's latest version of the industry 
standard disk operating system. It features many 
performance improvements such as intelligent record 
buffering, improved directory handling, "HELP" facility, 
time/date stamping of files and many more improvements. 
AND A TREMENDOUS INCREASE IN SPEED !!!, it is fully 
CP/M 2.2 compatible and requires no changes to your 
existing application software. Available only to Versafloppy 
II owners with SBC-200 CPU's 

• CP/M 2.2 compatible 
Easily customized 
Easier to learn and use 
High performance file system 
Automatic disk log-ln of removable media 
Support for 1 to 16 banks of RAM 
Supports up to 16 drives of 512 Megabytes each 
Up to ten times faster than CP/M 2.2 
Console I/O re-dlrectlon 

• Easy to use system utilities with HELP facility 

• Power batch facility 

• Designed for application programmers 

• Resident system extensions 

SFC-55009057F CP/M 3.0 8" with manuals $200.00 

SFC-55009057M CP/M 3.0 Manual $30.00 


THREE BOARD SET— SD Systems 


CP/M 3.0 


Save *800. 00 


S-100 board set with 4 MHz Z-80A, 64K of RAM 
expandable to 256K, serial and parallel I/O ports, 
double-density disk controller for 5%'' and 8" disk 


jp| drives, new and improved CP/M 3.0 manual set, system 


monitor, control and diagnostic software. Includes SD 
Systems SBC-200, 64K ExpandoRAM III, Versafloppy II, 
and FREE CP/M 3.0 - all boards are assembled & tested. 


64K Board Set with FREE CP/M 3.0 _ 


256K Board Set with FREE CP/M 3.0 


$1195.00 

$1395.00 


LIMITED QUANTITY 



Computer Products 


4901 West Rosecrans, Hawthorne, California 90250 


rmri f iq7 dn rfafifp sfrvip.f P.ARn 




Learning To Learn 
By Learning 
To Play 



Computer games have been used for 
many purposes. They have been used to 
entertain, to teach students traditional 
school subjects like arithmetic and spell- 
ing, and to help students become 
comfortable with computers. In a course 
recently given by one of us (Marc) at 
Boston College, computer games were 
used to teach students something they 
are seldom taught in courses: how to 
learn. We thought that by teaching stu- 
dents how to learn instead of teaching 
them what to learn, we might be able to 
help them get more out of school. 

We hoped that by asking them to 
think about how they were learning (or 
failing to learn) in the rather simple rule- 
governed environment that games pro- 
vide, we might help them to discover 
better strategies for learning. In other 
words, we hoped to help them to learn 
how to learn. 

But, since we were fairly sure that 
they would think that they had only 
learned to play games, we then asked 
them to apply what they had learned by 
playing to the job of learning something 
more “serious” — namely computer 
programming. And we hoped that they 
would then realize that the ideas that 
they had gotten from learning to play 
could be used in their other courses too. 
We know that some of them got the 
point. 

The course has been given several 
times to several different types of stu- 
dents. Last summer, for example, it was 
given to 40 “high-risk” freshmen who 
had been admitted to Boston College in 
spite of relatively weak academic 
records. Although most of these stu- 


Professor Peter Kugel, Chairman, Computer Science 
Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. 


Marc D. Stowbridge 

and 

Peter Kugel 

dents had not learned what most stu- 
dents have learned before they go to 
college, they appeared to have the 
underlying ability to learn those things. 
During the summer, other efforts were 
being made to teach them the things that 


they had missed in traditional “re- 
medial” classes. But we felt that it was at 
least possible that some of these students 
simply did not know how to learn in a 
classroom situation. We felt that if they 
could learn to learn they might be better 
able to learn, not only the things that 
they had missed, but also the new things 
that would be presented in their college 
courses. 

Computer games have some advan- 
tages over traditional games for teaching 


180 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



A good word processor should feel 
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codes. 

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has proven itself at places 
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Texaco. The software is well 
documented, is guaranteed, and is 
available for immediate delivery. For 
more information write or call 


A word 
processor 
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extension o 
pour mind. 


CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




"Tls Home Computer. 
This is the one? 


A lot of computers offer a lot. Only one 
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disk drive controller and the RS232 Inter' 
face. You can also add a modem, speech 


synthesizer, disk drive and 80 column dot 
matrix printer. 

Programming flexibility. TI BASIC is 
built into the Home Computer. But it qjttf 
also handle TI Extended BASIC, UCSD 
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9900 Assembly Language and TI PILOT. 
Programs can be stored in the optional 
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Control & function keys. 16 color graphics 
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Sound impressive? Compare a TI Home 
Computer with the competition andjeally 
be impressed. You won’t even 
need a computer to tell you this 
is the one. 

IFXA5> 

Instruments 

© 1982 Texas Instruments 



*UCSD Pascal is a trademark of the Regents of the University of California 

CIRCLE 295 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Learning to Learn, continued... 

purposes. One is that they can be played 
in such a way that each player has com- 
plete control over the game. The com- 
puter always follows the same program 
and there are no other people involved 
who can “take over” the work. Another 
merit of computer games is that the 
computer is very strict (but very im- 
personal and non-threatening) in follow- 
ing the rules. And finally, the computer 
will play tirelessly, thus freeing the 
teacher from having to run (or even to 
play) the games. 

Adapting the course to other situa- 
tions should be easy. The underlying 
ideas seem to us to be adaptable to other 
student levels, other computers, other 
schools, and other teachers whose ideas 
about what constitutes good learning 
procedures may be different from ours. 
Much of the students' work was with 
computers which allowed quick correc- 
tion of student errors without requiring 
a large amount of grading on the part of 
the teacher. Many of the programs re- 
quired for the course already exist; good 
games are available for most computers. 

The course was based on four fun- 
damental ideas: 

1. Students can improve their ability 
to learn by thinking about what 
they are doing when they try to 
learn and by discussing what they 
do with others. 

2. Such thinking and talking about 
learning is best done while the stu- 
dents are actually trying to learn 
some particular thing, rather than 
through abstract discussions or lec- 
tures about general principles. 

3. The process of learning to play (and 
win) computer games provides an 
excellent sample learning process 
for this purpose for several reasons: 

• Games involve quite precise rules 
that — particularly in computer 
games — cannot be easily violated. 

• Students are much more relaxed 
about learning to play games than 
they are about learning traditional 
school subjects. 

• Students like games and readily 
accept the value of learning to 
play and learning to win. (Many 
students do not readily accept the 
value of traditional school 
subjects.) 

4. What students learn about learning 
by learning to play can be trans- 
ferred to the process of learning 
other things if one pays attention to 
the transfer process and does not 
assume that it will happen 
automatically. 

Not Knowing How To Learn 

Some students seem to know what to 
do in school and some do not. One can 
argue that the differences between those 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


who do well in school and those who do 
not are innate and hence unchangeable. 
To some degree, this is almost certainly 
true but we feel that it may not be quite 
as true as some people think it is. 

Suppose that you believed (as we do) 
that learning is something that the 
learner does , that a learner is not just a 
passive sponge who sits in one place and 
absorbs information. Successful learning 
would then depend, at least in part, on 
doing the right things. 

Virtually every human being seems to 
be born “knowing" how to learn certain 
things. Everyone learns to recognize his 
mother, to nurse properly, to walk, and 
to talk. Such learning is accomplished 
with little visible effort on the part of the 
learner. We seem to be born with built- 
in “programs" that we follow to learn 
these things. 

The ability to learn in school, how- 
ever, seems rather less evenly distributed 
among us. Some children enter school 
seeming to know what to do. Others 
don’t. 


Some students seem to 
know what to do in 
school and some do 

not. 


The ability to learn in school might be 
innate, but suppose it is not. Suppose it 
must be learned. Imagine, now, that you 
are arriving on your first day of school 
without having learned it. If you are one 
of those people to whom school learning 
came naturally (and chances are that 
you are) this may be hard for you to do. 
But try. Here you are. The teacher does 
something. You do something in re- 
sponse but it is the wrong thing. (You 
haven’t learned the right thing to do, 
remember?) 

You start out enthusiastic and work 
hard. Your teacher notices that you still 
aren’t learning. Perhaps you need to be 
taught more slowly. That doesn’t work. 
Your teacher concludes you lack ability. 
You get discouraged. Nothing you do 
works, so you decide you don’t like 
school. That continues for years without 
anybody realizing that all that is 
“wrong" with you is that you don’t 
know how to learn in school. 

Why doesn’t somebody teach you? 
One reason might be that nobody knows 
what the problem is. But there are other 
reasons. One is that many people don’t 
believe that learning can be taught. An- 
other is that even if you believe that 
learning can be taught, it is not obvious 
how to teach it. After all, you want to 

183 


teach it to people who don’t know how 
to learn reading, writing and arithmetic. 
So how are they going to learn learning? 

Here’s an idea. Suppose that you try 
to let people learn to learn the same way 
they learned to speak their native lan- 
guage. You simply plunk them into a 
learning situation simple enough for 
them to handle and let them learn. For 
this to work, you need to pick something 
that people have an innate ability to 
learn. How about playing games? Chil- 
dren (and adults) seem to have a built-in 
ability to learn to play games. 

You could, of course, teach games the 
way you teach languages in school, and 
students would probably have the same 
difficulties. A wag once suggested that if 
you really wanted to kill baseball in 
America, all that you would have to do 
would be to teach baseball in school. But 
that is not what we did with games in 
our course. We gave students a few hints 
and some written instructions and let 
them figure out how to play on their 
own. 

Learning To Play 

In each session, students were told a 
bit about a game, and sent off to play. 
They were asked to: 

• Learn to play legally— learn the 
rules. 

• Learn to win — develop good 
strategies. 

While they were at the computer, they 
were asked to take notes about what was 
happening and to keep the printout. 
Then, when they came back to the next 
meeting, the class discussed what did 
and did not work. 

Some of the game programs we used 
were taken from David Ahl’s book Basic 
Computer Games, and some were writ- 
ten especially for this course. The games 
chosen presented the students with prob- 
lems of increasing difficulty so that their 
learning would be cumulative. 

Students were guided through the 
course by a control program that per- 
formed various functions: 

• It presented step-by-step instruc- 
tions to the students, calling them 
by name (a feature that those of us 
who are familiar with computers 
tend to minimize but that is surpris- 
ingly important to the students). 

• It sequenced the students through 
the material, keeping track of where 
a given student was and indicating 
to him where to go next. 

• It provided the instructor with 
information about each student’s 
status and progress. 

• It kept the students away from the 
other resources of the computer. 

The Curriculum 

On the first day of class, students were 


Learning to Learn, continued... 

given instructions for logging in (we 
used a time-shared PDP 11/70) and for 
running the control program called LTL 
(for Learning to .Learn) 1 . 

The students took this material to the 
computer and tried (on the whole, 
successfully) to log on and off without 
help. If they ran into trouble and asked 
for help, it was given — sparingly. 

They were asked to keep their print- 
out and to keep detailed diaries of what 
happened. A typical entry in a student 
diary looked like this: 

“The computer typed WHAT IS 
YOUR L.T.L. NUMBER? I looked at 
my instruction sheet and typed 501. I 
waited for a while. 

The computer did not do anything. Then 
I remembered to type RETURN.” 

We asked the students to record not 
only their successes but also their mis- 
takes. Most computer programmers rec- 
ognize the value of making mistakes and 
learning from them. But surprisingly few 
students do. A great deal of elementary 
education seems aimed at disguising the 
value of making mistakes and correcting 
them. We emphasized it. 

We felt that, if the students wrote 
down what they were doing and talked 
about it, they could not avoid thinking 
about it. Thinking about learning (like 
thinking about anything) gives you the 
opportunity to change the way you do it. 
That, supposedly, is one of the reasons 
for teaching philosophy and also the 
basis for many kinds of psychotherapy. 
Our feeling was that at least some of the 
students might have gotten trapped into 
unproductive learning behavior. Think- 
ing about what they were doing gave 
them the chance to at least consider 
changing it when it did not work. 

We also hoped to get them to “think 
about their own thinking.” Our hope 
was that if they could think about their 
own thinking, it might occur to them to 
change it to adapt it to circumstances. A 
common problem in students is that, 
once they hit upon a successful way of 
working, they use it for everything. (As 
Abe Maslow once said “To the person 
who has only a hammer, the whole 
world looks like a nail.”) We hoped to 
make them more flexible. 

Guessing Numbers 

At the end of the first class — in which 
we discussed both how they actually did 
log on and how they learned to log 
on — they were told to go back to the 
computer and play their first real game, 
NGuess, a simple and familiar game in 


1 The course was run under the auspices 
of the Learning to Learn program at 
Boston College, directed by Marcia 
Heiman and Dan Woods. 


which the computer picks a number 
between 1 and 100 and the player tries to 
guess it in 7 guesses or less. 

The students were told to learn to 
play correctly, which is relatively easy 
but still raised problems for some. And 
they were told to find a good strategy. 

Some students did not even try to play 
rationally. (They guessed the same num- 
ber twice.) Others looked for, and found, 
an optimal strategy. 

The program they used was more fail- 
safe than most. Errors (such as O for 0) 
were trapped, and the student was given 
a chance to recover. Error comments 
were as clear as possible. Care here 
seems important if for no other reason 


A great deal of 
elementary education 
seems aimed at 
disguising the value of 
making mistakes and 
correcting them. 


than to raise student ambitions by mak- 
ing it possible for them to solve the 
problems. 

The second class meeting, during 
which they discussed their play of 
NGuess, set the pattern for the rest of 
the course. As problems were raised, 
they were written on the blackboard and 
an attempt was made to categorize the 


problems so that they could be dealt 
with individually. Problems that arose 
fell into four categories: 

• Problems arising from a failure to 
remember what had been learned in 
the first session (on how to use the 
computer). 

• Problems arising from difficulties in 
understanding the instructions for 
playing the game. 

• Problems in following the rules, 
once one has figured out what they 
are. 

• Problems arising from finding a 
good (or best) strategy. 

No attempt was made to try to sell 
one approach to problems over another. 
It is our feeling that some students resist 
learning in school because they feel it 
violates their personal integrity to do 
what the teacher tells them to do. They 
feel they are giving in. Such students do 
better when allowed to use their own 
strategies. Furthermore, students under- 
stand better things they have framed in 
terms of their own intuitions than what 
has been framed in the intuitions of 




others. 

One of the great merits of using com- 
puter games in this situation is that the 
computer will reward any approach that 
works. It need not be the approach that 
the programmer of the teacher had in 
mind when the game was presented. 
And this gives the student a feeling of 
confidence in himself. 

Most students who found the optimal 
strategy for NGuess did so by thinking 
of the numbers arranged on a line and 
then thinking of their guesses as cutting 



184 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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CIRCLE 227 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Learning to Learn, continued... 


the search area in half each time. This 
was interpreted to the class as an exam- 
ple of the value of trying to think of 
problems in terms of spatial images, of 
trying to look at problems in different 
ways while looking for solutions, and of 
using metaphors to better conceptualize 
(and remember) problems. 

Many of the students in this course 
seemed to lack flexibility in their ap- 
proach to problems. They would try one 
way to solve the problem and it would 
never occur to them to consider a dif- 
ferent one. They would consider only 
two possibilities — either they had not 
worked hard enough on their one ap- 
proach or it would not work and thus 
there was no possible solution to the 
problem. 

The Other Games 

After NGuess came a game called 
Flipflop. In this game, the player tries to 
turn a row of X’s into O’s by indicating 
which symbol in (say) a five-symbol row, 
is to be “flipped” (from O to X or X to 
O). The difficulty comes from the fact 
that, when a particular symbol is 
flipped, others may be flipped along with 
it. For example, if the student has 
reached OOXOO and tells the computer 
to flip the third symbol, the computer 
will flip the third symbol, but it might 
also flip the fifth as well, producing 
OOOOX. In this round of the game, the 
computer will always flip the fifth when 
told to flip the third. But it may do 
something quite different when asked to 
flip the fifth and it may do something 
else in the next round of the game. 

There are several different strategies 
that can be used to win this game, but 
they all require a systematic recording of 
observations and testing (and extrapolat- 
ing) alternative strategies. Other games 
used in the course (in order of appear- 
ance after Flipflop) were: 

Blackjack, the familiar card game, 
also known as 21. 

Word, in which players try to guess a 
five-letter word selected by the computer 
by guessing its letters one at a time. The 
computer tells them whether the letter 
guessed appears in the word and, if it 
appears, where it appears. 

Mastermind, in which players try to 
break a code. 

Star Trek, a popular computer game 
with relatively complex instructions and 
strategies. 

Each game presented its own prob- 
lems. Blackjack had instructions that 
were difficult to figure out — ordinarily 
an undesirable feature in a computer 
game — that gave the students a chance 
to figure out what to do when they could 
not understand what they read. 

Mastermind suggested the idea that 


theories might be things that one could 
test by varying parameters one at a time 
so that, when something turned out not 
to work out, one knew what it was that 
was not working. 

Star Trek was the mo^t complex game 
of the group. Its instructions alone 
require four pages to print out. Good 
strategies for playing are rather com- 
plex, and this is a good game to teach 
the concept of “divide and 
conquer” — breaking problems into parts 
before trying to solve them. It was also a 
good place to point out that it does not 
always pay to discard a strategy simply 
because it does not work the first time. 
Before totally discarding an approach it 
sometimes pays to try to first improve 
(or debug) the approach to see if it can 
be saved. 

A General Recipe 

Toward the end of the game playing 
part of the course, an attempt was made 
to formulate a general strategy for solv- 
ing learning problems as they arose. The 
hope was that, by providing a recipe to 
follow, one might be able to help the stu- 


The idea of a 
“triggering” feeling 
that tells you when you 
can use the ideas 
learned is very 
important. 


dent’s transfer strategies, learned from 
learning to play, to new areas. The pur- 
pose of a recipe (or a paradigm) like this 
one is to help the students’ transfer strat- 
egies, learned from learning to play, to 
new areas. The purpose of a recipe (or a 
paradigm) like this one is to help a stu- 
dent figure out what to do next in new 
situations. It was suggested that thinking 
about what you do was appropriate 
whenever you faced a situation in which 
you wondered: “What do I do now?” 
We decided that you might do the 
following 3 things: 

• Look around and see what you can 
find out about the situation. Gather 
all the information you can — from 
notes, from the instructor, from 
friends, and so forth. Then compare 
the situation you are in to others like 
it (possibly to situations that arose 
when you were learning to play 
computer games in this course) and 
try to see what you already know 
about this situation because it 
resembles others you have 
encountered. 


• List your options. What exactly can 
you do? It pays to list the possibil- 
ities before you try them out. That 
way you are likely to come up with 
more alternatives. 

• Try out each option in turn. If nec- 
essary, try it out “in your head” or 
on a piece of paper first. If a particu- 
lar method does not work, try 
changing it slightly (debugging it) 
by thinking about why it might not 
be working. If it continues not to 
work try something else. 

Most of this recipe is simple common 
sense — except that its use is really nei- 
ther simple nor common. 

We feel that a particularly important 
feature of this recipe is that it always 
starts in the same situation: you are 
wondering what to do next. The time to 
think about your thinking is always in- 
dicated by the same feeling — the feeling 
that you don’t know what to do next. 
This can happen in a variety of circum- 
stances, but it always feels the same, and 
hence, is easy to recognize. 

When you do recognize it, you have 
two things to fall back on. One is your 
recipe and the other is your memories of 
specific things that worked for you (they 
may not be right for others) when you 
learned to play computer games. We feel 
that in a course like this, the idea of a 
“triggering” feeling that tells you when 
you can use the ideas learned, is very im- 
portant if you want the ideas to transfer 
to other courses. 

Learning To Do “Useful” Things 

Our aim in having students play 
games was not to make Pac-Man ex- 
perts. We were trying to make students 
better at learning things other than 
games. We wanted them to take what 
they learned from learning to play and 
apply it to their regular courses. The 
process by which one takes something 
learned in one area or course and uses it 
in another, different, area or course, is 
called “transfer.” 

It used to be widely felt that learning 
something like Latin or logic was good 
for students because it strengthened 
their minds and would help them in 
studying other subjects. But the mind is 
not exactly like the muscle that this 
analogy suggests. Learning to lift 
dumbells may help you learn to lift 
packing crates but learning to play 
games need not help you learn to solve 
calculus problems. 

If you want transfer to occur, it helps 
to practice the actual process of transfer- 
ring what you have learned by playing to 
something else. For this purpose, we 
spent the latter part of the course teach- 
ing students how to program computers. 
Programming is similar enough to game 


186 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




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CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Learning to Learn, continued... 

playing (and they both use the com- 
puter) that the transfer is fairly natural. 

We have noticed that students today 
are relatively poor at using what they 
have learned in one class in another. One 
reason may be that they do not have 
much practice in such transfer. And one 
reason why they may not have much 
practice it that, because of the 
fragmentation of the modern curricu- 
lum, teachers cannot usually assume 
that their students share any skill that 
can be transferred. 


This was different when Latin and 
logic were in their heyday. Everyone 
took them both, so teachers could regu- 
larly allude to them, thus giving their 
students practice with transfer. But this 
is no longer possible, which may be why 
Latin and logic no longer seem to work 
as well as they used to. 

By including a bit of learning to pro- 
gram in this course, we could give the 
students practice with the transfer pro- 
cess because we could assume some 
things in the students’ backgrounds that 
they shared (the material of the first 


part) and the transfer of which could be 
discussed. 

The transfer seemed to work — at least 
when it was thus guided. The students 
did seem to learn programming more 
easily and more imaginatively than one 
would ordinarily expect from similar 
students. 

We do not know whether the ideas 
learned by playing games also tranferred 
to their other courses. But we have some 
fragmentary evidence that suggests that, 
at least in some cases, it did. 

We are aware that it is easy to be 
fooled into believing in the success of 
one’s own teaching methods. We do not 
think we were fooled but we cannot be 
sure. 

However, the course was short. The 
effort was relatively small. The possible 
rewards are considerable. The course 
can be tailored to fit into virtually any 
curriculum. We feel that others might 
want to try this course with their own 
students. For such people, it may be 
helpful to summarize some of the main 
assumptions of the course as we see 
them and to list some of the things that 
someone who is trying to adapt this 
course to other situations might keep in 
mind: 

• We assume that there is such a thing 
as learning to learn. 

• Students who have learned to learn 
will do better in school than those 
who have not. 

• Some students (but almost certainly 
not all) can learn how to learn by 
learning how to play computer 
games. 

• In doing this, students should also 
learn to think about what they are 
doing as they learn. This will make 
them more flexible and it will 
enhance their ability to apply what 
they learn from learning to play to 
learning to do other, more useful, 
things. 

• Such transfer is helped by giving 
them an explicit algorithm or recipe 
to use when they find that they do 
not know what to do next in a learn- 
ing situation. 

• And it is further helped by giving 
the students some practice in using 
what they have learned from playing 
in some other area. 

Many students — perhaps most — do 
not do as well in school as they might. 
They are not as open to learning new 
things as they might be. This fact is 
discouraging to many people. We know 
that we have not discovered a cure for 
this situation that will work for all peo- 
ple in all situations. But for people who 
see this as a problem and wonder what 
they can do next, learning to learn by 
learning to play offers one possible 
answer. □ 


Ouch! Another Really Nasty System 



It Could Have Been a Lot Worse— 
His Data is BLOWGUN™ Protected! 


It's inevitable. Now and then the system waves bye-bye, curls itself up, and 
blows up in your face. It’s one of life’s hard facts. 

It will take a while to put the system back together, and to get things up and 
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have been lost. 

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What would it be worth to you to see your information through the worst 
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nose, and we know we re right. 

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188 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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CEGOLLE 

A New Kind of Language Learning 



For now all you need know about the 
acronym CEGOLLE is that it is pro- 
nounced “Seagull” and defines a 
direction. 

The need to define a direction came 
with the requirement to determine how 
to use computers in teaching foreign lan- 
guages at the Air Force Academy. When 
the job landed on my desk, I was already 
overextended, as usual, fighting alli- 
gators instead of draining the swamp, 
putting out brush fires and in general 
applying all the principles of classical 
crisis management. 

But with this job, instead of getting 
right to work I thought it over for a cou- 
ple of minutes. The rest of this article 
describes my conclusions. I have tried to 
be brief and not altogether boring in 
their formulation. If you ever have to 
make a decision related to using comput- 
ers in education, maybe they will save 
you some of that most precious of all 
resources — your own time. 


Major A. Allen Rowe, 431 Lewis Rd., Presidio of 
Monterey, CA 93940. 


A. Allen Rowe 


A Case Against Computer 
Assisted Instruction 

Computers compute quite well but 
they haven’t met with much success in 
computer assisted instruction (CAI). 
The great tide of CAI enthusiasm, which 
crested in the early seventies, has sub- 
sided, leaving a few puddles of devotees 
scattered about. But the computer has 
not rewoven the fabric of education at 
any level nor in any field except, of 
course, in the teaching of computing. 

But now, emboldened by the advent of 
cheaper, smaller machines, the computer 
faithful are orchestrating a CAI revival. 
Younger educators are flocking to hop 
on the wagon, committing with religious 
zeal considerable personal resources to 
the purchase and use of the most treach- 
erous of all computers, the micro. 


It is time for those of us who remem- 
ber the first CAI fiasco to throw our full 
weight of experience and seniority into 
the defense of our unsuspecting junior 
colleagues who, like ourselves before, are 
ready to waste a good portion of their 
young lives and possibly gamble away 
their academic credibility on this CAI 
renaissance. 

The weakest word in CAI is instruc- 
tion. Instruction is teacher oriented and 
almost always institutional. But the 
microcomputer is not an institutional 
machine controlled by the educational 
computing oligarchy. It is democratic. It 
is subversive; it is already outflanking 
the old computer barons who made us 
feel like idiots because we didn’t speak 
their arcane languages. It is the Model T 
of its time. You don’t have to ride on 
somebody’s train. You can get there on 
your own. In education, this means that 
the microcomputer will be a student- 
centered tool. Administrators may buy 
them for teachers to use, but, for a 
change, students will have a choice. If 
they are not learning on the instructors’ 


190 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




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Cegolle, continued... 

machines, they can use their own. So 
scratch out instruction and put in 
learning. 

Assisted is another weak word. A 
craftsman has a large choice of tools but 
chooses only those which enhance his 
skill. He does not use a sledge hammer 
to drive a finishing nail nor a penknife to 
cut timbers. If a tool does not help us do 
more with less faster and better, then it 
is not the right tool to use. 

The computer is probably the most 
powerful tool ever developed, because it 
can be used to control numerous other 
tools. That doesn't mean it is always the 
best tool or that everything can be done 
better by machine. If the machine 
enhances the learning experience, use it. 


The key is to make 
learning more fun than 

work. 


Never use it just for the sake of using a 
powerful tool. So scratch out assisted 
and write in enchanced. 

Now we have a new acronym: 
CEL — Computer Enhanced Learning. 
Let’s share it with our younger col- 
leagues and together find out if CEL 
really holds more promise than CAI. 
But how do we handle the fact that for 
many of our learners, computers are 
inseparably related in their minds to all 
the computer video games with which 
they have grown up? 

Kung Fu in the Classroom 

In the West, the goal of the martial 
arts and of most applications of violence 
in general is to use one’s own power to 
overcome the adversary and force him to 
do what you want. Even though we 
educators may have an occasional skir- 
mish with administrators, our primary 
adversary is the student. He is the one 
we must coerce into learning what we 
teach. In typical western fashion, we em- 
ploy all our skill, power, intelligence, 
and experience in the confrontation and 
sometimes win. In contrast, an Oriental 
warrior in the Kung Fu tradition will 
win by taking advantage of his ad- 
versary’s strengths. We might win more 
often in education and with less strain 
on ourselves if we capitalized on our stu- 
dents’ own strong points. One strength 
which almost all students, even poor 
ones, have in common is the desire to 
have fun: they are motivated, inventive, 
and even industrious when it comes to 
having a good time. They have no trou- 
ble distinguishing between what is fun 
and what is boring. 


This skill greatly complicates our task, 
because Sesame Street, 3-2-1 Contact, et 
al. are tough acts to follow. Going from 
them to our classrooms is usually as 
enriching as switching from a stereo 
sound, full color extravaganza to an 
album of old daguerreotypes. 

Of course, there are still students who 
would choose to read a book over watch- 
ing TV or going to the movies. But they 
are probably a minority in most of our 
schools today. So if we structured our 
learning experiences to be full of sight, 
sound, motion, and maybe even touch 
and smell as well as essential content, we 
might not have to struggle quite so 
much. Rather we could let the majority 
of our young opponents pursue their 
hedonistic tendencies even at the risk of 
becoming educated. 

The key here is to make learning more 
fun than work. Of course, a visitor from 
space would be unable to distinguish 
through observation between work and 
play in our society because, as important 
as the sensorial trappings of an activity 
may be, the essential difference is inside 
the mind. Some people fish for a living. 
Some people fish for fun. And there is 
very little overlap between the two 
groups. 

Fun is something you do because you 
like doing it. Work is something you do 
for some other reason. Usually the 
external reward is the villain. As soon as 
somebody offers to buy those fish you 
have been catching and turning loose, 
the fun dynamic is in danger. And if that 
somebody tells you that from now on if 
you don’t catch any fish you will be in 
big trouble; you immediately learn what 
it’s like to be a working fisherman. 

Now the nature of education in our 
society with all its external reward3 and 
penalties ensures that our children 
become working students as soon as they 
enter the system, maybe even in kinder- 
garten. By the time the survivors strag- 
gle into our universities, they have 
become accustomed to education that is 
not very interesting and often a little 
painful. 

It shouldn’t really be too hard to 
make our courses more fun than they 
have been before. Then maybe we could 
trick students into learning our subjects 
just as Big Bird conned them into learn- 
ing numbers and the alphabet. 

But Education is Serious Business 

Of course, one can object to Sesame 
Street. After all, fun is frivolous, educa- 
tion is serious, and never the twain shall 
meet — or in any case should meet. The 
conflict here though is more apparent 
than real, and a small dose of dialectic 
will point the way to the synthesis we 
need. Education is serious because it is 
structured and must be structured: you 


just can’t learn calculus before you know 
addition and subtraction. So is there 
such a thing as structured fun? Of 
course, it is called a game. Our goal is to 
optimize the learning experience by 
making it intrinsically rewarding — fun. 
So the game becomes a likely tool. 

Now you can decipher our not 
altogether whimsical acronym, 
CEGOLLE, for Computer Enhanced 
Game Optimized Language Learning 
Experience. But what sort of games do 
we want to play? 

Learning to Ski 

Some people teach language for the 
sake of language: “French is such a 
beautiful language.’’ Our goal is lan- 
guage for two-way communication. This 
means listening and speaking, reading 
and writing. 

The written language is not a separate 
reality independent of the spoken lan- 
guage, and for our students, language is 
both spoken and written, even though 
most speak more fluently than they 
write, mainly because they use their 
mouths more than they use their pens. 
The message for foreign language learn- 
ing is clear. Learning is doing and vice 
versa. This is because language is a skill, 


Maybe we could trick 
our students into 
learning our subjects 
just as Big Bird conned 
them into learning 
numbers and the 
alphabet. 


not just a body of knowledge. You can 
read for weeks- about skiing and memo- 
rize all the rules, but you don’t really 
start learning how to ski until you strap 
on the skis and head down a snowy 
slope. 

So we want games that involve the 
student in doing the language in both the 
spoken and written dimensions. But 
before defining some specific game 
possibilities, I would like to deal with a 
few pitfalls. 

R2D2: Polyglot Pedagogue? 

I really wouldn’t mind replacing for- 
eign language educators, myself 
excluded, with machines. I have had a 
great deal of experience with both and 
have found the latter more reliable, 
consistent, and much less expensive. 
However, there is very little hope, or 
danger, as the case may be, of this 


192 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Cegolle, continued... 

happening in our lifetime. The main rea- 
son being the nature of language. 

To learn to communicate, you must 
communicate, and it will be a good while 
before machines acquire human level 
competence in communication. Anyone 
who objects to the use of computers for 
fear they could replace him may well be 
right, but this is only a smoke screen. 
For better or worse, it won’t happen 
soon. The real basis for objection lies 
elsewhere. 

Fuzzy Studies 

and the Lab Crash Syndrome 

When you are dealing with language 
educators or anyone else in the human- 
ities, you often encounter hostility to 
technology in general and to the 
machine in particular. A good example 
is the foreign language lab. Back in the 
sixties, there was a strong trend toward 
language labs. The suppliers made 
extravagant claims for their equipment. 
Zealots within the field corroborated the 
claims and pleaded for funds. 

Administrators took the bait and 
bought, while the rank and file stood by 
a bit skeptically to see if all the promises 
would come true. They didn’t, and the 
result was ultimately the lab crash with 
instructors and students bailing out right 
and left, to the point that now language 


reseachers (with clairvoyant hindsight) 
point out that the language lab was not 
the answer. 

I happen to believe in the language lab 
because I learned a great deal of French 
in a lab at the Institut de Phonetique in 
Paris. The differences between what I 
experienced and the scene at the typical 
U.S. language lab are laden with lessons 
for the computer movement. The U.S. 
method was to install relatively complex 
hardware and leave it up to the teachers 
to learn how to use the stuff and to 
create their own software, a very 
dehumanizing experience for the average 
fuzzy studies professional. 

At the Air Force Academy, we had a 
lab console that was worthy of the Space 
Shuttle controls in complexity. The full- 
time lab technician was the only one 
who ever had a really firm grasp on the 
machine. 

Our Canadian exchange officer at the 
time, a specialist in lab applications, did 
come up with some workable programs. 
The rest of us, students and instructors 
alike, just muddled on through at a 
tremendous cost in time and harbored 
an ever-growing hatred of those damn 
machines. 

In Paris, the lab was run by pro- 
fessionals who acted as if they really 
believed that their machines and their 


programs could help us learn. And they 
did. The lesson here is that the hardware 
must be simple and robust and the 
troops in the trenches, not just the local 
field marshalls, must want it. For soft- 
ware, there must be two options: 
efficient authoring systems for the do-it- 
yourselfers and quality off-the-shelf 
packages for everybody else. Easier said 
than done. 

You Can’t Fly in a Vacuum: The 
Industrial-Academic Connection 

Without that invisible medium air, 
airplanes, even the best of them, can’t 
fly. Software is the usually invisible 
medium which makes computers fly, 
and right now good CEL software for 
foreign languages is rarer than oxygen in 
outer space. The federal government has 
invested some grant money to try to help 
fill the void. Here is an example from an 
NSF funded project entitled “Im- 
plementation of a Generative Computer 
Assisted Instruction System on a Small 
Computer.” 

TRANSLATE FROM GERMAN TO 
ENGLISH: JEDE SCHONE KUH 
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CIRCLE 272 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
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Brother/Comrex— 17 cps Daisy $745 

F-10 Starwriter— emulates Diablo $1190 

IDS Microprism HOcps. 80 column, graphics $529 

IDS Prism 80 $850 

IDS Prism 132 $1025 

NEC 7710 I $2065 

NEC 7730-1 for IBM PC $2095 

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u82A— 80 column. 120cps $395 

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CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Cegolle, continued... 

RIGHT. TRANSLATE FROM GERMAN 
TO ENGLISH: JEDE KUH SCHLAGT 
D I E FRAU . 

EVERY COW H I TS THE WOMAN . 

RIGHT. 

I suggest we look elsewhere for a solution. 

Why not an industrial-academic com- 
plex to rival the old military-industrial 
complex? Industry has people who speak 
computer language. Around academe, 
there are some people with brilliant 
ideas on how to use computers in teach- 
ing. Neither group stands much of a 


The industry profits 
when quality software 
helps sell hardware. 


chance of producing good software 
alone. But companies like Texas 
Instruments are now using professional 
educators as consultants in the creation 
of teaching software. 

The industry profits when quality 
software helps sell hardware. The 
universities benefit from the availability 


of educational software programs which 
they could not have created alone. The 
key, then, to getting CEL off the ground 
is going to be software which for the 
most part, doesn’t exist yet but which 
could result from the industrial-aca- 
demic connection. So make friends with 
the vendors. 

CEGOLLE Attack: 

Space Invaders a la Mode 

Now for the game. Imagine you are 
enrolled in basic French. It is a five- 
semester-hour course consisting of five 
hours of communication seminars with 
the instructor and five hours of com- 
puter-integrated multimedia lab time per 
week. And that’s it, no required home- 
work. You are in the university learning 
center. Even though you can access the 
university computer system over the 
phone line through your own home 
computer, you like to work in the learn- 
ing center when you can find a free 
terminal because you like the fancy 
peripherals they have here: videodisc, 
video cassette, random audio, student 
voice recording and playback, etc. 

You just started French yesterday and 
got the full explanation of how the 
course would work. Most of the basics 
would be instructed in the lab. Class 
time would be reserved for questions 


from the students, instructor comments 
about results on the previous lab quiz, 
and a lot of human-to-human commu- 
nication: student-instructor and student- 
student. Today is the first lab lesson. 

You find a free learning station, put 
your headset on, and log in with your 
name and student ID number. The com- 
puter says “hello” and asks if you would 
like to choose a code name to protect 
your files for the rest of the semester. 
You start to say “no” but then decide 
you don’t want to risk somebody tam- 
pering with your quiz results and type in 
FRODO. The computer reminds you 
not to forget your code name for future 
log-ins and then flashes up a list of your 
present courses, asking which course 
you now wish to work on. 

You reply “French” and immediately 
get the introductory frame for your first 
French lesson which explains the goals 
of this first lesson and instructs you 
what software you need to get from the 
reserve desk for this lesson. You get it, 
set everything up, then for 20 minutes 
your attention alternates from the com- 
puter monitor to the adjacent TV screen 
as animation, still frames, film clips, 
script, sound, and voice introduce the 
essentials of lesson one. Then for 
another 20 minutes video and audio cues 
elicit your responses in French, which 



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CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



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Cegolle, continued... 

are recorded through your headset 
microphone and then replayed at the 
end of each segment of the exercise. 

Cockfight Squadron 

Then comes the quiz. When your 
instructor promised you would like it, 


As a student of French 
you have been 
assigned to Cockfight 

Squadron. 


you had your doubts. But the computer 
isn't showing anything about a test. It 
says that as a student of French you 
have been assigned to Cockfight Squad- 
ron (you learn later that a buddy in 
Spanish is in Condor Flight and a guy in 
German in Eaglestrike). Your first at- 
tack mission is called Interdict. 

Depending on how confident you feel 
about what you just studied, you can 
choose one of the four possible mission 
levels: Cadet, Pilot, Ace, or Superace. 
You opt for Superace because you think 
you understand the first lesson pretty 
well, and besides you like a challenge. 


The computer then explains that you 
will have a total of five spacecraft with 
which to complete the ten sorties of ten 
seconds each which comprise this 
mission. 

You then learn that in Interdict a 
French sentence which is missing a word 
appears at the top of the computer video 
monitor screen. At the same time, a 
video representation of the reality which 
the sentence should express appears on 
the TV monitor. You must identify the 
place in the sentence where a word is 
missing by zapping the space where 
there should be room for that word. If 
you miss or choose the wrong space, 
your craft explodes, and you must start 
the sortie over again with a new craft. If 
you hit the right space, the sentence 
blows apart, making room for the miss- 
ing word. 

At the same time, four different words 
appear below your craft on the screen. 
You must home in on the right word 
and zap it. If you miss, choose the wrong 
word, or take too long, your craft 
explodes, and you must call up a new 
one to complete that portion of the sor- 
tie. If you hit the right word, all the 
wrong choices disintegrate and the right 
one pops up into its place in the sen- 
tence. At this point, you hear the sen- 
tence repeated twice and again see the 


video illustration of its meaning. 

You put your hand on the joystick 
controller and press Return to start. 
After six sorties your forehead is damp. 
You have only one craft left and that is 
only because you made a lucky guess on 
the last sentence. You lose your last 
craft on sortie seven. The computer says 
you must begin the mission again and 
suggests you try something simpler than 
the Superace level. 

You agree, opt for Pilot, and start the 
mission again. Five minutes later you 
have completed the mission losing only 
four craft. Then the TV screen comes 
alive with the mission debrief conducted 
by a 25th Century version of the squad- 
ron operations officer. You get an 
explanation of why you lost those four 
craft and an admonition to review your 
manuals so as to never again make the 
same mistakes. 

Then the computer comes back and 
asks if you would like to play Intercept 
or Scramble. You look at your watch. 
You have been at the learning station for 
53 minutes. You decide to do Intercept 
because the description on the screen in- 
dicates that the random access audio 
peripheral is essential for this game and 
you haven’t been able to afford one for 
your home set up yet. So you opt ‘for 
Intercept at the Pilot level. 


Isn't it about time you and your computer 
really got to know each other? 


Wiley book software packages help you get 
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BASIC and Assembly Language 
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Si David G Cole 

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FOR THE APPLE® COMPUTER 

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Mind challenging fun for the Apple” II Ready 
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new ones 150 pp. paperback plus two 5>/4 
disks (for 32K memory) $47.90 

WHAT CAN I DO WITH MY TIMEX 
SINCLAIR 1000? LOTS! 

Roger Valentine 

Over fifty ready to-run programs for your TS 
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Cegolle, continued... 

The game is like Interdict except that 
instead of word choices appearing on the 
screen you hear them one at a time over 
the headset and must zap the right 
choice as soon as you hear it. The sen- 
tences are new but similar to those of 


If you latch onto a 
word in the wrong 
sequence, your craft is 
sucked down into the 
screen and you must 
call up a new one. 


Interdict. After another five minutes, 
you have finished the mission with only 
two craft lost. The mission debrief is 
very short. The computer asks if you 
would like to redo any previous parts of 
the lesson or play Scramble. You have 
been there a little more than an hour al- 
ready, and you need a break, so you de- 
cide to quit for now. 

Dinner Break 

After dinner that evening, you log in 
through your home system. You install 


French Diskette #1, which you checked 
out from the learning center, call for 
Scramble and learn that each sortie in- 
volves pulling a group of words scattered 
at random over the screen into a coher- 
ent sentence using a tractor beam from 
your craft. If you latch onto a word in 
the wrong sequence, your craft is sucked 
down into the screen and you must call 
up a new one. No TV video or random 
access audio this time, but it is too far 
back to the learning center, and by this 
time there is probably a long waiting line 
for every station. You would have to 
stay there half the night just to get on. 

Things haven’t changed. Dad said it 
used to be that way in every comp. sci. 
course he ever took. Never enough 
terminal time available. Many of the 
brilliant guys got fed up and switched 
majors. It took a lot of patience just to 
make it through. At least now with your 
home system you have an option. 

So you jump into Scramble, do the 
first mission once through at Pilot level, 
then again at Superace. No mission de- 
brief possible without the TV video 
peripherals, but by the second time 
through you do it perfectly anyway. You 
call for Scramble mission two and start 
it off at the Ace level. Perfect score the 
second time through. You decide you 
want a change and call up Interdict mis- 


sion two. After about an hour, you have 
completed the five missions in both 
Interdict and Scramble. 

You decide that tomorrow, before go- 
ing to the French communication semi- 
nar, you’ll spend 20 minutes in the 
learning center and do the four Intercept 
missions you didn’t get to earlier. You 
know your instructor will have a print- 
out of missions attempted and success 
rate for everyone in the class, and you 
want to make a good impression right at 
the beginning. And anyway with all the 
variety involved, it’s more fun than 
Space Invaders. 

In fact, you decide to skip the TV 
video games for tonight and instead log 
in on the National Postal Network and 
write your girlfriend back home a letter 
about the first two days of classes, es- 
pecially your French course. After all, 
French is for lovers. She happens to be 
on her system and answers you right 
away. She says high school senior 
French is a drag and wishes she could be 
in that course with you. You sign off 
with love and kisses and “wish you were 
here.’’ You have to make sure she 
doesn’t forget, but mustn’t overdo it ei- 
ther. Besides you are going to have to 
get some sleep and start early tomorrow 
if you want to finish those Cockfight 
Intercept missions before French class. □ 


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PATMENT: Cashier’s checks, certified checks, money orders, and bank wires honored immediately. 

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with Rom $149 

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MicroBuffer 32K 



Copying a Cosmos 


Peter Payack 


On a piece of paper draw a picture of a star. 

Color it yellow. 

Then draw four other stars of varying si/es 
on four additional sheets of paper. 

Make one extra large using the limits of the page, 
color it red. 

The smallest one will he a neutron star, 
use a black crayon on it. 

The other two should be orange and blue-white. 

Bring these to an instant copy center 
and have them run off 40 billion copies of each picture 
using paper of the appropriate color. 

Don't worry about the price; 

The rate drops after the first 10,000 copies. 

The colored paper is extra. 

II 

While these are being processed 

draw some planets on other sheets of paper. 

Include 

large planets, planets with rings, 
tiny crater-strewn planets, dead planets, 
planets with colorful bands of gas, 
planets inhabited by superior civilizations, 
and half-formed planets (planetoids). 

When the copy center is finished duplicating 
the 200 billion stars, 
bring them the planets. 

They’ll love you! 

Since it is not known how many stars have planets 

100 million copies of each drawing should do it. 

III 

Ciet a really sharp pencil 

and make random dots all over a sheet of white paper. 
These dots will be the numberless atoms of hydrogen 

which flow randomly throughout interstellar space. 
Try to make 100,000 on a page. 

If necessary use a microscope. 

Make a trillion copies. 

Technically this is not nearly enough hydrogen atoms 
but we have to draw the line somewhere. 

Bring this load to a second printer. 


Peter Payack, 64 Highland Avenue. Cambridge, MA 02139. 


IV 

Next get a piece of pitch-black paper 

and have its blackness duplicated. 

Have the attendant at a third duplicating center- 
set the dial at infinity. 

Tell him money is no object. 

If you must, intimate that your 
“old man is really loaded!" 

These black pages are the abysmal expanses 
of cold emptiness 

which most of galactic space consists of. 

Place them in a meat freezer until ready for use. 

V 

Rent a fleet of 18-wheelers 

to transport the copies home. 

Unload them in your front yard. 

When this is accomplished you are almost finished. 
Take a brief rest. 

VI 

Handletter invitations 

and invite the whole neighborhood to a party 

to help with the completion of the project. 
Threaten them by saying it's the only way 
you’ll ever get the yard cleaned-up. 

They’ll come running! 

VII 

Ask the Fire Department to donate the services 
of their longest ladders. 

VIII 

On a clear windless night, 

extend the ladders upward so that the tips 

are resting against the rafters 

which keep the night sky from collapsing. 
Anchor the ladders securely into terra firma: 

Why risk a lawsuit from a careless neighbor? 

IX 

Using paste, tacks, staples, tape, and hooks 

affix the copies to the underside of the celestial dome 

Watch out for orbiting satellites! 

Stars can be attached 
singly, 
put in pairs, 
grouped in clusters, 
or arranged in constellations. 

Planets should be strewn around the individual stars. 
The black pages of empty space 

should be taken out of the freezer 
and along with the reprints of the hydrogen atoms, 
liberally affixed throughout. 

X 

If everyone co-operates, 

and nobody falls off a ladder, 
the project should be completed by sunrise. □ 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


201 


Learn To Touch Type 


For many computer owners, a word 
processor is one of their most valuable 
programs. It bestows the freedom to cre- 
ate and produce documents away from 
the confines of the office and without the 
help of secretaries. Often, though, a se- 
vere cramp in this new found freedom is 
the inability to type quickly. Inaccurate 
typing is of less significance, since docu- 
ments can always be cleaned up 
magnetically before printing. But basic 
slow speed, the inability to put thoughts 
down on paper at a reasonable pace, is 
always frustrating. Therefore, if your 
heart’s desire is to write, be it great lit- 
erature, seedy novels, sober articles, or 
mere business letters, then it is well 
worth your while to learn the art of 
touch typing. 

An idea of the speeds available with 
different techniques is given in Figure 1 . 
Hunt and Peck is a miserable form of 
typing in which a single finger on each 
hand is used to pick letters off one by 
one. It is the most natural form of typing 
for the novice to slip into, but has severe 
restrictions on the upper speed which 
can be achieved. Far better to take the 
plunge, pass through a period of undeni- 
able awkwardness, but emerge at the end 
a true touch typist. 

The Art of Touch Typing 

It is a fact that most copy typists do 
not absord the content of what they are 
typing. The text flows in at the eyes and 
flows out again at the finger tips; the 
brain in the middle can be occupied, at 
least partly, with far more interesting 
things. In other words, touch typing is 
not an intellectual exercise; it is a purely 
reflexive skill. 


Stephen Stares, c/o Wilbur Smith and Associates, 
Casilla 20434, La Paz, Bolivia. 


Stephen Stares 


At first, typing is a slow process as the 
following steps are consciously followed: 

1 . The eye reads a letter (or the mind 
conceives of one). 

2. The brain recognizes the letter. 

3. The brain decides where the letter is 
on the keyboard. 

4. The brain selects the finger to be 
used. 

5. The brain directs the finger to the 
appropriate key. 


6. The letter is typed (or mistyped as 
the case may be). 

The objective in touch typing is to 
merge the four middle stages which take 
place in the brain, so that they become 
one instinctive action, as natural as 
handwriting. This can be developed only 
with practice; learning to type shares 
some of the characteristics of learning to 
play a musical instrument. 

Preparing To Type 

There used to be a children’s radio 
program which began: “Are you sitting 
comfortably? Then we’ll begin.’’ Sitting 
comfortably is of particular importance 
for typing. Poor posture will haunt you 
with strain, backaches, and general 
tiredness. It is, therefore, worth the ef- 


fort to spend some time preparing a 
good work station for your typing. 

Absolute specification of chair and ta- 
ble heights is impossible, since every- 
thing depends on the shape and size of 
the individual. In general, though, the 
following rules should be followed in 
determining a typing position (see also 
Figure 2): 

• Sit upright, with the back straight. 

• Place the feet squarely on the floor, 
a little way apart. The thighs should be 
parallel with the floor. 

• Dangle your arms by your sides, and 
then without moving the elbows, raise 


Figure 2. 



Figure 1. 


Hunt and Peck Typing 

15-25 words per minute 

Handwriting 

20-30 

Average Touch Typing 

40-60 

Very Good Typing 

70-90 

Superb Typing 

100 + 


202 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


For ZX81 or TSIOOC) 

software savings, rip off this ad. 


□ 


THE STAMP COLLECTOR 

(#31) Inventory and store up to 600 
SCOTT numbers in a single session show- 
ing quantity on hand, by major classifica- 
tion, and provide full want list support. 


□ 


VU-CALC (#11) This program con- 
structs, generates, and calculates large 
tables for financial analysis, budget 
sheets, and projections. An immensely 
powerful analysis chart. 


□ 



SUPERMAZE (#34) Navigate your 
way through a three-dimensional maze, 
with trapdoors, gold bars, marker stones, 
and compass. Ten separate mazes. Three- 
dimensional graphics. 



NER (#28) Perform calculations, 
finance a house, a car, keep savings 
accounts, repay loans and calculate an am- 
ortization schedule which can be generated 
for any of the financial programs. 


□ 


SUPER MATH (#14) Drill yourself on 
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and 
division with five levels of difficulty. Each 
problem graphically depicted. 


□ 


■; pC 


THE HOME IMPROVEMENT 
PLANNER (#29) Store up to 20 room 
measurements (length, width, height), 
compute total area in each (wall, floor), 
estimate costs of painting, wall papering 
and carpets and draw house blueprints. 


□ 


STATES AND CAPITOLS (#32) 

Test yourself on the fifty states and their 
capitols. Three options of review are availa- 
ble. (1) States, you provide capitols. (2) 
Capitols, provide states. (3) A mix of states 
and capitols. 


□ 



THE FLIGHT SIMULATOR (#6) 

Take control of highly maneuverable light 
aircraft. With full controls, instrumentation 
and navigational aids to avoid hazards in 
landing. 


□ 


:••• if la ss 
•ilfi fsls 


pKjlsS} 


VL 


CHESS AND CHESS CLOCK 

(#7) Six levels. All the legal moves includ- 
ing castling and enpassant. Keeps a sepa- 
rate record of plays made for easy reference. 
Play another opponent or match wits with 
the computer. 


□ 



BACKGAMMON AND DICE (#8) 

A perfect blend of chance and skill. Uses 
machine code to choose its moves. Full 
game including graphics board, rolling dice, 
and double cube. Play the computer or 
another opponent. 


□ 




ll F 




THE CUBE GAME (#9) The cube 
can be displayed in three views: (1) Solid; 
(2) Two-Dimensional (unfolded); and (3) 
See-thru cube (3-D). You start with the 
cube solved, set it up any way you like, or 
pick up from a previous session. 


□ 




REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT 
ANALYSIS (#30) Two different invest- 
ment strategies. The first selection allows 
the user to choose between renting or buy- 
ing. The second selection consists of a 
detailed analysis of the rental investment 
property. 


□ 






PINBALL (#35) Plays like real pinball 
complete with flippers, bumpers, "nudge," 
bonus points and more. Uses fast, efficient 
machine code to choose its moves. 


□ 









5 BkjHT8a 






STOCK MARKET GAME (#27) 

Bull or bear? This realistic simulation lets 
you analyze information, buy and sell 
stocks, take out and pay off loans and 
win, if you can accumulate $50,000 in 
“The Market." 


□ 


0 


FORTRESS OF ZORLAC (#36) 

A super fast game in which you are the 
commander of a fleet of spaceships. Your 
mission is to rid the galaxy of the dreaded 
alien, ZORLAC. 



Designed to teach recognition and sequence 
of the alphabet. Combines computer 
instruction, music and video games. 


□ 


r W W W W W ^ 

aJi ^ ^ 


■ M J. 4 II 


SPACE RAIDERS, BOMBER 

(#5) Timex/Sinclair version of the popular 
arcade games full of bombs and rockets 
and collisions with skyscrapers. 



FROGGER (#37) Plays like the 
arcade game. Hop the frog over traffic, 
snakes, crocodiles, and treacherous diving 
turtles before time runs out. 


Sinclair? the company that invented the world’s 
most affordable computer, has invented a way for 
you to order the most affordable software— right 
from your home! 

You’ve never had this wide a selection before. 

You can play games that challenge you, instead of 
bore you. You can leam new household applica- 
tions and business programs that reduce work 
dramatically. 

Only Sinclair offers this special software savings. 
Only ZX81 or Timex TS1000 owners are eligible. 

The more you buy, the more you save. 

A serious Sinclair software offer. 

The first cassette you buy, you buy at normal 
cost: $15.00. But every cassette thereafter, you get 
at a savings. 

The list below explains how much you save, 
based on how much you buy. It couldn’t be easier. 

You were smart to buy the ZX81 or the 
TS1000. You’ll be even smarter to take us up on 
this software offer. All cassettes listed at left work 
on both the ZX81 and the TS1000. All cassettes 
are 16K, which means you need the 16K Memory 
Module. (If you want more information on this 
component, please write Sinclair at the address 
listed below.) 

But don’t delay. This is a limited time software 
offer while supplies last. 

How to order today! 

Just call our toll-free number and use your 
MasterCard or VISA. Or send this ad with a 
check or money order. It’s as easy as that. 

Call toll-free: 800543-3000. Ask for operator 
509. In Canada call 513-729-4300, operator 509. 
Have your MasterCard or VISA ready when call- 
ing. Phones open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. 
These numbers are for orders only. 

If you simply want information, please don’t 
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Touch Type, continued... 

the forearms until they are parallel to 
the floor, or sloping slightly up and 
away from you. At this point, the fingers 
should be curving down to rest on the 
home row of the keyboard, that is to say, 
the middle row of letters. The backs of 
the hands should also be parallel to the 
floor. You should not have to reach for 
the keyboard. 

• The screen should be comfortably in 
front of you, clearly visible without hav- 
ing to lean forward or down. On my Ap- 
ple, I have placed a thick book between 
the monitor and the disk drives to gain a 
little more elevation for the screen. It 
seems to me that the built-in screens of 
some computers are really too low. 

• Material to be typed (even if only 
rough notes) should be propped up to 
the left or the right. I find that one of the 
typing supports sold in business 
stationers is a great help. These usually 
come complete with magnetic paper 
holders and line guides. 


A novice can be 

productive 

immediately. 


The furniture used to achieve this 
ideal will depend upon availability or 
purse. Office style furniture is clearly 
very suitable, if expensive, with chairs of 
adjustable height and a range of tables 
designed to hold typewriters. Absolute 
conformity to the ideal, however, is not 
necessary, and adequate adjustments to 
existing furniture can often be made us- 
ing cushions, books, and other props. If 
you still end up with an unsatisfactory 
arrangement, the ensuing aches and 
pains will soon let you know. 

Starting To Learn 

Learning to type with a computer is 
much easier than learning with a con- 
ventional typewriter: 

• There are no problems with paper 
alignment 

• After the initial setup, a good word 
processor eliminates all worries about 
page layout — margins, indents, line 
spacing, etc. 

• Computer programs are available 
for self-teaching. 

• Mistakes are easier and less messy to 
correct. 

Above all, and following on from the 
last point, even a novice can prepare a 
good looking document, since however 
badly typed initially, it can be cleaned 
up magnetically and printed without a 
trace of the original errors showing. 
Hence, a novice can be productive im- 
mediately. With a conventional type- 

April 1983 0 Creative Computing 





TIMEX 




The magazine for Sinclair and Timex Sinclair users 


Math and Science: 

• Least Squares Analysis 


Programming: 

• Alternative Display 

• Storing Words 


Space Warp 
Graphics Game 


FOR 

SINCLAIR 

AND 

TIMEX 

SINCLAIR 

OWNERS 

ONLY 


I f you own a Timex Sinclair, a ZX81, 
or any other Sinclair computer, 
you’ve probably discovered that 
the big microcomputer magazines 
cover only the bigger computers. 
Where can you find helpful articles on 
the Sinclair? In Sync! 

Sync is the one magazine that’s 
written exclusively about Clive Sin- 
clair's marvelous inventions, the Sin- 
clair computers. And it’s the one 
magazine to read if you want to get 
more from your Sinclair. 

You’ll find program listings for 
games, helpful programming tech- 
niques, hardware upgrades, math and 
science programs, news of new prod- 
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thing you need to use and enjoy your 
Sinclair to the fullest. 

In just two recent issues, for exam- 
ple, we covered: 

□ Putting a Reverse Character in a 
String 

□ How to Double Your Memory 
□ Least Squares Data Analysis With 
theZX80/81 

□ Space Warp: A Graphics Space 
Game 

□ How to Reduce “Blank Screen 
Time” 


□ Storing Three-Letter Words in an 
Array 

□ Software Review: ZX Galaxians 

□ An Introduction to Expression Eval- 
uation 

□ Short Programs Just for Fun 

□ The ZX81 Parser and User-Defined 
Commands 

□ Understanding Floating Point Arith- 
metic 

□ Handling Strings from Another Di- 
mension 

□ Book Review: Understanding Your 
ZX81 ROM 

□ How to Add a Keyboard to Your Sin- 
clair 

□ Translating Other Basics: DEF on 
the ZX81 

□ Six Outer Space Games— With Pro- 
gram Listings 

□ Hardware Review: Sinclair ZX Spec- 
trum High Resolution Color/Sound 
Computer 

If you own a Sinclair microcom- 
puter, Sync is the only computer mag- 
azine you really need. Subscribe now 
to Sync, and you can save up to 33% ! 
Just complete and return the post- 
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at right. 


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Touch Type, continued... 

writer, production in the early stages of 
learning is either extremely slow, or the 
final document is knee deep in whiteout 
liquid. 

A systematic approach to learning is 
highly desirable. It is possible, of course, 
to use conventional self-teaching ma- 
terial, such as can be found in many li- 
braries and book shops. However, why 
not instead call upon the considerable 
power of the computer as a teaching 
tool? Several teaching programs have 
been developed and two are discussed 
later in this article. Such programs can 
present graded material for learning, 
monitor progress, and even adjust the 
lessons to concentrate on weak keys. 
They are ideal for teaching touch typing, 
since the eyes naturally concentrate on 
the screen, which is a prime requirement 
for practicing. 

It is better to practice 15-20 minutes 
each day, rather than have a two-hour 
blitz every Saturday morning. A longer 
period each day is, of course, better. If 
possible, set aside a regular period for 
practice, preferably when you are 
reasonably fresh. 

Learning The Letters 
And Punctuation Marks 

A basic feature of touch typing is that 
each key is typed by a specific finger and 
no other. The keys for each finger are 
allocated in a logical manner, so that 
each key can be reached comfortably, 
without having to stretch too much. The 
aim is to make the typing of each letter 
so automatic that no conscious thought 
is required. First though, the keys must 
be learned, and this can be done by 
studying the diagram of the keyboard 
presented in Figure 3. 

Note that the thumbs are used for 
nothing more than hitting the space bar. 
Strict teaching demands that only the 
right thumb be used, but I really cannot 
see why. Anyway, the main point is that 
this leaves only the four fingers of each 
hand for the serious task of striking the 
keys. 

A vital point to remember, is that a 
rest position, to which it should always 
return after striking a key, is defined for 
each finger. This rest position is just 
above what is termed the home row , that 
is, the middle row of letters in the di- 
agram above. The fingers of the left 
hand are positioned over the letters A, S, 

D, and F, while the fingers of the right 
hand are positioned over the letters J, K, 
and L and the semicolon. To strike the 
other keys, the fingers move in a diag- 
onal slanted to the left, as indicated by 
the lines on the diagram. Thus the left 
little finger moves from the home po- 
sition over the A key, up and left to 
strike the Q key, and down and right to 
strike the Z key. The middle finger of 


the right hand moves from the home po- 
sition over the K key, up and left to 
strike the I key, and down and right to 
strike the comma key. 

The two index fingers have to work 
overtime, since they must deal with two 
columns of letters. The left index finger 
strikes the letters G, T, and B, as well as 
F, R, and V. The right index finger has 
the additional burden of the letters H, Y, 
and N, along with J, U, and M. 

For all keys away from the rest po- 
sition of the fingers, the action is always 
three-part: move the finger, strike the 
key, move the finger back to the rest po- 
sition. The action of striking the keys 
should be a sharp, quick tap. A slow un- 


certain prod can lead to repeated letters, 
and a groping action often leads to two 
keys being struck together, with un- 
certain results. 

On computers which allow the typing 
of both capital and small letters (upper 
and lower case), the use of the shift key 
must be learned. To form a capital letter, 
it is usually necessary to strike the 
appropriate key while at the same time 
holding down the shift key. A con- 
ventional keyboard has two shift keys, 
one at the left and one at the right. In 
this case, the rule is to use the little fin- 
ger of the hand not being used to strike 
the letter key, to hold down the nearest 
shift key. However, computers vary 
considerably in their implementation of 
the shift, so you will have to study the 
particular characteristics of your ma- 
chine before deciding on the best tech- 
nique to use. 

For true touch typing, it is essential to 
learn to type without looking at the key- 
board. Therefore, when practicing after 
the keys have been learned, glue your 
eyes to the screen. Occasional glances to 
ensure that hands are in the correct po- 
sitions are permissible, but visual search- 
ing for the keys must be eliminated. 

Before worrying about the numbers 
and the symbols, it is best to learn the 
letters and punctuation marks thor- 
oughly. These are the keys which are 
used most frequently, and mastery of 

206 


them is nine-tenths of the battle of learn- 
ing to touch type. Therefore, the next 
step is to build up speed and accuracy on 
the letters and punctuation marks, leav- 
ing the numbers and symbols until later. 

Developing Speed And Accuracy 
Quite early on, you will find that you 
have typed a set of letters without con- 
sciously having directed your fingers. 
You will have conceived of the word 
the, and suddenly “the” is on the 
screen in front of you. What ecstasy! It is 
akin to the golfer’s first full sweet drive 
down the fairway, or to the first time a 
novice water skier rises out of the water 
and starts planing. You have passed 


through the main barrier, and although 
there is hard work ahead, the knowledge 
that you can do it makes all the 
difference. 

There are now two distinct objectives 
to pursue; speed and accuracy. Experi- 
ence shows that it is impossible to con- 
centrate on both at the same time. 

Improved speed is the main goal; to a 
large extent, accuracy will follow natu- 
rally. To develop speed, it is necessary to 
push hard, giving your fingers every 
chance to demonstrate their knowledge 
of the keys, ignoring, as far as possible, 
any evidence to the contrary. It is a little 
like weight training; if it doesn’t hurt, it 
is not doing you much good. Similarly, if 
you don’t make mistakes while going for 
typing speed, then you are not trying 
hard enough. 

For accuracy, it is necessary to slow 
down a little. Deliberately think, or even 
say out loud, each letter before typing it, 
and concentrate on making each action 
sharp and precise. Aim at a regular typ- 
ing action, possibly tapping your foot 
and typing to the rhythm. When starting 
a session on accuracy, start slowly and 
well under control, and then build up to 
a comfortable speed. 

Decide before starting to type whether 
to practice for speed or accuracy. A pos- 
sible pattern for a session might be to 
start with accuracy, build up to the 
maximum comfortable speed, practice a 

April 1983 4 Creative Computing 


Figure 3. 


W I E 


Fingers: 


G H 


4th 3rd 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 
Left Hand Right Hand 













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Touch Type, continued... 

while, and then spend some time on 
speed. It might be best to end up again 
on accuracy, so that you don’t lose 
heart. As a guide, if accuracy is above 95 
percent (5 errors in 100 keystrokes), 
then you should push for more speed. 
On the other hand, if your accuracy is 
below about 85 percent, then more time 
should be spent on this aspect. 

Note that a typist using a con- 
ventional typewriter should be aiming at 
an accuracy of 98 or 99 percent, but be- 
cause error correction using a word 
processor is so simple, and because 
corrections leave no trace on the final 
document, a higher error rate can be tol- 
erated by a computer user. 

Figure 4. 


Vary the practice exercises with some 
real typing. If you are learning to type 
for a specific purpose, then finding suit- 
able material will not be a problem. If 
you are stuck for material, then try typ- 
ing your personal letters, or making 
comprehensive notes on computer 
procedures. You could even try your 
hand at writing an article. 

Keep notes on progress. I divided a 
page into sets of three columns to record 
the day, accuracy, and speed of each ses- 
sion as calculated by the Microsoft Typ- 
ing Tutor II program (see below). If you 
must time speeds and count errors by 
hand, then one self-test every two or 
three days is sufficient. 


When you start practicing in earnest 
after having learned the keyboard thor- 
oughly, your speed is likely to be be- 
tween 5 and 10 words per minute. With 
regular practice, a build up of 5 words 
per minute each week is attainable. If 
this seems slow, take heart — within a 
month you should be typing as fast as 
you can reasonably write by hand, and 
within two months you could be classi- 
fied as an average, if unspectacular, typ- 
ist. Even if you are slower than this, and 
many will be, be encouraged by steady 
progress. Remember that once achieved, 
a reflex skill like this is hard to lose. 

The Numbers And Symbols 

Once the letters have been mastered, it 
is easy to extend the technique to take in 
the numbers and symbols. The numbers 
are located in a separate row of keys lo- 
cated above the top row of letters, Q to 
P, as shown in Figure 4. 

Each finger has a specific column, or 
pair of columns, to look after on the key- 
board as determined previously. It is, 
therefore, a straightforward matter to 
extend this pattern to include the num- 
ber keys. Hence the left hand little and 
middle fingers type the 1 and the 3 
respectively, while the index finger looks 
after both the 4 and the 5. The right 
hand follows the same pattern. 


• I • $ 

2 3 4 


BDBBDDDDBD 


Fingers: 


G H 


4th 3rd 2nd 1st 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 
Left Hand Right Hand 


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Touch Type, continued... 

The symbols are only slightly more 
complicated in that most of them require 
the simultaneous depression of the shift 
key. Since the locations of the symbols 
on the keyboard vary depending on the 
specific computer considered, it is not 
practical to describe key locations in de- 
tail. However, the general rule is the 
same as for typing capital letters; use the 
appropriate finger to strike the key, as 
determined by the letter or number, and 
at the same time hold down the shift key 
with the little finger of the other hand. 
As noted earlier, if your keyboard does 


/ found typing amidst 
the sounds of the 
arcade rather 
disconcerting. 


not conform to the standard pattern, 
then you will have to work out your own 
procedure. 

Although it is useful to build up speed 
and accuracy on the numbers and sym- 
bols, they are not used as often as the let- 
ters and punctuation marks, so if you 
must make a choice, spend your practice 
time on the letters. 

Typing Teaching Programs 

I have tried two teaching programs, 
MasterType by Lightning Software and 
Typing Tutor II by Microsoft. Both have 
advantages and disadvantages. I found 
that MasterType was better for initial 
learning, but that Typing Tutor II was 
better for building up speed and 
accuracy. 

MasterType 

MasterType is a typing game. You 
have control of a command center in the 
middle of the screen, and ranged around 
you are four enemy bases, each one 
occupied by a word. The words send out 
missiles to attack the center, and you 
can escape damage only by typing that 
word before the missile hits. If you man- 
age to type a word while no missile is on 



the way, that word is destroyed. The 
base survives and is occupied by the next 
word. The game continues until you 
have destroyed all the words, or until the 
words have destroyed the center (which 
takes two hits on one side). 

To play the game, one of 17 lessons is 
selected, together with a speed which 
roughly corresponds to a typing speed in 
words per minute. Each lesson contains 
40 words, and the lessons are graded to 
concentrate on specific keys. For exam- 
ple, lesson 1 teaches the letters of the 
home row, while lesson 3 is on three, 
four, and five letter words on the home 
row. 

As words are destroyed, points are 
scored. Depending on the final score, en- 
couragement is given in a few standard 
phrases. You can choose whether or not 
to see the letters as they are typed; 
choosing not to see them nets you more 
points. Scoring over 10,000 points, 
which can be achieved when winning 
with a typing speed of between 15 and 
20, will result in the recommendation to 
go on to the next lesson. 


creative GORtpatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: MasterType 
Type: Educational (typing tutorial) 

System: Apple II+48K, Atari 32K, 
IBM PC 64K 

Format: Disk 

Summary: Good introduction to 
touch typing. 

Price: S39.95 
Manufacturer: 

Lightning Software 
P.O. Box 11725 
Palo Alto, CA 94306 
(415) 327-3280 


For learning the keys, this is an ex- 
cellent program. For further practice, 
though, it tends to be repetitious. I 
found myself stuck on a plateau of 
achievement, unable to achieve enough 
points to earn the recommendation to go 
on to the next lesson, and yet weary of 
repeating the same words in the same or- 
der. Also, part of my skill was due to 
having learned that lesson by rote, 
rather than having really built up the 
typing reflex. Although you can specify 
your own lessons to ease this problem, I 
preferred to go on to the Typing Tutor II 
program. 

The graphics in MasterType are quite 
spectacular. Unfortunately, the program 
is also very noisy, and I found typing 
amidst the sound of the arcade rather 
disconcerting. Perhaps the younger 
generation finds this the ideal environ- 

210 


ment, but I don’t. The sound can be 
turned off, but I didn’t like the total 
silence either. 

Typing Tutor II 

Typing Tutor II is a rather more sober 
program than MasterType. It functions 
in two modes, either to teach the keys, 
or to provide practice in typing complete 



paragraphs. In either mode, it has the 
remarkable feature of adapting the les- 
son or practice paragraph to your actual 
performance. Thus, if the program de- 
tects that you are particularly slow or in- 
accurate on a certain letter, then that 
letter will come up more often for 
practice. 

In the teaching mode, the program in- 
troduces a set of eight letters which musjt 
be typed. The program measures re- 
sponse times on each key and classifies 
them as fast or slow. Each letter which 
achieves a “fast” rating is passed to a 
special file to make way for new letters 
to be introduced. A new set of letters for 
typing, made up of previous letters not 
yet classified as fast, plus new letters, is 
then put on the screen. After you type 
each set of letters, the program reports 
the error rating and typing speed. No 
allowance is made for achievements in 
previous sessions, but the program 
quickly catches up to your typing level. 

Every ten sets of letters, the program 


creative compatiRg 

SOFTWARE PROFILE 
Name: Typing Tutor II 
Type: Educational (typing tutorial) 
System: Apple II,48K 
Format: Disk 

Summary: Excellent for building 
speed and accuracy. 

Price: $24.95 

Manufacturer: 

Microsoft Corporation 
10700 Northup Way 
Bellevue, WA 98004 
(206) 828-8080 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 





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Touch Type, continued... 

allows you to adjust the response speed 
for classifying keys as fast or slow. Using 
this feature, the rate at which new keys 
are introduced can be varied. 

The paragraph practice mode can be 
selected at any time. If selected after a 
session in the teaching mode, paragraphs 
will be made up from words using letters 
being practiced. If selected at the begin- 
ning of the program, words using all 
keys will be used. After each paragraph, 
overall speed and accuracy are reported, 
together with information on specific er- 


rors by key and a list of which keys are 
slow. If another paragraph is requested, 
it will be composed of words selected to 
give more practice on keys judged to be 
weak. 

Whatever mode is selected, it is pos- 
sible to specify just letters, letters and 
numbers, or all keys including symbols. 

Overall, this is a first class program. 
My only complaint is that it was a little 
intimidating at the beginning, with new 
letters being introduced rapidly. Al- 
though the rate at which letters are in- 


troduced can be controlled, I much 
preferred to use the MasterType game to 
learn specific keys at a rate totally under 
my control. 

Once the keys have been learned, Typ- 
ing Tutor II is excellent for building up 
speed and accuracy. Although it uses a 
fixed pool of words which are therefore 
often repeated as in MasterType , they 
are presented in varying orders and 
combinations, and there is not the same 
sense of repetition as with MasterType. 

Planning Material To Be Typed 

In general, it is not good to compose 
at the keyboard without at least a rough 
outline of what you want to write. To a 
large extent, the advantage of touch typ- 
ing is lost if too much time is spent 
sorting out thoughts at the keyboard. 
Make notes first. These could be quite 
extensive in the early stages, but will 
probably be abbreviated as experience is 
gained. 


Typing Tutor II is 
excellent for building 
up speed and 

accuracy. 


Usually, I write notes on a subject as 
they occur to me, more or less at ran- 
dom. Then I review the notes, putting 
them in order, and filling in the gaps as 
necessary. I then add subheadings to 
break up the text, and perhaps refine the 
notes a little more. Only then am I ready 
to hit the keyboard. 

Summary And General Hints 

Touch typing is a skill well worth 
acquiring if you plan to do much writing 
with a word processor. The following 
rules summarize the advice given here 
on how to go about learning: 

1. Get comfortable, so that you can 
type in as relaxed a condition as 
possible. 

2. Adopt a methodical approach to 
learning the keys and then building up 
speed and accuracy. Use a self-teaching 
book, or better, invest in one of the 
teaching programs available for your 
computer. 

3. Once the keys are learned, con- 
stantly strive for higher speeds; accuracy 
will develop naturally, but speed comes 
only when you press. 

4. Practice regularly each day, pref- 
erably at the same time so that it be- 
comes a habit. 

5. Vary your regular practice material 
with useful typing. 

6. Sort out your thoughts on what to 
type before going to the keyboard. □ 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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Logo Ideas 



Robert Lawler 


Getting off the Garden Path 

Some problems are terribly difficult because they tempt you 
to set up your description in an unproductive way — and lead 
you that way down a dead end path to useless fretting. Here’s a 
good example of such a problem, one that you might run into 
at a party: 

You need people who are willing to work at the problem as 
couples. You need string and a little ability to tie knots. Here’s 
what you do. Take one string and tie it loosely around the 
wrists of one “victim.” (Leave about two feet of string between 
the wrists.) The circle of string, arms and body forms the first 
loop. Pass the second string through the first victim’s loop and 
tie each end loosely around the wrist of the partner. Passing the 
second string through the first victim’s loop made the loops 
interlocking. The puzzle is how these two victims can separate 
without cutting the string or untying the knots. 



Your victims might get angry if you don’t help them solve the 
problem. Maybe you should try it yourself before imposing on 
anyone else. 

Most everybody sees the string, arms and body as forming a 
loop. This is what puts them on the dead end of the garden 
path. After they have been told it’s illegal to slip the string loop 
off the end of their arms from around the wrists, they fre- 
quently try all sorts of contortions to get free, then give up. 
Have you given up yet? Do you see how to solve the problem? 

A critical question to ask here is “what can I really count 
on?” Note that if the arms, body and string really do form a 
loop the problem can not be solved. That whole way of looking 
at the problem must be wrong. Next notice that the places 


Robert Lawler, Centre Mondial Informatique Et Resources Humaines, Paris, France. 


where there might be a break in the loop can’t be between the 
body and arms; it has to be at the wrists. There are four wrists, 
but if you can get the string past one of them the problem is 
solved. Focus on one wrist and try to think of a different way of 
seeing the problem. I think of it as being like the picture below: 

The first string and loop go around the wrist at one end and 
then off somewhere else. The problem is now to get the second 



string out from under the first. It’s easy, isn’t it: through the 
loop, over the fist and down on the outside. This sort of prob- 
lem can only be solved after you get off the garden path. 


Summary 

1. When you have a difficult problem, it can be very im- 
portant to ask yourself, “what can I really count on in the way 
I am describing the problem?” 

2. A second good question, when you are looking for a new 

way to describe a problem is “What is the point at which there 
is something unusual or unclear?” Focus your attention on that 
point. □ 


216 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




THE MICRO COMPUTER RUSINESS 
WILL GROW FROM $10 TO $100 BILLION 
IN THE NEXT EIGHT YEARS! 

ARE YOU READY TO CASH IN? 


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(C) 1982, THE COMPUTER ENTREPRENEUR 


CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


Simulated Grcuits 







David A. Holko 

Physics teachers sometimes have difficulty setting up elec- 
trical equipment for labs. Faulty meters, short wires, dead bat- 
teries, power supplies without fuses, loose connections, and 
wrong size resistors are just some of the reasons for the 
difficulty. 

The following program simulates circuits for experiments on 
series, parallel, and parallel-series resistance circuits. 

Using a graphic representation of the circuit, meters, and 
resistors the student can conduct measurements of voltage and 
amperage by keying changes in the values of resistance or 
source EMF. The computer shows corresponding changes on 
the symbolic circuit. 

Figures 1, 2, and 3 show the circuits drawn by the computer 
on the video display. 

David A. Holko, 642 N. River Dr. #102, Stuart, FL 33494. 


In Figure 1, three asterisks are shown below the EMF = 12 
VOLTS. As the computer runs the program, the asterisks will 
appear sequentially below Rl, R2, R3, and EMF. If the I key is 
depressed while they are as shown in Figure 1, the source volt- 
age is increased. If the D key is depressed, the source voltage is 
decreased. 

Once a change has been made in resistance or voltage the 
simulated meters will show related changes. 

Note: To avoid errors caused by division by zero, the values 
Rl = 100 ohms, R2 = 100 ohms, and EMF= 12 volts are as- 
signed if Rl, R2, or EMF are changed to zero or less. 

I hope these simulations stir some of your own ideas for 
other simulations. These simulations will simplify your labs, 
and allow your students to spend less frustrating time in the 
lab. They will also allow them more time to analyze circuit 
characteristics. 

If nothing else, with this program, you can be sure your stu- 
dents won’t be electrocuted or blow a fuse. 


218 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




Ei 



GREAT PROGRAMS 
DELIVERED ON DISK OR TAPE 
WHILE KEEPING YOUR 
BUDGET BALANCED!!! 


Hurry, hurry! Put a little variety into your computing life! Step right up to 
the quality programs from CLOAD Magazine — and have enough 
money left over for cotton candy! 

A subscription to CLOAD Magazine consists of 6 to 8 ready-to-load 
useful, practical, and fun programs delivered by First Class Mail every 
month. Some of our past performers: Loan Amortization, Menu, Ship 
Adventure, Bond, Cave Raider, Planets, and Shrink. 

Don't clown around (another cliche!). Get a subscription to CLOAD 
Magazine. Or just catch a single act and try a back issue. You'll be 
dazzled by the Greatest Software Deal on Earth! 


The Bottom Line: 

Tape 

Disk 

1 year (12 issues) 

$50.00 

$95.00 

6 months (6 issues) 
Single Copies 

$30.00 

$55.00 

Back Issues 

$ 6.00 

$1 1.00 

Good Games # 1 

$12.00 

$23.00 

Adventures # 1 

$12.00 

$23.00 

The Fine Print: 

Issues from Oct 78 available on tape. Issues from 
Oct 82 available on disk, also. Ask for list 


(Level I issues also available). 


California residents add 6% to single copies. 
North America — First Class postage included. 
Overseas — add S 1 0 to subscriptions and SI to 
single copies. Sent AO rate. 


Master Card /Visa 

P.O. Box 1448 
Santa Barbara, 

CA 93102 
(805) 962-6271 

137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRC 


If you have a Radio Shack Color 
Computer or TDP System 1 00 there is 

PO Bo* 1087 Santa Barbara, CA 6310V tBUO) 963-1066 

CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




with programs on tape especially 
tailored for your system. 




Circuits, continued... 



1 CLE AR308 * CLS * PR I NT "Cl RCU I T SIMULATION" * PRINT"UERSION 3.0"* PR I NT "WRITTEN BV DAU 
ID A. HOLKO” a PRINT* PRINT* PRINT 

2 C4=STRING$<63, " ”> * B*®"## .##" s PRINT” 1 PARALLEL RESISTANCE CIRCUIT” s PRINT”2 SER 
IES RESISTANCE CIRCUIT” * PRINT”3 PARALLEL 8. SERIES RESISTANCE CIRCUIT”*PRINT*PRIN 
T * PR I NT "CHOOSE CIRCUIT TVPE"? * INPUTX* CLS* QNXGOTG3, 26, 39* CLS* GOT02 

3 FORT “IT 08 s READ A,B,C,D 

4 FORX® ATOB * SET < X , C > * SET < X , D > * NEXTX 

5 NEXTT s SET <39, 6> * SET <39* 35 > 

6 DATA 23.36, 11, 18.41,54, 11* 18,28,31,24,29,46,49,24,29 

7 DATA 7,20,23,30,57,70,23,30,67,90,2,9,110,123,2,9 
3 FORX=10TO36s SET <116, X>* NEXTX 

9 FORT® 1 TO 1 5 * READ A, B, C, D* FORX»ATOB* SET <C, X> s SET <D, X>* NEXTX, T 

10 DATA 7,11,30,48,19,23,30,48,30,34,30,48 

11 DATA 21,22, 15,64,31,32, 15,64,11,18,23,36, 1 1 , 18, 41 , 54, 23, 30, 7. 20, 23, 30, 57, 70, 2 
4,29,23,29,24,29,30,31,24,29,46,47,24,29,43,49,2.9,67,90,2,9, 110,123 


12 FORT® 1T09* READ A, B, C* FORX®ATOB* SET <X, C> * NEXTX, T 

13 DATA 39,67,5,30,48,7, 16,30,21,48,63,21,30,48,34,39, 116,36,98, 118,5 

14 DATA 16,29,32,49,63,32 

1 5 FORT® 1 T08 * READA , A** PR I NT3A , A* I « NEXTT 

16 DATA 121, EMF, 99, TOTAL AMP *-269.- AMPS, 278, AMPS, 517, UOLT-S, 542, UOLTS, 528, <R1 , 596, R 
2 > 

17 I FR 1 < ®0ORR2< =0ORUTO0 THENR 1 * 1 00* R2= 1 00 * UT® 1 2 * GOTO 1 7ELSEU i =UT : U2*UT s RT=R 1 *R2/ 


< R 1 +R2 > * I T®UT/RT *-U 1 =UT * U2®UT * 1 1 =U 1 ^R 1 * 1 2®U2/R2 * PR I NT 3896 , C* 5 

18 PRINTS 165, ""? *PRINTUSINGB$? IT? *PRINT3580, " " I * PRINTUSING"####" ? U1 ? *PRINT3605, " 
"? * PRINTUSING "####" ?U2? *PRINT3332, ” "? * PR I NTUS I NGB$ 5 II? *PRINT3341, "”? *PRINTUSINGB 

12? * PR I NTS 184, ”"? * PRINTUSING"###" ? UT? 

19 PRINT3896, "R1 = ”?R1?” OHMS”? 

20 PRINTS920, ”R2 = ”?R2?" OHMS"? 

21 PRINT3940, "EMF * " ?UTl" UOLTS"? 

22 FORX® 1 TO50 * PR I NT 3965 , "***" ? *A$®INKEV*« IFLEN< A*>=0THEN* PRINT3965, " "? * NEXTXE 

LSE I FA*= " I ” THENR 1=R1+10* G0T022ELSE I F A** " D " THENR 1 =R 1 - 1 0 * GOT 022 

23 FORK® 1 TO50 s PR I NT 3988 , "***"? * A*=INKEV*t I FLEN < A$ > ®0THENPR I NT 3988 , ” "? * NEXTXEL 

SE I FA*= " I " THENR2=R2+ 1 0 * G0T023 * ELSE I FA*= " D " THENR2®R2- 1 0 * GOT 023 

24 FORX® 1TO50 SPRINTS 1003, "***»?: A*« I NKEV** I FLEN < A* > ®0THENPR I NT 3 1 008 , " "?* NEXTX 

ELSEIFA*®" I " THENUT “UT + 1 * * G0T024ELSEIFA*® "D"THENUT=UT-1 * G0T024ELSE 


25 GOTO 17 

26 FORX® 1 TO 1 35 * READX* * NEXTX * CLS * FORX® 1 T06 * RE ADN , N* * PR I NT3N , N* * NEXTX 

27 DATA 95, TOTAL AMP, 122, EMF, 407, R1 , 424, R2, 534 , UOLTS, 551 , UOLTS 

28 FORX® 1 TO 1 4 * READA , B , C « FORV® ATOB * SET < C , V > * NEXT V , X 

29 DATA 2,9,60,2,9,82,2,9, 111,2,9. 126, 10, 15, 119,7, 15,38, 17,25,35, 17,25,63, 17,25, 
69, 17, 25, 96, 24,29,41 ,24,29,56, 24,29, 75, 24,29,90 

3© FORX® 1 TO 1 9 * READA , B , C * FORV® ATOB * SET < V , C > * NEXT V , X 

31 DATA 30,59,6,82,111,6,111.126,2,111, 126,9,68,82,2,60,82,9,30, 119,16,38,59,15, 
38,59, 17,72,93, 15,72,93, 17,35,41,26,41,56,23,41,56,30,56,63,26,69,75,26,90,96,26 
, 75,90, 23, 75, 98, 30 


220 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 




IcippkzlA ATARI sj 

I® COMPATIBLE COMPUTER^ ®^0 (48K) _••■•■••■•• • • $495 r" 


APPLE® COMPATIBLE COMPUTER 
AN ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE 


SYSCOM 2 
$699 


MICRO-SCI 

A2 (w/cont) 
A40 (w/cont) 
A70 (w/cont) 


DISK DRIVES 

RANA 

.... $369 Elite I (w/cont) $399 

$435 Elite II (w/cont) $539 

.... $555 Elite III (w/cont) $679 

FOURTH Super (w/cont) $385 

APPLE SOFTWARE 

ONLINE 

Screenwriter $89 

Wiz & Princess $22 

Mystery House $17 

Time Zone $65 


ARTSCI 

Magic Window $65 

Magic Window II $99 

Magic Words $45 

AVANT GARDE 

Zero Grav. Pinball $20 

Hi-Res Golf $20 

Hi-Res Secrets $82 

BEAGLE BROS. 

Dos Boss $17 

Alpha Plot $28 

Utility City $21 

Tip Disk #1 $15 

Apple Mechanic $21 

Pronto Dos $21 


Maurauder $24 

Frogger $23 

Cannonball Blitz $23 

Screenwriter Prof $135 

QUALITY 

Bag of Tricks $27 

Ali Baba & 40 Thieves . $22 
SENSIBLE SOFTWARE 

Sensible Speller $85 

Super Disk Copy III $21 


Flex Text Multi Disk Catalog $18 

Frame Up SIRTECH 

Wizardry $35 

* Knight of Dia $24 

Shoplifter $23 SOFTWARE PUBLISH. 

Star Blazer $22 pps: Report $65 


Davids Midnight $23 

Apple Panic $20 

Alien Rain $17 

Arcade Machine $41 

CONTINENTAL 

Home Accountant $52 

1st Class Mail $53 

DATAMOST 

Snack Attack $21 

Swashbuckler $23 

EDUWARE 

Spelling Beew/Read ... $27 

Alg. 1, 2 or3 $27 

Rendevous $27 

Prisoner II $23 

HAYDEN SOFTWARE 

Sargon II $25 

Piewriter $95 

INFOCOM 

Zork I, II or III $27 

Starcross $27 

Deadline $34 

INSOFT 

Graforth II $50 

Electric Duet $20 

LOTUS 

Exec. Brief Sys $126 

MICROSOFT 

Basic Compiler $270 

Multiplan 

Olympic Decathalon 

MUSE 


PFS: Filing $87 

PFS: Graph $87 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper Troops # $29 

Snooper Troops #2 $29 

Story Machine $23 

Face Maker $23 

STONEWARE 

D.B. Master $158 

D.B. Master Util #1 $70 

Graphics Proc. Sys $46 

STRATEGIC SIM 
Computer Baseball . $27 

Cytron Masters $27 

Guadalcanal $42 

Galactic Gladiators ....$27 

Battle of Shiloh $27 

Tigers In Snow $27 

Cosmic Balance $27 

Computer Qrtrback $27 

SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator $25 

Space Viking $34 

Saturn Navigator $24 

SYNERGISTIC 

Atlantis $27 

Global Prog. Line Ed. . $44 

VISICORP 


Visiterm $72 

$190 Visicalc 3.3 $175 

$20 MISCELLANEOUS 

Bandits $23 

Robot War $27 Human Fly $21 

Castle Wolfenstein $20 Master Type $27 

PENGUIN New Step by Step $57 

Graphic Magician $42 Sam (w/DAC) $83 

Comp. Graphics Sys. .. $49 Ultima $27 

Special Effects $29 Zoom Graphics $27 


CITOH 

Prowriter $439 

Prowriter II $649 

Starwriter $1379 

Printmaster $1599 


GEMIN1 10 
GEMIN1 15 


PRINTERS 

NEC 

8023 A-C $465 

3510 $1375 

3530 $1595 

3550 (IBM) $1829 

7710/7730 $2319 

SMITH CORONA . $589 
AXIOM GP-100 $269 


$375 

$485 


MONITORS 


| NEC 

12 " GRN (JB1260) . . . $115 
12 " GRN (JB1201 M) . $155 
12 " Color Composite $329 
12" Color RGB $689 


AMDEK 

V300 $139 

V310 (GRN-IBM) .... $169 
V310-A (Amber-IBM) . $169 

COLOR I $309 

COLOR II $650 


I USI (Amber) $169 

MODEMS 

HAYES NOVATION 

Micromodem II $269 Apple-Cat II $299 

Stack Smartmodem . $215 212 Apple-Cat $589 

Smartmodem 1200 . .$519 D-Cat $155 

ANCHOR AUTOMATION Signalman I or II $79 

ACCESSORIES 

Wico (Joy) $23 Wico(T-Ball) $49 * 


NEW 64K ATAR1 1200 .CALL 


RAMDISK (128K) $378 

BIT 3 -80 COL. BOARD $279 

400 KEYBOARD (In Home) $95 


810 DISK DRIVE $419 

410 RECORDER $74 

850 INTERFACE $164 

400 COMPUTER $219 

Entertainer $66 

Communicator $298 


32K RAM (Mosaic) $99 

32K RAM (Intec) $69 

32K MICROTEK $75 

48K (lntec/400) $129 

Educator $112 

Programmer $52 


PEflCOM 


Single Density Master $399 

Double Density Master $539 

Double Density Dual $859 

Dbl Sided Dbl Density Master $659 

Dbl Sided Dbl Density Dual $949 


ADVENTURE INT’L 

Rear Guard (D) $17 

Adv. 1-12 each (C) $18 

Preppie(CZD) $20 

Diskey(D) $33 

APX 

Eastern Front (C/D) $23 

Fam. Cash Flow (D) $17 

747 Land Sim. (C/D) $17 

ATARI INC. 

Fig-Forth (C) $30 

Galaxian $32 

Defender $32 

ET $36 

Microsoft Basic (D) $65 

Macro Ass. & Edit. (D) . $65 
Assembler Editor (R) ... $45 

Basic Cartridge (R) $45 

Pac Man (R) $32 

Centipede (R) $32 

Caverns of Mars (D) $28 

Missile Command (R) .. $27 

Star Raiders (R) $32 

Conv. Lang. Ea. (C) $44 

Music Composer (R) .... $31 

Super Breakout (R) $27 

My First Alphabet (D) .. $26 

Prog. 2 & 3 (ea.)(C) $21 

Word Processor (D) ...$107 

Pilot (Educ) $98 

Touch Typing (C) $19 

Home File Mngr(D) $37 

AUTOMATED SIMUL. 

Monster Maze (R) $27 

Invasion Orion (C/D) ....$18 
Temple of Aps.(C/D) ....$28 

Star Warrior (C/D) $28 

Dragon’s Eye (D) $20 

Crush Crumble (C/D) ... $20 
AVALON HILL 

Empire of Over(D) $23 

B-1 Nuc. Bomber (C) .... $12 
BRODERBUND 

Apple Panic (C/D) $20 

Star Blazer $22 

Choplifter(D) $23 

DATA SOFT 

Text Wizard 11(D) $65 

Graphics Gen. (D) $17 

Basic Compiler (D) $65 

Zaxxon (C/D) $28 

EDU-WARE 

Compu-Read (D) $21 

Compu-Math Fr. (D) $28 

Compu-Math Dec. (D) .. $28 

INFOCOM 

Zork I, II or III (D) $27 

Starcross $27 

Deadline (D) $34 

JV SOFTWARE 

Action Quest (C/D) $20 

Ghost Encount. (C/D) .. $20 


KBYTE 

Krazy (each) $34 

LJK 

Letter Perfect (D) $104 

Data Perfect (D) $74 

ON-LINE 

Wiz & Princess (D) $22 

Crossfire (C/D) $20 

Frogger (C/D) $23 

Ultima 1(D) $27 

Ultima 11(D) $39 

Jawbreaker (C/D) $21 

Crossfire (R) $28 

OPTIMIZED SYSTEMS 

Max-65 (D) $58 

Basic A + (D) $58 

ROKLAN 

Gorf (D) $27 

Gorf (R) $30 

Wizard of Wor(D) $27 

Wizard of Wor(R) $30 

SIRIUS 

Space Eggs (D) $20 

Sneakers (D) $20 

Way Out (D) $27 

Bandits (D) $23 

Fast Eddy (R) $27 

SPINNAKER 

Snooper T roops #1 (D) . $30 
Snooper T roops #2 (D) . $30 

Storm Machine (D) $23 

Face Maker (D) $23 

STRATEGIC SIM. 

Shattered Alliance (D) . $28 
Tigers In Snow (C/D) .... $28 
Battle of Shiloh (C/D) .. $28 
Battle of Norm. (C/D) ... $27 
Galactic Gladiator (D) $27 

Cytron Masters (D) $27 

SYNAPSE SOFTWARE 

File Mngr 800 + $65 

Protector II $23 

Shamus(C/D) $23 

Nautilus (C/D) $23 

Claim Jump (C/D) $23 

THORN EMI 

Jumbo Jet (R) $34 

Submarine Comm. (R) . $34 
MISCELLANEOUS 

Ali Baba (D) $22 

Miner 2049er(R) $35 

Kid Grid (C/D) $20 

Pool 1.5(D) $23 

Raster Blaster (D) $20 

Sam (D) $41 

Galactic Chase (C) $17 

Warlocks Revenge (D) . $24 

Visicalc (D) $169 

3-D Supergraph (C/D) ..$29 

Starbase Hyp(D) $17 

Pogo Man (C/D) $27 

Airstrike(C/D) $28 

Sammy Sea Serp. (C) ... $13 
Pinball (D) $20 



IBM P/C COMPATIBLES — CALL 

IBM ACCESSORIES 


AMDEK 

Color II .. 
Color III . 


NEC 

Color RGB (JC1203) 


T.I.M.I 



MICROSOFT 


,. $650 

64K RAM 

... $255 

CALL 

256K RAM 

... $629 

.. $689 

64 K RAM ChipSet ... 

... $135 

.. $169 




PERCOM 


.. $689 

SS/DD External Drv 

... $319 

$1829 

DS/DD External Drv 

... $379 


5M Hard Disk 

. $1849 

.. $235 

10M Hard Disk 

. $2250 

.. $345 



.. $449 

IBM Joystick (TG) .... 

$44 

.. $559 

IBM Joystick (Kraft) 

.... $48 

VI SOFTWARE 


.. $169 

Data Reporter 

... $159 

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Visitrend/Plot 

... $199 

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Visidex 

... $169 

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Visifile 

... $199 

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Visischedule 

... $199 

.... $75 

Peachtree 4 

. CALL 

.. $125 

Zorkl, II, III 

$27 

.. $179 

Starcross 

$27 

.. $489 

Deadline 

$34 

.. $159 

Temple of Apshai ... 

$27 

.. $299 

Frogger 

$23 

.. $132 

Snooper Troop 1 

$29 

.. $199 

Snooper Troop II 

$29 


Qz commodore 


r VIC 64 


CALL 


VIC 20 $177 1530 RECORDER $59 

1541 DISKDRIVE CALL 1600 MODEM $87 

1525 PRINTER CALL 16K RAM $88, 


COMPUTERS 


802 


TELEVIDEO 

. $2595 802 H $4445 


NEC 

PC-8001 Computer $709 

PC-8012 I/O Unit $469 

PC-8031 (Dual Drive) $709 

NORTH STAR 

Advantage $2595 

Advantage (5M Byte H.D.) $3799 

TRS-80 

MOD III (2 Drvs, 48 K) $1649 


COSMIC 
COMPUTERS 


UNLIMITED 


THE ABOVE PRICES ARE FOR PREPAID ORDERS 



ORDER LINES OPEN MON-SAT 8 am - 8 pm 

(714) 861-1265 


64 K RAM 

780 KB Disk Storage 
Word Processor 
Ultracalc CP/M 
C-Basic Software 



EAGLE II $2329 

EAGLE IV (10M Byte Hard Disk) $4299 


228 N. PROSPECTORS RD. 

DIAMOND BAR, CA 91765 

Add $2.00 Shipping per software order anywhere in U S. 
Add $5.00 Shipping per software for non-U. S. orders, 
P.0. Box or FP0-AP0. Call for cost of Hardware shipping. 
Calif, residents add 6 V 2 % sales tax. Cashiers Checks or 
Money Orders filled same day. Personal checks require 4 
weeks to clear. Master Card and Visa OK for software 
only, add 3% surcharge. Include card no., expiration 
date and signature Prices subject to change 


APPLE IS A TRADEMARK OF APPLE COMPUTER, INC 
ATARI IS A TRADEMARK OF ATARI, INC 
IBM IS A TRADEMARK OF 
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES C0RP 
TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF RADIO SHACK 




CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Circuits, continued.. 


32 I FR 1 < a =0ORR2< =0ORUT< *0THENR 1 - 1 00 « R2- 1 00 : UT- 1 0 : GOT032ELSERT «=R 1 +R2 * I T-UT/RT * Ul— R 
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33 PR I NT® 161 , ""5 * PRINTUSING"#. ####"? IT? n PRINT8186, - " ? t PRINTUSING"###” I UTl I PRINTS 
598, ""? a PR I NTUS I NG0$ ? U 1 1 s PRINT8613, M " I « PR I HTUS I NGB* I M2 ? 

34 PRINT8896, "R1 » M lRll" OHMS" ? * PRINT8920, "R2 - *?R2l H OHMS' 1 ? « PR I NT 8940, "EMF « 

" ? UT ? " UOLTS"? 

35 F QRX- 1 T 050 : PR I NT 3965 , "***", 8 a*-INKEV$? IFLEN<0*>-0THENPRIHT8965, " " ? « NEXTXEL 

SE I F8* - - I M THENR 1 -R 1 4- 1 0 s G0T035ELSE I F8*« " D " THEHR 1 *R 1 - 1 0 ? G0T035 

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38 G0T032 

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40 FORX- 1 T053 : RE ADA , B , C s FORV-RTOB « SET < C , V > « NEXTV , X 

41 DATA 3,9, 18,3,9,33,3,9,98,3,9,99,4,7, 101,4,7, 102,3,9, 104,3,9, 105,4,7, 107,4,7, 

108,3,9, 1 10,3,9, 1 1 1 ,4,7, 1 13,4,7, 1 14,3,9, 1 16,3,9, 117,4, 7, 119,4,7, 120,5, 16, 125, 16, 30, 121 

42 DATA 26,33, 115,26,33, 100, 24, 29, 94, 20, 27, 89, 20, 27, 76, 24, 29, 72, 30, 38, 66, 35, 38, 3 
0,33,35,35,33,35,25,26,33,43,26,33,32,26,33,29,26,33, 18,14,21,61,14,21,48,14,21,13,14,21,0 

43 DATA 12,14,55,12,14,35,12, 14,25, 12, 14,6,21,23,55,21,26,35,21,26,25,21,23,6, 15 
,20,36, 15,20,35, 15,20,34, 15,20,26, 15,20,25, 15,20,24,9,11,30 

44 FORX- 1 T03 1 a RE ADA , B, C* FORV- ATOB a SET < V , C > t NEXTV , X 

45 DATA 18,33,2, 18,33,9,33,97,5, 121, 125,5, 121, 125, 16,116, 121,30, 100, 115,26, 100. 1 
15,33,66,99, 30, 89, 93, 24, 72, 76, 24 , 76, 89, 20, 76, 89, 27 

46 DATA 74,89,29,74,89,31,30,66,38,25,35,35, 18,29,33, 18,29,26,32,43,26,35,55, 12, 
35,55,23,32,43,26,6,24, 12,6,24,23,25,35, 11,0,12,14,0, 12,21,48,60, 14,48,60,21,33,43,33 

47 FORX- 1 TO 1 1 a RE ADN , N* : PR I NT9N , N$l a NEXTX 

48 DATA 245 , EMF , 628 , AMPS ,321, UOLTS , 345 , UOLTS , 586 , AMPS , 593 , AMPS , 487 , UOLTS , 75 , AMPS 
, 339, <R2, 329, R1 >, 744, R3 

49 I FR 1 < = S 0ORR2< =0ORR3< — 0ORUT < -8THENR 1-100? R2- 1 00 a R3-50« UT- 12a GOT 049ELSERE-R 1 *R2/ 

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50 PR 1 NT 3 1 38 , " " ? « PRINTUSING"##. ### M I IT? a PRINT3385, H M ? a PRINTUSIM8B*? U1 1 a PRINT8409 
, " "3 aPRINTUSINGB*?U2; «PRINT3650, a PRINTUSING"#. ##" ? II? a PRINT0657, - " » « PRINTUSIN 
G"#. ##"? 12? a PRINTS551 , ""? a PR I NTUS I NGB$ ? U3 ? *PRINT3691, " "? « PR I NTUS I NG " ## . ### " I IT? 

51 PR I N T 3896 , "Rl«" ?R1? "OHMS”? a PRINT391 1 , M R2-"?R2? "OHMS'* I «PRINT8926, "OHM 
S"; a PRINT394 1 , "EMF—" 3 UT ? "UOLTS"? 

52 F ORX— 1 T 050 a PR I NT 3965 , "***", aA*-INKEV*« IFLEN<A»>-0THENPRINT8965, '* "? « NEXTXEL 

SE I F A*- " I " THENR 1 -R 1 + 1 0 ? G0T052ELSE I FA$- " D " THENR 1 -Rl-10* G0T052 

53 F ORX— 1 T 050 * PR I NT 3980 , "***"? t A*-INKEV*t IFLEN< A<>— 0THENPRINTS980, " "? a NEXTXEL 

SE I F A*- " I " THENR2-R2+ 1 0 a G0T053ELSE I FA*» "D" THENR2-R2- 1 0 a G0T053 

54 F ORX= 1 T 050 a PR I NT 3995 , "***"? a A*-INKEV»a IFLEN< A#>-0THENPRINT8995, " "I ■ NEXTXEL 

SE I F A*- " I " THENR3-R3+ 1 0 a G0T054ELSE I FA*-"D" THENR3-R3- 1 0 a G0T054 

55 FORX- 1TO30?PRINT31 010, "***"? s A*~INKEV*s I FLEN< A* > -0THENPR I NT 81010, " "? a NEXTX 

ELSE I FAV* " I " THEH , v>T*UT+ 1 a G0T055ELSE I FA*- " D " THENUT-UT- 1 a G0T055 

56 G0T049 



FRANKLIN ACE 1200 

SPi CIAL LOW-PRICE PACKAGES 

I ACE 1000 $950 

II. I wfACE 10 Drive & Acewriter 
$1340 

III. II w/Green Monitor $1395 

IV II w/RGB & Interface $1840 


EPSON 
HX-20 ...$675 
QX-10. . . $CALL 
KAY PRO II .$1699 
EAGLE 1610 $3297 
TELEVIDEO 
802 $2720 


SANYO 
MBC 1000 $1679 
COLUMBIA DATA 

$CALL 

BASIS 108. $CALL 
DEC 

Rainbow .$2900 


MORROW DESIGNS 

DECISION I $1315 

MICRO DECISION w/2 Drives . .$1395 
MICRO DECISION w/2 Drive & CRT 

$1895 

ALSO CALL for our low prices on NEC, 
NORTHSTAR & ALTOS Computers. 

VISTA DISK DRIVES $249 

RANA Elite I $275 

QUENTIN $290 

FOURTH DIMENSION $259 


DARK HORSE? 


MONITORS 

AMDEK 

Video 300 $139 

Color-1 (Composite) $310 

Color-Ill (RGB) $380 

TAXAN 

RGB Vision I $350 

RGB Vision III $590 

SANYO 

12" Green $130 

13" Color (Composite) . . .$370 
USI 

PI-2 (12" Green) $159 

PI-3 (12" Amber) $179 

NEC JB 1201 M (12" Green) .$153 

MODEMS 

HAYES 

Micromodem II $279 

Smartmodem 300 $215 

Smartmodem 1200 $529 

NOVATION 

CAT $145 

D-CAT $154 

ANCHOR 
Mark I $ 85 


PRINTERS 

EPSON 

MX-80F/T III $499 

MX-100 w/Graftrax... $CALL 

FX-80 $ 589 

IDS 

Microprism $ 539 

Prism 80 "Loaded” — $1299 
Prism 132 “Loaded” ...$1465 
STAR MICR0NICS 

Gemini-10 $ 379 

Gemini-15 $ 489 

C-IT0H 

Prowriter I $415 

Prowriter II $ 625 

Printmaster $1599 

0KIDATA 

Microline 82A $ 415 

Microline 83A $ 639 

Microline 92A $ 585 

Microline 93A $1015 

DAISYWRITER 

1500 $1000 

2000 (48K Buffer) $1013 

NEC 3510 $1495 




FIRM & SOFTWARE 

ALS 

Z-Card $199 

Smarterm $265 

MICROSOFT 

Premium System $495 

Softcard $239 

Multiplan $195 

VIDEX 

Videoterm $249 

Enhancer II $119 

Softswitch $ 25 

ORANGE MICRO Grappler + $119 
PROMETHEUS Graphatti . . .$ 95 
VISIC0RP 

VisiCalc $185 

VisiFile (For Apple) $185 

VisiFile (For IBM) $230 

SILICON VALLEY SYSTEMS 

Word Handler $139 

List Handler $ 62 

MICROPRO 

MailMerge $ 79 

WordStar $250 

ASHTONTATE dBase II ...$475 


E-4U Z (CP/M) Card $150 

80 Column Card $189 


SAMW00 MONITORS* 



9" (18 MHz): 12" (12 MHz): 

Green. ... $110 Green. ... $115 

Amber... $115 Amber... $119 

DEALER PRICING AVAILABLE 




Comparable to Beckman (TECH 310)'!! 
Better than Fluke (8022B)!!!!!' 

• 0.1% ACC • 2000 hr Bat' Lite 

• 200mV 1000 V • 200 O ~ 20 M~ 

• 200 /jA 10 A • HI. LOW O 



$3.00 Phone credit for over $300 order. 
VISA, MC, Money Order, Checks Honored. 


GEN. TECH. 

15 Exeter St., Prov., Rl 02906 


Tel. (401) 273-2420, 274-0330 
Mon.-Sat. 9 to 9. Call 274-8829 for Catalog. 


TWX 710-381-0479 
7 days 24 hours 


CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


222 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 





/</ - 


* 


LS 

Personal— Entertainment— Business 

SOFTWARE 





Low Discount Prices / 15% to 25% Discount off List Price 

Fast Convenient Service / We ship same or next day 
Large Selection of Software / Call or Write for our FREE Catlog! 


We have all the latest 
software— ASK US! 


ATARI, IBM PC, CP/M 
send for 
FREE catalog! 

Call Toll Free: (800) 423-5290 In California: (213) 991-9641 


beagle p/,:'e 

DOS Boss 24.00 

Utility City 29.50 

Apple Mechanic 29.50 

Pronto DOS NEW 29.50 

Flex Text NEW.. 29.50 

BRODERBUND 

Apple Panic 29.95 

David's Midnight Magic 34.95 

★ The Arcade Machine 59.95 

Star Blazer 31 .95 

Choplifter 34 95 

Deadly Secrets 34.95 

★ Serpentine 34.95 

Sea Fox 29.95 

AE NEW 29.95 

Bank Street Writer NEW 59.95 

CONTINENTAL 

★ Home Accountant 74.95 

CPA Modules # 1 -4 (each) 250.00 

First Class Mail 74.95 

Tax Advantage NEW.. 59.95 

DATA MOST 

Snack Attack 29.95 

Swashbuckler 34.95 

Casino 39.95 

P'S Pen 29.95 

Tubeway 34.95 

★ Aztec NEW 39.95 

EDU-WARE 


Our 

Price 

20.40 

25.05 

25.05 

25.05 

25.05 


25.45 

29.70 

44.95 
27.15 
29.70 
29.70 
26.20 
25.45 
25.45 

50.95 


56.20 

199.95 

63.70 

50.95 


25.45 

29.70 

33.95 
25.45 
29.70 

29.95 


PENGUIN pi-ice 

Complete Graphics System 69.95 

★ Graphics Magician 59.59 

Special Effects 39.95 

Spy's Demise 29.95 

Transylvania 34.95 

SENSIBLE 

Super Disc Copy III 30.00 

Multi-Disc Catalog 25.00 

★ Sensible Speller 125.00 

SCREENWRITER II 
1 2*45 97.45 


25.50 

21.25 

93.75 


SIERRA ON-LINE 

HI-RES Adventures 0-5 

Dark Crystal 39.95 

Cross Fire 29.95 

**-ISA 79.95 

General Manager 229.95 

Screen Writer Professional 1 99.95 

★ Ultima II 59.95 

★ Frogger 34.95 

Cannonball Blitz 34.95 

The Artist 79.95 

Laf-Pak 34.95 

Pest Patrol 29.95 

Lunar Leepers 29.95 

Jawbreaker (all new version) NEW . . 29.95 

Night Flight NEW . . 29.95 


SIR-TECH 


Rendezvous 

39.95 

33.95 

Wizardry 


Prisoner 2 


28.00 

Knight of Diamonds. 


★ Algebra series (each) 

39.95 

29.95 

Star Maze 

34.95 

Fractions/Decimals (each) 

49.00 

41.65 



PSAT/SAT Word Skills (each) 

49.00 

41.65 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING 

x ore ^ 

TAX PREPARER (1983) 


★ PFS: Report 

1ZD.UO 

95.00 

&S2 

168.75 


PFS: Graph 


HOWARD 



SOUTHWESTERN 


Creative Financing 

195.00 

156.00 

Merlin 


Real Estate Analyzer II 


156.00 

Ascii Express Professional 

129.95 




Z-Term 


INFOCOM 





* Zork 1, II, III (each) 

39.95 

29.95 

STONEWARE 


Deadline 


42.45 

DB Master Utility Pak #1 

99.00 

Starcross 


33.95 

DB Master Utility Pak #2 

99.00 

MICROSOFT 



TG PRODUCTS 


Typing Tutor II 

24.95 

21.20 

★ Joystick 


★ TASC Compiler 

175.00 

131.25 

Game Paddles 


RAM Card 


84.95 

Select-a-Port 


Multiplan 


220.00 

★ Track Ball 

NEW 64.95 


15% OFF 

33.95 
25.45 

59.95 
183.20 
159.95 

44.95 
26.20 
29.70 

67.95 
29.70 
25.45 
25.45 
25.45 
25.45 


42.45 

29.70 

29.70 


93.75 

71.25 

106.25 


55.20 

110.45 

84.95 


84.15 

84.15 


44.95 

33.95 

50.95 
48.70 


SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

Gorgon 

The Joyport 

★ Kabul Spy 

Bandits 

Escape from Rungistan 
Free Fall 

Blade of Blackpoole 
Type Attack 

Flip out NEW 

Wavy Navy NEW 

★ Repton NEW 

Critical Mass NEW 

DB MASTER 

171.75 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 


★ Guadalcanal Campaign 

Cytron Masters 
Galactic Gladiators 
The Cosmic Balance 
Germany: 1985 
Battle for Normandy 

★ Galactic Adventure NEW 

Bomb Alley NEW 

Epidemic NEW 

Fighter Command NEW 

VISICORP 

★ Visicalc 

★ Viaitrand/Visiplot 


59.95 

50.95 

59.95 

50.95 

59.95 

44.95 

59.95 

50.95 

59.95 

44.95 

39.95 

33.95 

39.95 

33.95 

39 95 

33.95 

59.95 

50.95 

39 95 

33.95 

59.95 

44.95 

59.95 

50.95 

34 95 

29.70 

59.95 

50.95 

250.00 

193.75 

300.00 

225.00 

250.00 

199.95 


CALSOFT 

346 N. Kanan Rd. #103 
Agoura, CA 91301 


We also carry complete lines from the 
following companies: 

ASHTON-TATE • AVANTE-GARDE 
BUDGECO • CAVALIER 
DATASOFT • HAYDEN 
HAYES • INSOFT 
KRAFT • KENSINGTON 
LEARNING CO. • LIGHTNING 
MICROPRO • PEACHTREE 
SILICON VALLEY • MUSE 
ODESTA • QUALITY 
SOFTWARE DIMENSIONS 
SORCIM • SPINNAKER 
SUBLOGIC • SYNERGISTIC 
ULTRASOFT • VIDEX 
If you don’t see it, Ask Us! 


Call Toll Free: (800) 423-5290 In California: (213) 991-964 1 

We accept Mastercard & Visa (include # and Expiration Date), check, COD ($1.50 extra), or Money 
Order. California residents add 6% sales tax. Include $2.00 for shipping(UPS Blue Label $3.00, Canada 
$6.00, other foreign countries 10% of order- minimum $10.00). 

•k Sale prices are through April only! Prices subject to change without notice. 

CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 


APPLE SPECIALS 

PERIPHERALS 


APPLE 

SPECIALS 

Business 


Screenwriter II 

$ 82 

Visicalc 3 3 

$165 

Visischedule 

$199 

Visitrend/Visiplot 

$199 

The Word Handler 

$129 

Magic Window II 

$ 95 

Magic Mailer 

$ 45 

Magic Words 

$ 45 

Real Estate Analyzer II 

$119 

Supercalc 

$165 

PFS Report (New) 

$ 59 

PFS 

$ 79 

PFS Graph 

$ 79 

The General Manager 

$ 97 

D B Master 

$145 

Pascal Programmer 

$ 89 

Pie Writer 

$ 95 

Wordstar 

$219 

Datafax 

$129 

Datalink 

$ 65 

The Home Accountant 

$ 48 

Payroll Manager 

$199 

Pie Writer/Multi 80 column 

$ 95 

Pro-Easywriter/Mail Combo y 

$209 

Executive Briefing System 

$139 

The Sensible Speller 

$ 79 

Mail Merge 

$159 

Wordstar (French) 

$299 

Wordstar (Spanish) 

$299 

Spellstar 

$119 

Calcstar 

$119 

First Class Mail 

$ 49 

E Z Ledger 

$ 45 

Tax Manager 

$ 99 

The Dictionary 

$ 65 

Versawriter Pak 1 

$ 27 

Versawriter Pak 2 

$ 27 

Personal Investor 

$ 95 

General Ledger 

$239 

Accounts Receivable 

$239 

Accounts Payable 

$239 

Executive Secretary 

$159 

Executive Speller 

$ 55 


Utilities 


TASC Compiler 

$119 

Basic Compiler 

$ 65 

Datafax 

$139 

Datalink 

$ 65 

Link Video Apple II 

$105 

Link Video Apple III 

$139 

Pascal Tutor 

$ 89 

Pascal Programmer 

$ 89 

LISA 2 5 

$ 55 

Bag of Tricks 

$ 27 

A L D S 

$ 89 

SAM 

$ 85 

Super Disk Copy III 

$ 20 

The Artist 

$ 65 

3-D Supergraphics 

$ 27 

Program Line Editor 

$ 27 

Education 

Planetary Guide 

$ 23 

Star Gazers Guide 

$ 22 

Astro Quotes 

$ 17 

Juggles Rainbow 

$ 30 

Bumble Games 

$ 39 

Bumble Plot 

$ 39 

Gertrudes Secrets 

$ 49 

Gertrudes Puzzles 

$ 49 

Rocky's Boots 

$ 49 

Snooper Troops #1 

$ 30 

Snooper Troops #2 

$ 30 

Story Maker 

$ 26 

Face Maker 

$ 26 

Compu-Read 

$ 23 

Spelling Bee w/Reading Primer 

$ 27 

Algebra 1 

$ 34 

Fractions 

$ 34 

Decimals 

$ 34 

Master Type 

$ 27 

Type Attack 

$ 27 

Wordrace 

$ 17 

Dueling Digits 

$ 20 

SAT Word Attack 

$ 34 

New Step by Step 

$ 59 

Delta Drawing 

$ 45 

Harcourt Brace S A T Series 

$ 59 


Softcard $ 229 

Ramcard $ 69 

Microsoft Softcard Premium Sys $ 479 

(Contains Softcard, Ramcard, 

Videx Videoterm) 

Fortran 80 $ 139 

System Saver Fan S 65 

Flip & File Diskette Box $ 21 

Co bo I -80 $ 449 

Extended muMath $ 169 

Enhancer II $ 99 

EZ Port $ 19 

Game Paddles $29 

Joystick $ 39 

Select a Port $ 39 

Lower Case Adapter $ 25 

Mannesman Tally 160 $ 799 

Citoh Prowriter $ 439 

Microtek Apple Parallel 

Interface $ 79 

Apple Adapter (Wico Joysticks) $ 17 

Wico Joystick $ 23 

Wico Redball $ 24 

Wico Trackball $ 49 

12 Foot Ext Cord $ 9 

Microbuffer II 16K Parallel $169 


Microbuffer II 32K Parallel $199 

Kraft Joystick $ 45 

Kraft Paddles $ 34 

Apple Dumpling GX $ 95 

Buffered Dumpling 16K $ 155 

Buffered Dumpling 32K $ 199 

8088 Coprocessor Board $ 549 

TheJoyport $ 34 

TG Trak Ball $ 45 

Versawriter Graphics Tablet $ 209 

Videoterm 80 Column Board $ 229 

Vision 80 Board $ 189 

IDS 480 Printer $529 

IDS Prism 132 Printer $1299 

Amdek Amber Monitor $ 179 

Amdek Digital Plotter $ 729 

Amdek 3" Micro Floppy 

Disk Drive $ 699 

Microline 84P $1029 

Microline 83A $ 679 

Microline 82A $ 429 

Daisywriter Letter Quality 

Printer $1129 

Corona Starfire 5 MB Drive $1850 

Corona Starfire 10 MB Drive $2289 


TOP 

SELLERS 


Fly Wars $20 

Cyclod $20 

Kabul Spy $20 

Zero Gravity Pinball $20 

Copts and Robbers $23 

Escape from Rungistan $20 

Lemmings $20 

Computer Foosball $20 

The Battle of Shiloh $27 

Electric Duet $20 

Temple of Apshai $27 

Tuesday Morning Quarterback $20 

Hi-Res Computer Golf $20 

David's Midnight Magic $23 

Track Attack $20 

Apple Panic $20 

Ultima $27 

Bug Attack $20 

Snack Attack $20 

Thief $20 

County Fair $20 

Compu-Read $20 

Empire I World Builders $22 

Firebird $20 

Sargon II $23 

Zork I $27 

Zorkll $27 

Pool 15 $23 

Castle Wolfenstem $20 

Threshold $27 

Mousekattack $23 

Hi-Res Football $27 

Hi-Res Soccer $20 

Time Zone $65 

Wiz & Princess $22 

Ulysses & The Golden Fleece $23 

Wizardry $34 

Hadron $23 

Beer Run $20 

Gorgon $27 

Photar $20 

Warp Factor $27 

Tigers in the Snow $27 

Computer Baseball $27 

Ceiling Zero $20 

Sherwood Forest $23 

The Queen of Phobos $23 

BezWars $19 

Bez Man $16 

Star Blazer $22 

Cross Country Rallye $20 

Swashbuckler $23 

Tumble Bugs $20 

Rear Guard $20 

Hungry Boy $17 

Dneiper River Lrne $20 

Labyrinth $20 

Oil Rig $27 

Human Fly . $27 

Deadline $34 

Minotaur $23 

Bandits . $23 

Oil Barons $65 

Monster Maze $20 

New World $20 

GFS Sorceress $23 

Telengard $19 

Starcross $27 

Aztec $27 

Tubeway $23 

Vegas Video $20 

Odin $34 

Star Maze $23 

Zendar $20 

Front Line $20 

Mask of the Sun $27 

Pest Patrol $20 

Lunar Leeper $20 

Pie Man $20 

Thorolian Tunnels $20 

Canyon Climber $20 

Alien $19 

Normandy $27 

Germany $39 

Miner 2049er $29 

AE $20 

Repton $27 

Moon Shuttle $27 

Spy's Demise $20 

Space Vikings $34 

Flip Out $20 

Wavy Navy . $23 

Bomb Alley $39 

Ultima II $39 



J'OMPUTER 



*** SPECIALS OF THE MONTH *** 

“Elephant Disks (Box) $ 20“ 

“Amdek Color I Monitor $ 309“ 

“ Micromodem II $ 259* * 

“Novation Apple Cat II Modem $ 329** 

“The Grappler Plus $ 119** 

“NEC 8023A Printer $ 459** 

* * Rana Systems 40 Track Disk Drive $ 299* * 

* * Rana Systems 80 Track Disk Drive $ 659* * 

“The Word Handler $ 129** 

“NEC 3530 Printer (IBM) $1599** 

“Qume Sprint 11 + Printer $1359** 

** Hayes Smartmodem 300 $ 209** 

** Amdek Color II Monitor $ 659** 

“Percom Double Density Drive (ATARI) $ 515** 

** Hayes Smartmodem 1200 $ 499** 

Computer Outlet 

C S" 800-634-6766 0,d o^, L y ine 

Information & Order Inquiries (702) 369-5523 

ORDERING INFORMATION AND TERMS 

For Fast Delivery send cashier checks, money orders or direct bank wire trans 
fers Personal and company checks allow 3 weeks to clear COD orders ($3 00 
minimum) and 1 % of all orders over $300 School purchase orders welcomed Prices 
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CARCA F 14Q ON RFAflFR QFRVICF PARR 





89 REM CORSAGE PROGRAM 
100 PAGE 

110 PRINT "ENTER D" 

120 INPUT D 

130 PRINT "ENTER S" 

140 INPUT S 

150 PRINT "ENTER T" 

160 INPUT T 

170 W-500*$QR(ST 2+Tt2> 

180 SET DEGREES 
190 WINDOW -W,W,-W,W 
200 GO TO 560 

210 PRINT "ENTER Tl. T1 MUST BE 1 OR 
220 INPUT Tl 
230 PAGE 

240 FOR B=0 TO 360 STEP D 
250 FOR A=0 TO 360 STEP G 
260 L=ABS<S*SIN<K*A)+T*CQS<K*S>> 


Computer Art 
for the Tektronix 4052 


270 GOSUB 390 

280 IF Tl =2 THEN 310 

290 UIEWPORT 22. 108, 14, 100 

300 GO TO 320 

310 UIEWPORT 15,115,0,100 

320 IF h >0 THEN 350 

330 HOME X, Y 

340 GO TO 360 

350 DRAW X, Y 

360 NEXT A 

370 NEXT B 

380 GO TO 430 

390 R=B*ABS<S*SIN<L*A)+T$COS<L*A> > 
400 X=R*COS<A> 

410 Y=R*$IN<A> 

420 RETURN 


In this article I describe my Corsage 
program. The name stems from the pat- 
terns generated, which remind me of 
assemblages of ribbons and flowers. A 
Basic source listing and some sample 
output pictures accompany the text. 

This program is a further generaliza- 
tion of my Sinusoidal Loop Programs 
No. 1 and 2 ( Creative Computing , Janu- 
ary and March, 1983). However, it uses 
only one polar coordinate function. This 
function is used to compute the radius as 


Joe Jacobson, 675 E. Street Rd., Apt. 1009, War- 
minster, PA 18974. 


Joe Jacobson 


the absolute value of a weighted sum of 
sinusoids. These sinusoids are, in turn, 
functions of the angle (A). 

An important innovation, which was 
suggested by my engineering coworker 
Stuart Boose, is that the angular fre- 
quency coefficient L is itself a function 
of the angle. I used the same type of an- 
gular function for L as for the radius. 
This function itself has an angular fre- 
quency coefficient, K, which is entered 


from the keyboard. 

Both the radius function and the L 
function use the same amplitude co- 
efficients as weights for the sinusoids. 
These are designated as S and T and are 
entered from the keyboard. 

There are three other parameters that 
are entered from the keyboard. These 
are D, G, and Tl. D is the increment 
added to the radius between successive 
angular sweeps. G is the increment in 
the angle during an angular sweep. Tl 
will be discussed below. 

When you run the program it places 
prompts on the screen, asking you to en- 


226 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 



430 IF Tl*2 THEN 550 
440 WINDOW 0,130,0.100 
450 UIEWPORT 0,130,0,100 
460 MOUE 0,10 
470 PRINT M 
480 NOME 0,5 
480 PRINT " 

500 PRINT D ; ” , " ; s ; " • " ; T 5 “ , " ; K 5 % '* I G ; " V' 

510 INPUT J$ 

520 WINDOW -W,W,-W, W 
530 Tl=2 
540 GO TO 230 
550 END 

560 PRINT "ENTER K" 

570 INPUT K 

580 PRINT "ENTER G" 

580 INPUT G 
600 GO TO 210 


CORSAGE PROGRAM PARAMETERS" 
<D,S,T,K,G> * <"J 


ter values for D, S, T, K, G, and Tl. If 
you enter a 1 for Tl, the picture will be 
plotted and a list of input parameter val- 
ues will appear below it. Then you clear 
the screen and hit return, and the 
same picture will be plotted again with- 
out the parameter list. This way you can 
make hardcopy prints with and without 
parameters and keep a convenient 
record of which parameter combinations 
make good pictures. If you don’t want a 
parameter listing at all, enter a 2 for the 
value of Tl. 

Table 1 lists recommended ranges of 
the values of the input parameters. Val- 


ues in these intervals seem to give the 
best results in most cases. However, 
other values may also yield good pic- 
tures; you should experiment with the 
program to find out which values to use. 
The parameters D, S, T, K, and G do 
not have to be integers; decimal fractions 
like K = 29.2 can also work well, and 
this increases the number of different 
pictures you can make. 

I hope you like the corsage designs. I 
will describe the other polar coordinate 
computer art programs I have recently 
written, in future issues of Creative 
Computing. □ 


Table 1. Suggested Parameter Values. 


Parameter 

Range of Values 


From To 

D 

30 50 

S 

— oo “b oo 

T 

-oo + 00 

K 

6 60 

G 

5 15 

Tl* 

1 2 


*T1 must be 1 or 2. 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


227 


Part Three 


TRS-80 Graphics Made 
Almost Painless 


The third in a three-part series, this 
article describes Graphics Manager, a 
program that stores whatever is on the 
screen when it is called. Stored screen 
images (which I call frames) can be com- 
bined, compressed, saved on tape, 
loaded from tape, and printed on the 
screen. Graphics characters and ASCII 
codes can be listed as well. Frames can 
have either single or double width 
characters. 

The maximum number of frames that 
can be simultaneously stored in memory 
depends on the current amount of free 
string space (frames are stored as 
strings). The absolute maximum which 
can be stored is nine because the sub- 
routine which accepts frame numbers 
uses a single digit. Graphics Manager in 
Listing 1 clears 6553 bytes of string 
space which is just enough to hold six 
frames with single width characters. If 
some frames are compressed or have 
double width characters you may be able 
to store nine frames. 

Graphics Manager requires at least 
16K of free memory. If you have more, 
the program will work without 
modification. The computer for which 
the programs in this series were written 
was described in Part 1. You don’t need 
an MX-80 printer unless you want to 
print frames on paper without modifying 
the program. 

I wrote Graphics Manager to help me 
design graphics for programs, to 
manipulate frames, and to provide a 
means of printing, recording, and load- 
ing frames. Graphics Manager can sim- 
plify the design of graphics for TRS-80 
programs by allowing you to write a 
graphics creation program with the slow 
but versatile SET command. 


John Crew, 1 106 Karin Dr., Normal, IL 61761. 


John Crew 


Add Graphics Manager to that slow 
graphics creation program. Then list 
ASCII codes to see the character code 
and screen position of every character. 
Next, rewrite the graphics creation pro- 
gram using faster techniques such as 
POKEing character codes or printing 
strings of graphics characters. 

If you have a favorite computer gen- 
erated picture, Graphics Manager can 
print it on paper. If you add my 
Sketch/Print program (January 1983) 


If you have a favorite 
computer generated 
picture, Graphics 
Manager can print it on 

paper. 


you can doodle, make cartoons, create 
art work, or save screens filled with text 
and graphics. 

The ability of Sketch/Print and 
Graphics Manager combined to record 
screens of text and graphics can be used 
to create a simple educational program. 
The teacher would type information on 
the screen as it would appear to the stu- 
dent. He would then record a series of 
screen contents on tape. Students would 
use a stripped-down version of Graphics 
Manager to load and view the frames. 

Because Graphics Manager allows 
printing of some or all frames in forward 
or reverse order at a rate controlled by 


the user, students could review a 
screenful of information as many times 
as they liked until they understood and 
remembered it. A student could also 
print some frames on paper if he wanted 
to study them later. 

This method of teaching merely uses 
the computer to replace a book and 
doesn’t take advantage of the ability of 
the computer to ask and answer ques- 
tions. This approach might be used to 
teach young children simple concepts by 
using graphics and words to present the 
material. 

Mistakes In The Manual 

Writing Graphics Manager was com- 
plicated by the poorly organized, some- 
times unclear, sometimes incorrect, and 
often too brief Level II manual. The 
quality of the manual varies from section 
to section. The more I learned about 
Level II, the more I appreciated 
Microsoft Basic and the less I appre- 
ciated the manual. I’ll mention just a few 
things the manual doesn’t cover. 

input won’t accept more than 240 
characters at once, which should rarely 
be a problem. 

The only place you can use tab in a 
print using statement is between 
print and using (the only legal form is 
PRINT TAB (n) using . . ). When you 
add or delete lines from a program, 
Level II moves the rest of the program 
around as needed so that the pointers to 
the next line are always in ascending or- 
der. print tab (n) works much like 
print string$(N,“”) for N < 64. 

The Edit mode of Level II can be used 
to find lower case letters. 

fre(“”) can be used instead of some- 
thing like fre (“A”) which saves one 
byte. fre( 0) works the same way as 
MEM. 


228 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

You can use an arithmetic expression 
such as error n/10 + 2 after clear or 
error. If you use an arithmetic ex- 
pression after error and you are told 
there is a syntax error in the line where 
error appears, don’t pay attention to 
that message. 

If you put spaces between GO and to, 
they are removed so goto is always one 
word. 

When you print a number, Level II 
won’t print it on the current line if there 
isn’t room for the entire number. When 
you record a string with leading blanks 
or one which contains a comma or co- 
lon, you should record that string with a 
quotation mark at the front. If you 
record a string on tape with a quotation 
mark at the beginning and a quotation 
mark before the end, you’ll get an fd 
(bad datum in file) error when you try to 
load it, and only the part of the string 
between the first and second quotation 
marks will be loaded. 

Using Graphics Manager 

An external program that calls 
Graphics Manager must be added to 
Graphics Manager for it to work. 
Graphics Manager appears in Listing 1 . 

The program doesn’t require you to 
press the enter key when you are typ- 
ing in information. It quickly reacts to 


the pressing of a key and either accepts 
or rejects it. 

The menu lists all primary options 
and tells you how much free frame stor- 
age is left, permanently reserving 408 
bytes for workspace. When you see that 
408 or 409 bytes of frame storage re- 
main, only the workspace is left and no 
more frames can be stored unless you 
make more room by compressing or 
erasing some frames. To select one of the 
options listed in the menu, pfess the key 


Combining two frames 
may give different 
results depending on 
the order of 

combination. 


which represents your choice. Next to 
each letter which represents an option is 
a short description. If you press a key 
other than the ones used to represent op- 
tions, it will be ignored. 

Storing, compressing, and reversing 
graphics characters, and uniting two 
frames are somewhat slow (longer than 


10 seconds). Graphics Manager per- 
forms these operations visibly so you can 
tell how near completion they are. As 
each character in a frame is stored, it is 
erased on the screen. The reversal of 
graphics characters and the union of two 
frames are also performed on the screen 
so you can see how much has been done. 

For every option except the frequently 
used print option, you are asked to con- 
firm your choice. This enables you to re- 
turn to the menu if you pressed the 
wrong key or changed your mind. 

Stored frames are referred to by using 
a number. The number of a frame is be- 
tween 1 and the count of currently 
stored frames. When Graphics Manager 
asks you to enter a frame number, the le- 
gal range is printed in parentheses 
following the request for a number. 
Some functions ask for one frame num- 
ber, some ask for two, others ask for the 
first and last frame numbers for the 
range of frames. 

When you print, erase, compress, save 
(record on tape), list ASCII codes, or re- 
verse graphics characters, you are asked 
to enter the starting and final frame 
numbers of the range of frames you want 
the function to work on. If the final 
frame number is greater than the first, 
you are asked if you want the function 
done to that range of frames in reverse 



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230 




April 1983 0 Creative Computing 



order. You can have reverse order for 
any of the options listed above. If, for 
example, you had six frames stored, you 
could print 1-6, 6-1, 2-4, 3-3, or some 
other legal range of frames. 

Frame Compression 

Frame compression is one of the most 
important features of Graphics Manager 
and one of the most difficult to im- 
plement. It uses the seldom used space 
compression characters. Substrings of 
consecutive blanks (ordinary blank, 
graphics blank, or chr$ (193)) are re- 
placed by a compression character. Up 
to 63 blanks can be replaced by a single 
compression character. When a com- 
pression character is printed, it is ex- 
panded to a series of blanks. Frames 
without two or more consecutive blanks 
within a subframe are unchanged when 
you try to compress them. If you want to 
know how many bytes were gained by 


compression, note the free frame space 
before and after compression. 

Compressing may give you enough 
room to store more frames. Printing or 
combining frames will be much faster if 
the frames are compressed. Most other 
parts of Graphics Manager will be 
slightly faster if some or all frames are 
compressed. If you want to decompress 
a frame for some reason, reverse its 
graphics characters twice. A compressed 
frame will expand to its original size 
when its graphics characters are 
reversed. 

Combination Of Frames 

Combination of two frames is done by 
printing the first frame and then merg- 
ing graphics characters and putting 
nongraphics characters from the second 
frame into blank spaces in the first. You 
could think of combination as putting 
the second frame behind the first so the 


Listing 1. GM ( Graphics Manager). 

u CLEAR6553 : DEF I NT A- Z : MF=8 : D I MSC* ( 4 , MF ) , CM (MF) : QB*=" PRECSGUDTAQL " 

1 REM *** THIS LINE SHOULD GO BEFORE ANY OTHER TO SET ASIDE THE STORAGE NEEDED BY 
GM. IF THIS ISN'T THE VERY FIRST LINE, AT LEAST MAKE SURE IT IS EXCECUTED BEFOR 
E CALLING GM 
32049 END 

: REM *** THIS PREVENTS A PROGRAM FROM UNEXPECTEDLY ENTERING GM. IF YOU ARE SURE 

THAT WON'T HAPPEN, DELETE THIS LINE 

32050" G0SUB32680 i I FQDTHEN32620ELSEQE=FC : G0SUB32630 

: REM IF THERE IS ROOM, STORE THE CURRENT SCREEN’S CONTENTS 

32080 REM *** LINES 32090-32100 PRINT THE MENU 

32090 CLS: PRINTTAB ( 13) "GRAPHICS MANAGER BY JOHN CREW 2/3/82 

"STRING* (64, 143) "A - PRINT ASCII CODES 

C - COMPRESS FRAME <S) 

D - DUPLICATE A FRAME 
E - ERASE FRAME (S) 

G - REVERSE GRAPHICS 
L - LOAD FRAME (S) FROM TAPE 
P - PRINT FRAME (S> 

32100 PR I NT "Q - QUIT 
R - RETURN TO MAIN PROGRAM 
S - SAVE FRAME (S) ON TAPE 
T - TRADE (SWAP) TWO FRAMES 
U - UNITE (COMBINE) TWO FRAMES 

"STRING* (64, 143) TAB ( 15) CHR* (27) FRE ( " " > "FREE BYTES OF FRAME STORAGE 
COMMAND? " ; : G0SUB32680 

32110 REM **# LINES 32120-32134 WAIT FOR YOU TO PRESS A KEY, THEN IT IS CHECKED 
FOR LEGALITY, AND, IF LEGAL, GM GOES TO THE CHOSEN OPTION. IF YOU TRY TO DO ANYT 
HING BESIDES LOAD, QUIT OR RETURN WHEN NO FRAMES ARE STORED, YOU’LL GET AN ERROR- 
MESSAGE 

32115 REM *** IF YOU TRY TO UNITE OR LOAD FRAMES WHEN FRAME STORAGE IS FULL OR T 
HERE ISN'T ENOUGH ROOM, YOU'LL GET AN ERROR MESSAGE. IF YOU TRY TO DUPLICATE FRA 

MES, YOU'LL BE TOLD LATER IF THERE IS ENOUGH ROOM OR STORAGE IS FULL 

32120 G0SUB324 1 0 : QA= ASC ( QA* ) : I FQDANDQA=76THEN32620ELSE I FFCC 2AND ( QA=840RQA=85 ) PR I 

NT" 

TWO OR MORE FRAMES MUST BE STORED" : G0T032440 

32125 REM *** LINES 32130-32134 BRANCH TO THE SELECTED OPTION. IF THERE IS NO MA 
TCH, YOU PRESSED AN ILLEGAL KEY SO GM GOES BACK FOR YOU NEXT COMMAND. IF YOU ASK 

FOR LOAD, THE 'ON-GOTO' LIST OF LINE NUMBERS WILL BE EXCEEDED SO THE NEXT LINE 

WILL BE EXECUTED 

32130 QB=0: F0RQE=1T012: IFQA**MID* (QB*, QE, 1 ) THENQB=QE : QE= 1 2 

32132 NEXT : I FQB=OPR I NTCHR* (8) ; ELSE I FFC=OANDNOT <QA=760RQA=820RQA=81 ) G0SUB32670: GO 
TO 32090 

32134 0NQB+1G0T032 120, 32200, 32397,32350,32390, 32240,32388,32380,32195,32340. 3227 
0,32320 

32135 REM *** LINES 32195-32399 PERFORM THE OPTIONS. LINES 32400-32690 ARE SUBRO 
UTINES COMMONLY USED 

32137 REM *** LOAD FRAMES 

32140 QA*= "LOAD FRAME (S) FROM TAPE" : G0SLJB32610: IFQDTHEN32090ELSEQD= (FRE ("") -408) 

/ 1 024 : I FQD+FC >MFTHENQD=MF-FC+ 1 
32160 PRINT" 

HOW MANY FRAMES DO YOU WANT LOADED" G0SUB32400 : QG=VAL ( QA* ): I FQG< 1 THENQE=QG- 1 ELS 
E I FQD< QGTHENQE=QG+FC-2ELSE32 1 90 

32170 G0SUB32530: PRINT" ONLY ROOM FOR "QD" MORE FRAME (S) G0T03216O 
32190 PRINT" 

INSERT TAPE AND PRESS PLAY BUTTON" r G0SUB32550: F0RQE=FCT0FC+QG-1 : INPUT#- 1 , CM (QE > , 
SC* (0, QE) : FORQF= 1 T04 : INF'UT#-1 , SC* (QF, QE) s NEXT: FC=FC+1 : PR I NT "FRAME # "FC'LOADED" : N 
EXT: POKE 16553, 255: G0T032430 

» REM THE POKE STATEMENT CORRECTS THE READ-DATA BUG 
32193 REM *** DUPLICATE A FRAME 


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April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


231 




TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

characters in the second frame show 
through holes in the first. The first 
frame number you type is the frame 
which will be printed first. The second is 
the number of the frame to be combined 
with the first. A comma is automatically 
put between the two numbers. The com- 
bined frame is stored as a new frame so 
you can’t unite two frames if there isn’t 
enough room to store the result. 

Combining two frames may give dif- 
ferent results depending on the order of 
combination. This is because a graphics 
character in the first frame takes prece- 
dence over a nongraphics character in 
the second, and an alphanumeric 
character in the first takes precedence 
over any type of character in the frame. 

Combination is faster if the second 
frame is compressed more than the first. 
If you want to combine two compressed 
frames, estimate which is more com- 
pressed (the one with the most blank 
spaces) and type its frame number sec- 
ond. The more compressed frame will be 
quickly put behind the first. 

Quitting 

Yqu can, of course, quit when not sav- 
ing or loading frames by pressing the 
break key, but I suggest you use the 
quit option instead. When you use the 
quit option, all variables are erased and 
the large amount of string space used by 
Graphics Manager is released. If the 
printer is turned on, it is set back to 80 
characters per line. 

Returning To The Graphics Program 

I call the graphics creation program 
the main program even though Graphics 
Manager may well be longer and more 
complex. If you want, Graphics Man- 
ager can put a frame on the screen be- 
fore returning. If the graphics program 
takes advantage of the ability of Graph- 
ics Manager to return a frame, you can 
modify that frame and then store it if 
there is room. Sketch/Print or Vector 
Plotter can modify a frame sent by 
Graphics Manager. 

Warning 

Don’t try to save on tape a frame 
which contains a quotation mark be- 
cause you will get an fd error when you 
try to load it. You can store such a 
frame and do anything except load it 
properly. This problem is a result of the 
way Level II handles string input. 

Error Checking 

Graphics Manager does much error 
checking to avoid having the program 
fail because you pressed the wrong key 
or asked for a function under the wrong 
circumstances. I tried to do a thorough 
job of making the program reject erro- 
neous information and print a message 


32 1 95 QA*= " DUPL I CATE A FRAME " : G0SUB326 \ 6s I FQDTHEN32090ELSEQC=6 : GGSUB325 1 0 : GOSLJB3 
2690s IFQH<QD0RMF<FCTHEN32620ELSEF0RQF=0T04s SC* (QF, FC> =SC* ( QF , QE ) : NEXT : CM(FC) =CM< 
QE ) : FC=FC+ 1 : GDT032090 

32197 REM *** PRINT FRAMES ON THE SCREEN OR ALSO ON A MX -00 PRINTER. WHEN USING 
THE MX -80, YOU CAN HAVE' NORMAL WIDTH OR COMPRESSED CHARACTER WIDTH. YOU’LL GET A 
N ERROR MESSAGE IF THE PRINTER ISN’T READY 
32200 CLS s PR I NT " PR I NT FRAME < S ) " : G0SUB32490 

32210 QA*= " COPY ON MX-80" : G0SUB32610: QI=QD: PRINT: IFNOTQITHENIFPEEK (14312) < >63THE. 
NPR I NT " PR I NTER NO T READY " : G0SUB32480 s G0T0322 1 OELSEQA*= " COMPRESSED CHARACTERS " s GO 
SUB326 1 Os IFQDTHENLPR INTCHR* (18) ; ELSELPR I NTCHR* (15) ; 

32220 PRINT" 

NOW AND AFTER EACH FRAME IS PRINTED, " ; : G0SUB32550: FQRQE=QATOQBSTEPQC: G0SUB32590 
: I FQ I THEN32228ELSELPR I NTSTR I NG* ( 2 , 10) : F0RQF=15360T016320STEP64 : IFCM (QE) “2LPRINTC 
HR*'! 1 4 ) ; 

32224 LPRINTSTRING* ( <4-14*N0TQD) # (3-CM (QE) ) , 32) ; : F0RQG=0T063STEPCM (QE) s QH=PEEK (Q 
F +QG) sLPRINTCHR* (QH-32* <QH>127) ) ; s NEXT: LPRINT I NEXT s LPRINTSTRING* < 2, 10) 

32228 G0SUB32420: NEXT s G0T032090 
32230 REM *** SAVE FRAMES ON TAPE 

32240 QA*="SAVE FRAME (S) ON TAPE" : GQSUB32610: IFQDTHEN32090ELSEG0SUR32490 
32250 REM *** THE ’0UT255,4’ STATEMENT IN LINE 32260 TURNS ON THE CASSETTE MOTOR 
(IF THE REMOTE JACK IS PLUGGED INTO THE RECORDER) SO BLANK SPACE IS LEFT AFTER 
EACH FRAME 

32260 PR I NT" ADVANCE TAPE TO A BLANK SPACE" s G0SUB32550: FORQE*QATOQBSTEPQCi PRINT# 

1 , CM < QE ) , CHR* ( 34 ) SC* ( 0 , QE ) : FORQF= 1 T04 : PR I NT#- 1 , CHR* ( 34 ) SC* ( QF , QE ) s NE X T : 0UT255 , 4 1 
PR I NT " FRAME # " QE+ 1 " SAVED " s G0SUB32480 s NE X T : G0T032430 

32265 REM *** LIST ASCII CHARACTER CODES, SCREEN POSITION, AND MEMORY ADDRESS OF 
EACH SCREEN POSITION FOR EVERY CHARACTER IN A FRAME. THIS INFORMATION IS HEL.PFU 
L IN DESIGNING GRAPHICS PROGRAMS USING ’PRINTS’ AND/OR ’POKE’ 

32270 QA*="PRINT ASCII CODES" s G0SUB3261 Os I FQDTHEN32090ELSEG0SUB32490: FORQE=QATOQ 
BSTEPQC s CLS : PR I NTT AB ( 27 ) " FRAME #"QE+1 " 

SCREEN POS IT ION" TAB ( 19) "SCREEN ADDRESS "TAB (38) "CHARACTER "TAB (54) "ASCI I C0DE"STR1 
NG* (64, 143) ; 

32290 IFCM (QE) =2THENPRINTTAB (7) "DOUBLE WIDTH CHARACTER MODE (32 CHARACTERS/LINE) 
ONLY EVEN NUMBERED BYTES ARE USED TO STORE THE CHARACTERS "ELSEPRJ NTTAB (22) "64 
CHARACTERS/LINE 

32300 G0SUB32480 : QH=0 s F0RQF=0T04 : FORQG= 1 TOLEN ( SC* ( QF , QE ) ) : QA*=M I D* ( SC* ( QF , QE ) , QG 
, 1) : QD=ASC ( QA* ) : IFQD< >192PRINTUSING" ####"; QH; s PRINTTAB (22) QH-*- 15360; 

32303 I F32< QDANDQDC 1 92PR I NTTAB ( 42 ) QA* ; 

32304 PR I NTTAB ( 57 ) IJS I NG " ### " 5 QD s IF 1 9 1 < QDTHENQD=QD- 1 92ELSEQD= 1 

32305 QH=QH+CM (QE) *QD: NEXT: NEXT: G0SUB32480: NEXT: G0T032090 

32310 REM *** QUIT (EXIT PROGRAM). THE HUGE AMOUNT OF STRING STORAGE USED BY GM 
IS RELEASED AND ALL VARIABLES ARE ERASED. THE PRINTER IS SET TO 80 CHR/ LINE IF 1 
T’S ON 

32320 QA*= "QU I T PROGRAM" : G0SUB3261 0: IFQDTHEN32090ELSECLEAR50: IFPEEK (14312) < >15P0 
KE14312, 18 
32330 END 

:REM *** IF YOU WANT GM TO ERASE ITSELF, CHANGE ’END’ TO ’NEW’ (WITHOUT QUOTATIO 
N MARKS) 

32335 REM *** TRADE (SWAP) 2 FRAMES BY EXCHANGING SUBFRAME STR I |MG ADDRESSES 
32340 QA*=" TRADE TWO FRAMES" : G0SUB326 10s IFQDTHEN32090ELSEQC=5: G0SUB32570: FORQE-u 
T04 : QC=VARPTR ( SC* ( QE , QA ) ) : QD=VARPTR (SC* (QE, QB) ) s F0RQF=0T02: QG=PEEK (QC+QF) : POKEQC 
+QF, PEEK (QD+QF) s POKEQD+QF , QGs NEXT: NEXT: QC=CM (QA) : CM (QA) =CM (QB) s CM (QB) =QC: G0T0320 
90 

32345 REM *** ERASE FRAMES. THIS RECOVERS THE STORAGE USED BY THE ERASED FRAMES 
32350 QA*= "ERASE FRAME (S) " : G0SUB3261 0 : IFQDTHEN32090ELSEQD=FC-1 : G0SUB32490: IFQB 0 
ATHENOC=QA: QA=QB: QB=QC 

32360 QC=QB— QA+ 1 : IFQB=QDTHEN32370ELSEFQRQE=QAT0QD-QC: CM (QE) =CM (QE+QC) :F0RQB=0T04 
: QF=VARPTR ( SC* ( QB , QE ) ) : QG=VARPTR ( SC* ( QB , QE+QC ) ) : F0RQH-0T02 : POKEQF+QH , PEEK < QG+QH > 

: NEXT: NEXT : NEXT 

: REM *** THIS LINE MOVES FRAMES DOWN IN THE ARRAY IF NECESSARY 

32370 FORQE=QDTOFC-QCSTEP- 1 : F0RQB«0T04s SC* (QB, QE) =" " s NEXT: NEXT: FC=FC-QC: G0T03209 

0 

: REM *** THIS LINE ERASES THE FINAL FRAME (S) 

32375 REM *** UNITE (COMBINE) TWO FRAMES BY PRINTING JHE FIRST, MERGING GRAPHICS 
CHARACTERS AND PUTTING NONBLANK CHARACTERS FROM THE SECOND FRAME INTO CORRESPON 
DING BLANK POSITIONS IN THE FIRST 

32380 QA*=" UNITE TWO FRAMES" : G0SUB326 10s I FQDTHEN32090ELSEQC=4 : G0SUB32570: IFCM (QA 
) < >CM ( QB ) PR I NT " 

BOTH FRAMES MUST BE THE SAME CHARACTER MODE" : G0SUB32480: G0T032380ELSEIFMF<FC0RFR 
EC") < 1024/CM (QA) +408THEN32620 

32382 QE=QA : G0SIJB32590 : QG= 1 5360 : F0RQE=0T04 s FORQF= 1 TOLEN ( SC* ( QE , QB ) > : QD=ASC (MID* < 
SC* (QE, QB) , QF, 1 ) ) : IF 191<QDTHENQH=QD— 192: G0T032386ELSEQH= 1 s QC=PEEK (QG) : IF <QC=320A 
QC= 1 28 ) AND3 1 < QDANDQDC 1 28P0KEQG , QD+32* ( 95< QD ) : G0T032386 

32383 I FQC=32QC= 1 28 

32384 I F QD=32QD= 1 28 

32385 IF127<QCANDQC<192AND127<QDANDQD< 1 92P0KEQG , QCORQD 

32386 QG=QG+CM (QB) *QH: NEXT : NEXT : G0T032050 

32387 REM *** REVERSE GRAPHICS CHARACTERS WHILE LEAVING OTHER CHARACTERS UNCHANO 
ED 

32388 QA*= "REVERSE GRAPH ICS": G0SUB326 1 0 s I FQDTHEN32090ELSEG0SUB32490 : FORQE=QATODI» 
STEPQC: G0SUB32690: IFQH< 1024/CM (QE) -QDTHENQD=QB : NEXT : G0T032620ELSEG0SUB32590: FORO 
F= 15360T01 6383STEPCM (QE) s QG-PEEK (QF) s I F 1 27< QGANDQGC 1 92P0KEQF , 3 1 9-QGELSE I FQG=32P0 
KEQF , 191 

32389 NEXT: G0SUB32630: NEXT : GOT032090 

32390 QA*= "COMPRESS FRAME (S) " s G0SUB32610: IFQDTHEN32090ELSEG0SUB32490: CLS: FORQE-O 
ATOQBSTEPQC: F0RQF=0T04 s QG= 1 : QI=0: QD=0: PRINTdO, "SUBFRAME POSITION" 1 s GQSUB32396 

: REM *** LINES 32390-32396 COMPRESS FRAMES AND KEEP THE USER INFORMED OF PR0GRE8 
S 

32391 QH=ASC (MID* (SC* (QF, QE) , QG, 1 ) ) : PRINT517, QG" " ; : I FQH=320RQH= 1 280RQH= 1 93THEN0 
D=QD+ 1 : I FQD= 1 THENQ I =QG : G0T032393ELSE I FQD=630RQG=LEN ( SC* ( QF , QE ) > THENQG=QG+ 1 : G0T03 
2395ELSE32393 

: REM *** SEARCH FOR A BLANK. WHEN FOUND, SEARCH FOR NEXT NONBLANK OR END OF STRI 
NG 

32392 I F 1 < QDTHEN32395ELSEQD=0 

: REM *** THIS LINE IS REACHED WHEN A NONBLANK CHARACTER IS FOUND. IF THE COUNT 0 
F CONSECUTIVE BLANK CHARACTERS IS GREATER THAN ONE, COMPRESS THOSE BLANKS 

232 April 1 983 ® Creative Computing 


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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

32393 QG=OG+l: IFLEN <SC* (OF, QE) ) <QGTHENNEXT : NEXT : G0T032090ELSE32391 
: REM *** REPEAT LOOP UNTIL THE END OF THE LAST SUBFRAME IS REACHED 

32395 SC* ( OF , QE ) =LEFT* ( SC* (OF, QE) ,QI-1) +CHR* ( 1 92+QD ) +R I GHT * < SC* ( OF , QE ) , LEN ( SC* ( 0 
F , QE ) ) -0G+ 1 ) : 0G=0 1:01=0: QD=0 : G0SUB32396 : G0T032393 

: REM *** THIS LINE DOES THE ACTUAL COMPRESSION 

32396 PRINT5>64, "LENGTH OF FRAME"STR* (QE + l ) " , SUBFRAME"QF+i " = "LEN (SC* (OF, QE) ) : RET 
URN 

: REM *** TELL USER HOW LONG A SUBFRAME IS. THIS IS USED BEFORE COMPRESSION AND E 
ACH TIME THE LENGTH IS CHANGED 

32397 QA*="RETURN TO MAIN PROGRAM" : G0SUB32610: IFQDTHEN32090ELSEPRINT" 

PRINT FRAME BEFORE RETURNING (V/N) " ; : GOSUB32400: IFQA*< >"Y"THENQE»-1 8 CLSELSEIFFC* 
0THENGOSUB3267O: 0E=-1 : CLSELSE0C=3: G0SUB32510: G0SUB32590 
: REM *** PUT FRAME ON SCREEN IF ASKED 

32399 RETURN 

s REM THIS LINE SENDS GM BACK TO THE GRAPHICS CREATION PROGRAM 

32400 PRINT"? 

: REM *** PRINT PROMPT. LINE 32400-32425 GET A CHARACTER FROM THE KEYBOARD. THIS 
SUBROUTINE IS USED FREQUENTLY IN GM 
32410 PRINTCHR* (95) ; 

: REM *** PRINT CURSOR. ANOTHER CHARACTER COULD BE USED AND PROBABLY SHOULD BE SO 
YOU CAN TELL BY LOOKING AT THE CURSOR THAT A INKEY* SUBROUTINE IS BE RUN 
32420 QA*= INKEY* 

: REM *** THIS MAKES THE COMPUTER * FORGET' ANY KEYS PRESSED BEFORE REACHING THIS 
LINE 

32425 QA*= I NKEY* : I FQA*< " " THEN32425ELSEPR I NTCHR* ( 8 ) OA* ; : RETURN 

32427 REM *** LINES 32430-32440 TELL THE USER WHEN LOADING OR RECORDING OF FRAME 
S IS DONE 

32430 CLS: PRINTCHR* (23) : PRINT3538, "DONE" 

32440 G0SUB32480: G0T032090 

32470 REM *** LINE 32480 IS A DELAY SUBROUTINE 
32480 F0R0D=0T01400: NEXT: RETURN 

32485 REM *** LINES 32490-32500 GET THE STARTING AND FINAL FRAME NUMBERS FOR A R 
ANGE OF FRAMES 

32490 QC=1 : GOSUB32510: QA=QE: 0C=2: G0SUB32510: QB=QE: PRINT : QC=SGN (OB-OA) : IFQC=OTHEN 
QC= 1 ELSE I FQC< OTHENPR I NT " YOU WANT REVERSE ORDER < Y/N) ";: G0SUB32400: PRINT: IFQA*< > 
" Y " THEN32490 
32500 RETURN 

32505 REM *** LINES 32510-32520 ARE A MULTIPURPOSE MESSAGE AND FRAME NUMBER ENTR 
Y SUBROUTINE. THIS COMPLICATES THE PROGRAM BUT SAVES MEMORY 

32510 PRINT: IFQC<4THEN32514ELSEIF0C=6THENPRINT"# OF FRAME TO BE DUPL ICATED" ; ELSE 

PRINT"# 1 ' S OF 2 FRAMES TO BE IFQC=4THENF'RINT"C0MBINED" ; ELSEPRINT "TRADED" ; 

32511 G0T032520 

32514 IFQC=1PRINT"START" ; ELSEIFQC=2PRINT"END" ; ELSEPRINT "PRINTING AND RETURN"; 

32515 PRINT" ING WITH FRAME #"; 

32520 PRINT" (1-"STR*(FC) " ) " ; : G0SUB32400 : QE= VAL ( OA* ) - 1 : IFQE+1 >FC0RQE<0G0SUB32530 
: GOT 0325 1 OELSERETURN 

32525 REM *** LINES 32530-32540 ARE AN ERROR MESSAGE SUBROUTINE USED WHEN AN ILL 
EGAL FRAME NUMBER IS ENTERED 
32530 PRINT" 

FRAME #"FC" IS THE LAST 

NUMBER IS TOO : I FOE< OPR I NT "SMALL "ELSEPRINT "LARGE 

32540 RETURN 

32545 REM *** LINE 32550 IS A PAUSE SUBROUTINE 

32550 PR I NT "PRESS ANY BUT A CONTROL 

KEY TO CONTINUE"; :G0SUB32400: PRINT: RETURN 

32560 REM *** LINES 32570-32580 ACCEPT TWO FRAME NUMBERS. THIS SUBROUTINE IS USE 
D BY THE UNITE FRAMES TRADE FRAMES OPTIONS. A COMMA IS AUTOMATICALLY PUT BETWE 
EN THE TWO FRAME NUMBERS YOU TYPE 
32570 G0SUB325 1 0 : QA=QE : PR I NT " , " ; 

32580 G0SUB324 1 O : QB=VAL ( OA* ) - 1 : I FOB+ 1 >FCORQB< OTHENQE=OB : G0SUB32530 : PR I NT " ENTER 2 

ND FRAME #? " ; : G0T032580ELSERETURN 

32585 REM *** LINES 32590-32605 PRINT A FRAME 

32590 CLS : I FCM ( QE ) =2PR I NTCHR* ( 23 ) ; 

32600 F0RQF=0TQ3: PRINTSC* (OF, OE) ; : NEXT: PRINTLEFT* (SC* (4, OE) , LEN (SC* ( 4 , OE ) )-l) ; :0 
G=ASC (RIGHT* (SC* (OF, QE) , 1 ) ) : IF32<QGANDQG< 192P0KE16384-CM (QE) , QG+32* <95<QGANDQG< 1 
28) 

32605 RETURN 

32607 REM *** LINE 32610 ASKS THE USER TO CONFIRM HIS CHOICE OF THE DIFFERENT OP 
TIONS WHICH GM OFFERS 

32610 CLS: PRINTOA*" (Y/N) "; : G0SUB32400: QD=QA*< >" Y" : RETURN 

32615 REM *** LINES 32620-32625 ARE USED WHEN NO MORE FRAMES CAN BE STORED. IF F 
EWER THAN 9 FRAMES ARE STORED BUT THERE ISN'T ENOUGH STRING SPACE TO HOLD A FRAM 
E, YOU'RE TOLD THERE IS 'INSUFFICIENT STORAGE’ 

32616 REM *** IF 9 FRAMES ARE STORED, YOU’RE TOLD 'FRAME STORAGE IS FULL' 

32620 PRINT: IFMF<FCPRINT"FRAME STORAGE SPACE IS FULL "ELSEPRINT" INSUFFICIENT STOR 
AGE" 

32625 G0SUB32550: G0T032090 

32627 REM *** LINE 32630-32664 STORE A FRAME 

32630 QD= 1 5360: CM (QE) = 1+PEEK < 16445) /8 : 0NERR0RG0T032664 : QH=CM ( QE ) - 1 : F0RQF=0T04 : SC 
* ( QF , QE ) =STR I NG* ( (205-QH- (CM (QE) =2) )/CM(QE) ,32) : QI=VARPTR (SC* (QF , OE) > :QI=PEEK(QI 
+1 ) +256*PEEK (01+2) +65536* ( 127<PEEK (QI+2) ) : F0RQG=QH+1T0205STEPCM (QE) : POKEQI , PEEK ( 
QD) : Q I =Q I + 1 : POKEQD , 32 

32640 QD=QD+GM ( OE ) : NE X T : I FCM ( OE ) =20R ( CM ( OE ) = 1 AND0F=3 ) THENQH= 1 -OH 
32650 NEXT: IFFC=QETHENFC=FC+1 : RETURNELSERETURN 

32664 I FERR= 1 0ANDERL=32630THENQ I =0 I —65535 : RESUMENEXTELSEONERRORGOTOO: 

REM USED WHEN KEYBOARD/EXPANSION INTERFACE MEMORY BOUNDARY IS CROSSED 

32669 REM *** LINE 32670 PRINTS AN ERROR MESSAGE 

32670 PRINT" 

FRAME STORAGE IS EMPTY ": G0SUB32480: RETURN 

32675 REM *** LINE 32680 EVALUATES A LOGICAL EXPRESSION WHICH CHECKS TO SEE IF A 
FRAME CAN BE STORED 

32680 QD=MF<FCORFRE ( " " X 1024/ (PEEK (16445) /8+1 ) +408: RETURN 

32685 REM *** LINE 32690 CALCULATES THE LENGTH OF A FRAME AND CALCULATES THE AMO 

UNT OF STRING STORAGE WHICH CAN BE USED FOR STORING FRAMES 

32690 QD=0: F0RQF=0T04: QD=QD+LEN (SC* (OF, QE) ) : NEXT: QH=FRE < "" ) -408: RETURN 


when it detects an error. Depending on 
the error and where it occurs, Graphics 
Manager will either go to the menu or 
repeat the question you answered 
incorrectly. 

If you ask for any option other than 
load, return, or quit when no frames are 
stored, the program will tell you that 
frame storage space is empty. If you try 
to store, load, duplicate, or unite two 
frames when nine frames are stored, the 
program says frame storage space is full. 
If there are fewer than nine frames 
stored and too little memory to hold an- 
other frame when you try to do one of 
the four things just listed, Graphics 
Manger will tell you that frame space is 
insufficient to store a frame. 

If you ask Graphics Manager to print 
frames on paper, it checks the printer. If 
the printer isn’t on-line, the program 
says the printer isn’t ready and then asks 
you again if you want frames printed on 
the MX-80. 

You also get an error message if you 
try to combine two frames which have 
different width chacters. Whenever you 
enter a frame number, Graphics Man- 
ager checks to see if it is in the proper 
range. 

Adding Graphics Manager 
To Another Program 

Figure 1 lists the steps you should fol- 
low to append Graphics Manager to an- 
other program you have recorded 
separately. These instructions are for a 
Level II cassette system but should work 
for most related systems. The program 
to which Graphics Manager is to be 
added should have line numbers greater 
than 0 and less then 32049. You can 
have line numbers greater than 32690 
but those lines will have to be either 
typed after Graphics Manager has been 
added or appended to the combination 
of Graphics Manager and the low-num- 
bered lines of the graphics creation 
program. 

The common method of merging pro- 
grams in Figure 1 works by setting the 
address of the beginning of Basic pro- 
gram storage to the address of the end of 
the program in memory. That moves the 
beginning of Basic program storage to 
just after your program so cload, new, 
and list won’t affect your hidden pro- 
gram. Graphics Manager is loaded next 

Line 0 of Graphics Manager is listed 
just so you can see it if you don’t have a 
printed copy handy. Next, line 0 is de- 
leted. Then the beginning of Basic pro- 
gram storage is set to its previous value 
(which you should have written down 
after step 3). Finally, line 0 is retyped so 
it is put before the graphics creation 
program. 

The graphics program you combine 
with Graphics Manager must leave 408 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


234 



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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

bytes of string storage. If you use an on 
error goto statement in your graphics 
program, you must execute that state- 
ment every time you return from Graph- 
ics Manager because the program uses 
an error handling subroutine. Don’t use 
any of the following variables: FC%, 
MF%, QB$, SC$ (0-4, 0-MF%), or 
CM%(0-MF%). 

Figures 2 and 3 give complete instruc- 


tions for adding Sketch/Print or Vector 
Plotter. Figures 2 and 3 refer to the 
merging process described in Figure 1. If 
you add Graphics Manager to Sketch/ 
Print as shown, you can go to Graphics 
Manager and store a frame at any time 
after the instructions by pressing the en- 
ter key, or if you want to go straight to 
the menu, press the shift and T(escape 
code) keys. The shift, t, and enter 


keys are used the same way if you com- 
bine Vector Plotter and Graphics Man- 
ager as shown, but you must wait for all 
vectors to be drawn before those keys 
are recognized. 

Calling The Program 

To add Graphics Manager to one of 
your own programs, you need to know 
how to get to Graphics Manager and 


Graphics Manager is 
written entirely in Basic. 


Figure 1. Merging Graphics Manager with Another Program. 


Do the following in the command mode: 

1. CLOAD first program 

2. F I N= 1 6 63 3 : ST=16548 

3. PR I NT PEEK ( ST ) ; PEEK ( ST+ 1 ) . Write down the 
two numbers printed 

4. BRW=PEEK ( F I N ) <2 : POKE ST, PEEK (FIN)- 

2 - 256 * BRW : POKEST+1, PEEK ( F I N+ 1 ) +BRW 

5. CLOAD Graphics Manager 

6. L 1ST 0 

7. DELETE 0 

8. POKE at 16 548 and 16549 the two numbers printed in 
step 3 

9. Retype line 0 


Figure 2. Adding Graphics Manager to Sketch/Print 


1 . Merge programs 

2. Remove CLEAR2 : DEFINTA-Z: in line 100 

3. Insert I FN=1 3ANDS=0 , 32050ELSE I FN=27 , 32090 
ELSE at the beginning of line 185 

4. Change line 32399 to 32399 GOTO160 


Figure 3. Adding Graphics Manager to Vector Plotter. 


1. Merge programs 

2. Change line 360 to 360 QA$= I NKEY$ : I FQA$=CHR$ 
(13) THEN32050ELSE I FQA$=CHR$ ( 27 ) THEN 
32090ELSE360 

3. Change line 32399 to 32399 GOTOI 10 

4. Remove CLEAR 1 2 : DEF I NTA-Z : in line 100 

5. Add : B$ = " " after NEXT in line 3 50 

6. Insert I FQE>=0GOSUB32590ELSE before CLS in line 
230 

7. Add : QE=- 1 to end of line 100 


Figure 5. Bytes of String Spaces Required for an Uncom- 
pressed Frame. 




Subframe Number 


Character width 

1 

2 3 4 

5 

Single 

205 

205 205 205 

204 

Double 

102 

103 102 103 

102 


Figure 4. Variables used by Graphics Manager. 


Type 

Name 

Main Use(s) 

Integer 

MF 

(Maximum number of 
frames)- 1. 


FC 

The count of stored 
frames. 


QA 

Number of first frame of 
range. 


QB 

Frame number of final 
frame in range. 


QC 

Increment for loop which 
processes a range of 
frames. 


QD 

Number of consecutive 
blanks during compres- 
sion. Loop counter in de- 
lay subroutine. Used to 
pass a value from main to 
subroutines and vice 
versa. 


QE 

Loop counter for frame 
numbers. 


QF 

Loop counter for sub- 
frame numbers. 


QG 

ASC (final character in 
frame) when printing 
frames, reversing graphics. 
Position in subframe dur- 
ing compression. 


QH 

ASC (character in frame) 
when listing ASCII codes, 
copying a frame on the 
MX-80, and compressing 
frames. 


QI 

Compressed character flag 
when using MX-80. 
VARPTR (SC$(QF,QE)). 
Address of position in 
string during frame stor- 
age. Position of first blank 
in subframe during com- 
pression. 


CM(O-MF) 

Character display mode 
for each frame. 1 for sin- 
gle width, 2 for double 
width. 

Character 

QA$ 

Character entered by user, 

string 


message sent to selection 
confirmation subroutine. 


QB$ 

String of letters which 
represent program op- 
tions. 


SC$(0-4,0-MF) 

Screen character storage; 
holds frames. 


236 


April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


7 


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TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

back. This can be done in either of two 
ways: You can use GOSUB to jump to 
Graphics Manager and return to get 
back, or you can use goto to get back. 
If you enter Graphics Manager at line 
32050, the current screen contents will 
be stored if there is room. If you want to 
go directly to the menu, enter Graphics 
Manager at line 32090. Line 32399 con- 
tains the statement which goes back to 
the graphics creation program. 

General Design 

Graphics Manager is written entirely 
in Basic. It is very compact, and, I hope, 
efficient. It doesn’t use any read or 
data statements, so you can use them in 
your own graphics creation program 
without problems. It uses as few vari- 
ables as practical. It also uses integer 


variables for storing numbers, because 
they use less memory and arithmetic is 
faster using them. I tried to use variable 
names which you probably wouldn’t use 
in your graphics program. 

Figure 4 lists all the variables used in 
Graphics Manager along with a short 
description of the use(s) of each. The 
variables QA, QB, QC, . . . QI are used 
for a variety of short-term purposes. 
You may use QA-QI in the graphics cre- 
ation program, and if speed is your goal, 
you should use those variables to mini- 
mize the time spent by Level II looking 
through the variable storage area. 

Graphics Manager uses zero positions 
in arrays so memory isn’t wasted. The 
user isn’t aware of this since frame num- 
bers go from 1 to the count of stored 
frames. 


How The Program Works 

Frames are stored in an array called 
SC$ (screen characters). Level II allows 
character strings to be a maximum of 
255 characters long. A frame with single 
width characters uses 1024 bytes of 
string memory so it must be stored as 
five strings (which I call subframes). A 
frame with double width characters 
takes 512 bytes, so it could be stored in 
three strings, but I had Graphics Man- 
ager store it in five strings so the pro- 
gram would be simpler. Figure 5 shows 
how characters are distributed among 
the five strings in each frame. 

A subframe is stored by first reserving 
the needed space by assigning a string of 
blanks to that subframe using the 
STRINGS instruction. Then characters 
are PEEKed from video memory and 
POKEd into string memory. This method 
is fast because it minimizes string space 
reallocation (also known as garbage 
collection). 

When a frame is compressed, each 
subframe is compressed by itself and no 


Frames are moved by 
copying string 
addresses and lengths 
so no physical 
movement of 
characters is done. 


characters are moved from one subframe 
to another. The first blank is searched 
for, and, if there is a blank, the next 
nonblank character or the end of the 
string is searched for. If there is a 
substring of two or more consecutive 
blanks in a subframe, it is replaced by a 
space compression character. 

Frame erasure releases the memory 
used by the erased frames. If you want a 
range of frames which includes the final 
frame erased, then erasure is done by 
assigning a null string to each subframe 
of each frame to be erased. If you want 
some beginning frames erased but not 
the final frames, then the final frames 
are moved down over the frames to be 
erased. 

Frames are moved by copying string 
addresses and lengths so no physical 
movement of characters is done. That 
method of moving strings is fast and 
avoids an os (out of string space) error 
when space is tight and a long string is 
assigned to a variable which held a short 
string. After moving down any strings 
which need to be moved, the indicated 
number of final frames are erased. 


Listing 2. Lines which can be added to GM to test GM. 


10 FOR 1=1 TO 10: CLS: IFI/2=FIX < 1/2) THENF0RQE=0T0127: QF=. 370079*QE: SET <QE,OF> : SET (QE 
,47-QF) : SET (QE, O) :SET<QE,47) : NEXT* FORQE=OT047: SET <0, QE) : SET <127, QE) : NEXT a PR INTSD3 
1,1;: G0T030 

15 IF I /3=F I X (1/3) THENFORQE= 1 T 07 : PR I NTSTR I NG* < 1 28, 152) ; : NEXT : PRI NTSTRING* < 1 27, 152 
) ; :POKE16383, 152» PRINT331 , I j I PRINT3>667, CHR* (34) " THIS FRAME CONTAINS QUOTATION 
MARKS "CHR* (34) ; i G0T030 

16 I F I /5=F I X ( I /5) THENPR I NTCHR* (23) ; : FORQE= 1 TOl 5: PRINTSTRI NG* <32, 178) ? : NEXT: PRINT 
STRING* <31, 178) ; :POKE 16382, 178: PRINT5>30, I; :G0T030 

20 PRINTCHR* <23) ; i FORQE= 1 T07 : PRINTSTR ING* < 32, 32) STRI NG* < 32, 146) ; : NEXT: PRINTSTRIN 
G* <32, 128) STRING* <31 , 146) ; : POKE 16382, 1 46* PRINT330, I ; : PRINT364 , CHR* < 34) "THIS FRAM 
E CONTAINS QUOTATION MARKS " CHR* ( 34 ) ; 

30 G0SUB32050 
40 NEXTI 


Listing 3. Assembly Language version of subframe store and scan subroutines. 


00 1 00 
001 10 
00120 
00130 
00140 
00150 
00160 
00170 
00180 
00190 
00200 
00210 
00220 
00230 
00240 
00250 
00260 


SUBFRAME STORE, SUBFRAME SCAN <STOSCN) 

BV JOHN CREW 

62 BYTES LONG WHEN ASSEMBLED 
DATE 1/5/82 

*********************************************************** 

SUBFRAME STORE SUBROUTINE 


REGISTER 


B 

C 

DE 

HL 


USE <S) 

CHR MODE INDICATOR, CHR FROM SCREEN, LSB OF 
SCREEN ADDRESS 
LEN < SC* < QF , QE ) ) 

INCREMENT FOR SCREEN ADDRESS 
ADDRESS OF LOCATION IN SC*<QF,QE> 

VARPTR <SC* <QF, QE) ) , CURRENT SCREEN ADDRESS 


*********************************************************** 


7FC2 


00270 

ORG 

32767-61 

1 (TOP OF 16K MEMORY) -61 

7FC2 

003C 

00280 SCRADD 

DEFW 

15360 

; THIS WILL BE POKED BY GM 



00290 

; DETERMINE WHETHER SINGLE OR DOUBLE WIDTH CHARACTER 



00300 

; ARE 

BEING DISPLAYED 


7FC4 

3A3D40 

00310 

LD 

A, < 16445) 

; GET CHR MODE INDICATOR 

7FC7 

0E01 

00320 

LD 

C, 1 

; LOAD DEFAULT INCREMENT FOR 



00330 



5 SCREEN ADDRESS 

7FC9 

B7 

00340 

OR 

A 

; SET FLAGS 

7FCA 

2801 

00350 

JR 

Z, CONTI 

; JUMP IF SNG WIDTH CHRS 

7FCC 

OC 

00360 

INC 

C 

; MAKE I NCR 2 INSTEAD OF 1 

7FCD 

2A2141 

00370 CONTI 

LD 

HL, <16673) 

; GET VARPTR < SC* <QF, QE) ) 

7FD0 

46 

00380 

LD 

B, <HL) 

; GET LEN < SC* < QF , QE ) ) 

7FD1 

23 

00390 

INC 

HL 


7FD2 

5E 

00400 

LD 

E, <HL) 

; GET LSB OF STRING ADDRESS 

7FD3 

23 

00410 

INC 

HL 


7FD4 

56 

00420 

LD 

D, <HL) 

; GET MSB OF STRING ADDRESS 

7FD5 

2AC27F 

00430 

LD 

HL, (SCRADD) 

; GET CURRENT SCREEN ADDRESS 



00440 ; FILL 

ONE SUBFRAME WITH CHARACTERS FROM THE SCREEN 

7FD8 

7E 

00450 STORE 

LD 

A, <HL > 

; GET CHR FROM SCREEN 

7FD9 

3620 

00460 

LD 

(HL) ,32 

; ERASE CHR ON SCREEN 

7FDB 

12 

00470 

LD 

< DE ) , A 

; STORE CHR IN SC*<QF,QE) 



00480 

; INCREMENT SCREEN ADDRESS 

7FDC 

7D 

00490 

LD 

A, L 

; GET LSB OF SCREEN ADDRESS 

7FDD 

81 

00500 

ADD 

A , C 

; INCREMENT LSB OF ADDRESS 

7FDE 

300 1 

00510 

JR 

NC , C0NT2 


7FE0 

24 

00520 

INC 

H 

; ADD 1 TO H BECAUSE OF CARRY 


238 


April 1983 ° Creative Computing 


TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

If you are still confused by the method 
used to erase frames, consider this exam- 
ple. Suppose you have seven frames 
stored and you want 4 and 5 erased. The 
range of frames you want erased doesn’t 
include the final frame, so frames 6 and 
7 must be moved down over 4 and 5 
respectively. At this point 4 is the same 
as 6 and 5 is the same as 7. You wanted 
two frames erased, so two frames at the 
end are erased. The count of stored 
frames is reduced by two. The result is 
as if frames 4 and 5 were taken out. 

Trading (swapping) two frames is 
done by exchanging string addresses and 
lengths. 

Duplication of a frame is done by 
assigning the subframe of the frame be- 
ing copied to an end location in the 
frame storage array. You can’t copy a 
frame if there isn’t room to hold the 
copy. 

I didn’t copy a frame by copying 
string addresses and lengths because I 
was afraid Level II would later make an 
actual copy of the string. I experimented 
a little with copying a string by setting 
the pointer and length of the second 
string to the pointer and length of the 
first and found Level II won’t make an 
actual copy when it does garbage 
collection. 

I suspect that if two strings have the 
same pointer and length and you use the 
name of one of those strings anywhere in 
an assignment statement, an actual copy 
of the original string will be made. I 
didn’t use that method because I didn’t 
know if it worked under all circum- 
stances. I leave it to you to experiment 
with that method. If it works, you could 
easily change Graphics Manager to copy 
frames that way. 

Unlike some graphics reversal sub- 
routines I have seen, mine is fast, ef- 
ficient, and doesn’t disturb nongraphics 
characters. A blank space or graphics 
blank is replaced by a completely white 
graphics character. 

I had an odd problem with line 32388 
in the program. Sometimes extra charac- 
ters would appear at the end. This prob- 
lem seems to occur when a line of about 
250 characters is listed after a line of 255 
characters. I think Level II doesn’t clear 
the output buffer after listing a very long 
line so the next long line gets some 
characters from the previous one. 

When this problem occurs, remove 
the unwanted characters from the line in 
which they appear using the edit mode. 
Then list a short line. Next list the line 
which had extra characters and you 
should see only the desired characters in 
that line. To avoid the problem, either 
use short lines or don’t list the program 
unless you are willing to go through the 
corrective steps mentioned before. 

In a few places Graphics Manager 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


7FE 1 

6F 

00530 C0NT2 

LD 

L, A 



00540 

; ADJUST 

DESTINATION 

7FE2 

13 

00550 

INC 

DE 

7FE3 

10F3 

00560 

DJNZ 

STORE 

7FE5 

22C27F 

00570 

LD 

(SCRADD) , HL 

7FE8 

C9 

00580 

RET 



00590 

00600 

00610 

00620 

00630 

00640 

00650 

00660 

00670 

00680 

00690 

00700 


; PUT NEW LSB IN L 
NTER AND COUNTER 
; INC POINTER TO SC*(QF,QE) 

; STORE SCREEN ADDRESS 
; RETURN TO BASIC 
;*********************************************************** 

; SUBFRAME SCAN SUBROUTINE 


; REGISTER- 


USE (S) 


I A CHR BEING SEARCHED FOR (A QUOTATION MARK) 

; BC LEN ( SC* ( OF , QE ) ) 

; DE ADDRESS OF SC*(QF,QE), VARPTR < SC* ( QF , QE ) ) +2 

i HL VARPTR (SC* (QF, QE) ) , ADDRESS OF SC*(QF,QE), A 

; O IS PUT IN HL IF A QUOTATION MARK IS FOUND 

; OTHERWISE A NONZERO NUMBER IS LEFT IN HL 

;*********************************************************** 


7FE9 

2A2141 

00710 SCAN 

LD 

HL, (16673) 

; GET VARPTR (SC* (QF, QE) ) 

7FEC 

0600 

00720 

LD 

B, 0 


7FEE 

4E 

00730 

LD 

C, (HL) 

; BC HOLDS LEN (SC* (QF, QE) ) 

7FEF 

23 

00740 

INC 

HL 

7FF0 

5E 

00750 

LD 

E, (HL) 

; GET LSB OF STRING ADDRESS 

7FF 1 

23 

00760 

INC 

HL 


7FF2 

56 

00770 

LD 

D, (HL) 

; GET MSB OF STRING ADDRESS 

7FF3 

EB 

00780 

EX 

DE, HL 

; PUT STRING ADDRESS IN HL 

7FF4 

3E22 

00790 

LD 

A, 34 

; ASCI I FOR QUOTATION MARK 

7FF6 

EDB1 

00800 

CPIR 



7FF8 

2003 

00810 

JR 

NZ, GOBACK 

; JUMP IF NOT FOUND 

7FFA 

210000 

00820 

LD 

HL , OOOOH 

; INDICATE IT WAS FOUND 

7FFD 

C39A0A 

00830 GOBACK 

JP 

2714 

; RETURN RESULT TO BASIC 

0000 


00840 

END 




00000 TOTAL ERRORS 


CONTI 

C0NT2 

GOBACK 

SCAN 

SCRADD 

STORE 


7FCD 
7FE 1 
7FFD 
7FE9 
7FC2 
7FDB 


Listing 4. Relocating Basic loader for subframe store and scan Machine Language 
subroutines. 

5 CLSs PR I NT "RELOCATING LOADER FOR STORE & SCAN MACHINE LANGUAGE SUBROUT I NES" s P 
RINTTAB(24) "BY JOHN CREW" s PRINTTAB (27) " 1 /6/82L" 

10 CLEAR 300s DEFSNG E: DEFINT L, M: PRINT: INPUT "ENTER MEMORY SIZE (IF YOU DO 
N'T WANT IT TO BE 32706)"; A*: IFVAL(A*)=0 THEN E-32706-2 ELSE E=VAL(A*)-2 
20 GOSUB 95 i POKE 1 656 1 , LSB: POKE 16562, MSB: CLEAR6553: REM SET MEMORY SIZE AN 
D SET ASIDE STRING STORAGE 

30 E-PEEK ( 16561 ) +256*PEEK ( 16562) +2: PRINT "MEMORY SIZE =" E: E=E+2: GOSUB 95 

: E=E-2: PRINT: PRINT "ADD THIS TO THE BEGINNING OF LINE 32630 IN GM:": PRIN 

TTAB< 10) "POKE 16526, " LSB ": POKE 16527, "MSB 

40 S=Oi FOR I=E TO E+61: READ N: S=S+N: GOSUB 105: NEXT: IF S04481 THEN CL 

S: PR I NT "THE SUM OF THE DATA IS SUPPOSED TO BE 4481; NOT"S: END: REM POKE MACH I 
NE LAGUAGE PROGRAM INTO BEGINNING OF RESERVED MEMORY 

50 GOSUB 95: I=E+20: GOSUB 100: I=E+36: GOSUB 100: REM ADJUST TWO MEMORY REFER 

ENCES IN MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAM 

60 PRINT: PR I NT " MACH I NE LANGUAGE PROGRAM HAS BEEN POKED INTO MEMORY STARTING AT 
LOCATION" STR* (E ) " . " 

70 PRINT: PR INT "PREPARE GRAPHICS MANAGER FOR LOADING. 

PRESS ANY KEY EXCEPT ' BREAK 7 WHEN YOU ARE READY TO LOAD GM. " 

80 A** INKEY* 

90 IF INKEY*= " " THEN 90 ELSE PRINTTAB (22) " » NOW LOADING <<": CLOAD 
95 MSB= I NT (E/256) : LSB=E-256*MSB: RETURN 

100 N=LSB: GOSUB 105: 1=1+1: N=MSB: G0SUB105: RETURN: REM POKE UPDATED ADDRE 

SSES FOR A LOAD INSTRUCTION 

105 POKE 1+65536* <32767< I ) , N: IF NXPEEK < 1+65536* (32767C I ) ) THEN PRINT: PRINT"E 
RROR : DATUM WASN’T STORED": CLEAR: END ELSE RETURN 


1 10 

DATA 

0, 60, 58, 

61 , 

64, 

14, 

1 , 

183, 

40, 

1, 12, 42 

120 

DATA 

33, 65, 70, 

35, 

94, 

35, 

86, 

42, 

196, 

127, 126,5- 

130 

DATA 

32, 18, 125, 

129, 

48, 

1, 

36, 

111, 

19, 

16, 243, 34 

140 

DATA196, 127, 201, 

42, 

33 , 

65, 

6, 

o, 

78, 

35, 94, 35 

150 

DATA 

86, 235, 62, 

34, 

237, 

, 177 

, 32 

* 3, 

33, 

0, 0, 195 


160 DATA 154, 10 


Listing 5. Lines in GM which are modified to use the two Machine Language 
subroutines. 

32240 QA*="SAVE FRAME (S) ON TAPE" : G0SUB32610: IFQDTHEN32090ELSEG0SUB32490: POKE 165 
26 , 233 : POKE 1 6527 ,127: FORQE=QATOQBSTEPQC : F0RQF=0T04 : I FUSR ( SC* ( QF , QE ) ) =OTHENPR I NT " 
FRAME "QE+l "CONTAINS A QUOTATION MARK AND WOULDN’T LOAD RIGHT" : QE=QB: NEXTQE: G0T03 
2440 

32260 NEXT: NEXT: PRINT" ADVANCE TAPE TO A BLANK PLACE" : G0SUB32550: FORQE=QATOQBSTEP 
QC i PR I NT#- 1 , CM ( QE ) , CHR* ( 34 ) SC* ( O , QE ) : FORQF= 1 T04 : PR I NT#- 1 , CHR* ( 34 ) SC* ( QF , QE ) : NEX T 
: 0UT255, 4: PRINT"FRAME #"QE+1"SAVED" : G0SUB32480: NEXT : G0T032430 

32630 POKE 1 6526 ,196: POKE 1 6527 , 1 27 : CM ( QE ) = 1 +PEEK ( 1 6445 ) /8 : P0KE32706 , 0 : P0KE32707 , 6 
O : QH=CM ( QE ) - 1 : FORQF=OT 04 : SC* ( QF , QE ) =STR I NG* ( ( 205-QH- ( CM ( QE ) =2 ) ) /CM ( QE ) , 32 ) : QA*=U 
SR (SC* (QF , QE ) ) : IFCM (QE) =20R (CM (QE) =1 ANDQF=3) THENQH=1-QH 


239 


TRS-80 Graphics, continued... 

ends a loop early because some special 
condition is detected. This is done by 
setting the loop index to its final value 
and then executing a next for that loop. 
This is done in line 32130, the search of 
the command string, if a match is found. 
It is also done when reversing graphics 
characters if a compressed frame would 
expand more than there is room for. 

Modifying And Extending The Program 

I grew tired of waiting for a frame to 
be stored and found that frames with 
quotation marks in them wouldn't be 
loaded properly, so I wrote the two 
assembly language subroutines shown in 
Listing 3. The first subroutine stores a 
subframe after space has been reserved 


Partial sample run of Graphics Manager. 


for it. The second scans a string for a 
quotation mark. If a quotation mark is 
found, the subroutine returns a 0; if none 
is found, a nonzero number is returned. 
The machine language string scan sub- 
routine is much faster than scanning a 
string in Basic, using a loop and the 
mid$ function to check every character. 

To put the two machine language sub- 
routines in memory you can either use 
an assembler to make a system format 
tape and then load it, or, if you prefer 
Basic, you can use the Basic program in 
Listing 4 to put the two machine lan- 
guage subroutines in high memory. The 
program in Listing 4 sets the memory 
size for you and lets you put the ma- 
chine language program in memory 


starting at any high address. It checks 
each byte of the machine language pro- 
gram to make sure it was POKEd prop- 
erly. If you have a bad memory location 
or you ask for the machine language 
program to be put in nonexistent mem- 
ory, you are told that a datum (part of 
the machine language program) wasn't 
properly stored. 

To make Graphics Manager work 
with the two machine language pro- 
grams, lines 32240, 32260, and 32630 
should be changed to match Listing 5. 
Delete 32640 and 32664. If you use the 
Basic program to put the machine lan- 
guage into memory, you can remove 
CLEAR6553: from line 0. The program 
in Listing 4 ends with CLOAD so Graph- 
ics Manager will be automatically 
loaded, so I suggest you record the 
modified version of Graphics Manager 
right after it. 

The program or program segments 
which appear in Listings 3 through 5 are 
written for a system with 16K of free 
memory. If you know Basic well and 
know a little assembly language, you 
could easily modify them for a different 
amount of free memory. 

Extensions and Modifications 

Some features you might want to 
incorporate into Graphics Manager are 
disk storage and retrieval of frames, and 
storage of more than nine frames at once 
(you would need to change the subframe 
number entry subroutines). You might 
also clear more string space (If you 
have more than 16K of free RAM, I 
recommend CLEAR 1024*N + 409 with 
N equal to the number of frames you 
want to be able to store at once); give 
each frame a name and search for a 
frame by name on tape, disk, and in 
memory; rewrite some of Graphics Man- 
ager in assembly language; allow storage 
and manipulation of partial frames; al- 
low switching of frames from single to 
double width characters and vice versa; 
or write an assembly language program 
to load a frame containing a quotation 
mark. 

Some more exotic features you might 
want to add are: top-bottom reflection of 
a frame; right-left reflection of a frame; 
shifting a frame right, left, up, or down; 
and rotating graphics about a user speci- 
fied center. You might want to modify 
Sketch/Print and/or Vector Plotter so 
they could use double width characters. 

Closing Notes 

I hope you have found a useful pro- 
gram or learned something from this se- 
ries. I worked extremely hard preparing 
it — experimenting, writing, and rewrit- 
ing and I ask you to have the decency 
not to distribute my programs for your 
own profit. 

April 1983 ® Creative Computing 


GRAPHICS MANAGER BY JOHN CREW 2/2/82 


A - PRINT ASCII CODES 
C - COMPRESS FRAME <S) 

D - DUPLICATE A FRAME 
E - ERASE FRAME <S> 

G - REVERSE GRAPHICS 
L - LOAD FRAME (S) FROM TAPE 
P - PRINT FRAME <S) 

Q - QUIT 

R - RETURN TO MAIN PROGRAM 
S - SAVE FRAME (S) ON TAPE 
T ~ TRADE (SWAP) TWO FRAMES 
U - UNITE (COMBINE) TWO FRAMES 

■■■■■■I 6552 FREE BYTES OF FRAME STORAGE 
COMMAND? L 


LOAD FRAME (S) FR